Koofers

Final Exam Review - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:119 101 - GENERAL BIOLOGY
Subject:BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
University:Rutgers University
Term:Unknown
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
inheritance DNA is a nucleic acid which carries the molecular basis of ___________.
transformation A type of permanent genetic change in which the properties of one genetic type are conferred on another genetic type is known as ______________.
Bacteriophages ______________ can reproduce by injecting only their DNA into cells, indicating that DNA is the genetic material.
pentose sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate, nitrogenous base Nucleotides consist of _______ _____ (___________), _________, ___________ ____.
Generated by Koofers.com
adenine/guanine cytosine/thymine The bases in nucleotides include the two purines, _______ and _______, and two pyrimidines ________ and _______.
X-ray diffraction _-___ ___________ studies by Franklin and Wilkins showed that DNA has a helical structure with nucleotide bases stacked like rungs of a ladder.
antiparallel nucleotide strands Watson and Crick devised a DNA model based for the most part on existing data. Their model suggested that DNA was formed from two ____________ __________ _______ aranged in a coiled double helix.
Two three ___(#) hydrogen bonds form between adenine and thymine, and _____(#) hydrogen bonds form between guanine and cytosine.
Generated by Koofers.com
template Replication of DNA is considered semiconservative because each "old" strand serves as a ________ for the formation of a new strand.
density Using density gradient centrifugation, scientists can sperate large molecules like DNA on the basis of differences in their _______.
mutation A change in the sequence of bases in a strand of DNA that results in a genetic change is known as a ________.
DNA polymerases ___ ___________ catalyze the linking together of nucleotide subunits.
Generated by Koofers.com
5/3 okazaki DNA synthesis proceeds in a _' -->_' direction. One strand is copied continuously, the other adds _______ fragments discontinuously.
nuclease/DNA polymerase/DNA ligase The three enzymes involved in nucleotide excision repair are ________, ___ __________, and ___ ______.
apoptosis Programmed cell death is known as _________.
cell aging/apoptosis The shortening of telimeres may contribute to ___ _____ and _________.
Generated by Koofers.com
Gregor Mendel In the mid-19th century, the study of inheritance as a modern branch of science began with the work of ______ ______.
first filial F2/second filial Offspring from the P generation corss are heterozygous; they are called the F1 or _____ ______ generation. Offspring from the F1 cross are called the __ or ______ ______ generation.
dominant recessive A ________ gene may mask the expression of a _________ gene.
segregate During meiosis, members of paired genes at each allele _________ so that each gamete contains only one allele of each pair.
Generated by Koofers.com
locus The site of a gene on a chromosome is called its _____.
homologous The two chromosomes that make up a pair are called __________ chromosomes.
heterozygous An individual is said to be ____________ for a particular feature when the two alleles it carries for that feature are different.
Punnette square A ________ ______ predicts the ratios of genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring of a cross.
Generated by Koofers.com
genotype The phenotype of an individual does not always reveal its ________.
homozygous recessive A test cross is a cross between an individual of unknown genetic composition and a __________ _________ individual.
two loci A dihybrid cross is a cross between individuals that differ with respect to their alleles at ___(#) ____.
meiosis The mechanics of _______ are the basis for independent assortment.
Generated by Koofers.com
linearly arranged The chromosome theory of inheritence can be explained by assuming that genes are ________ ________ in specific locations along the chromosomes.
product rule The _______ ____ predicts the combined probabilities of independant events.
zero one Probability can range from ____(#)(impossible) to ___ (#) (certain).
product The probability of two independent events occuring together is the _______ of the probabilities of each occuring sperately.
Generated by Koofers.com
sum rule The ___ ____ predicts the combined probabilities of mutually exclusive events.
past events future events If events are truly independent, ____ ______ have no influence on the probability of the occurrence of ______ ______.
linked Genes in the same chromosome are said to be ______ and do not assort independently.
crossing over Linked genes are recombined when chromatids exchange genetic material, a process known as ________ ____ that occurs during meiotic prophase.
Generated by Koofers.com
recombination A chromosome can be genetically mapped by determining the frequency of _____________ among genes.
autosomes The sex or gender of many animals is determined by the X and Y sex chromosomes. The other chromosomes in a given organism's genome are called _________.
XY male XX female When a Y-bearing sperm fertilizes an ovum, the result is a(n) __ ____, and fertilization by an X-bearing sperm produces a(n) __ ______.
hyperactive inactivation The effect of X-linked genes is made equivalent in males and females by dose compensation, which is accomplished by a ___________ X-chromosome in the male or ____________ of one X-chomosome in the female.
Generated by Koofers.com
Barr body A dense, metabolically inactive X chromosome at the edge of the nucleus in female mammalian cells is known as the ____ ____.
incomplete dominance In genetic crosses involving __________ _________, the genotypic and phenotypic ratios are identitical.
three locus Multiple alleles are _____(#) or more alleles that can occupy the same _____.
Pleiotropy __________ refers to the many different effects that can often result from a given gene.
Generated by Koofers.com
Epistasis _________ is when one allele of a gene pair determines whether alleles of other gene pairs are expressed.
polygenic inheritance It is called _________ ___________ when two or more independent pairs of genes have similar and additive effects on a phenotype.
norm of reaction The range of phenotypic possibilities that can develop from a single genotype under different enviromental conditions is known as the ____ __ ________.
genome Cells contain a massive amount of precisely coded gentic information in the form of DNA, collectively called the organism's ______.
Generated by Koofers.com
chromatin DNA and associated proteins form a complex, the _________, that make up chromosomes.
25,000 According to the HUman Genome Project, humans have about __,___(#) genes that code for proteins.
nucleosomes Positively charges histones associate with DNA forming structures called ___________.
46 Most human body cells have exactly__(#) chromosomes.
Generated by Koofers.com
cell cycle The period from the beginning of one cell division to the beginning of the next cell division is the ____ _____.
first gap synthesis second gap Interphase is divided into the G1 phase, which stands for _____ ___ phase, the S phase, or _________ phase, and the G2 phase, or the ______ ___ phase.
centromere Each chromatid includes a constricted region called the __________.
kinetochore Attached to each centromere is a ___________, a structure formed from proteins to which microtubules can bind.
Generated by Koofers.com
mitotic spindle Some of the microtubules radiating from each pole elongate toward the chromosome, forming the _______ _______, which seperates the chromosomes during anaphase.
spindle microtubules In prometaphase, sister chromatids of each duplicated chromosome become attached to _______ ____________ at opposite poles of the cell.
metaphase plate During metaphase, all the cell's chromomes align at the cell's midplane, or _________ _____.
depolymerize Kinetochore microtubules shorten, or ____________, during anaphase.
Generated by Koofers.com
arrival of the chromosomes at the poles Telophase is characterized by the _______ __ ___ ___________ __ ___ _____ and a return to interphase-like condition.
cell plate In plants cells, cytokinesis occurs by forming a ____ _____, a partition constricted in the equatorial region of the spindle and growing laterally toward the cell wall.
chromosomes The regularity of the process of cell division ensures that each daughter nucleus recieves exactly the same number and kinds of ___________ the parent cell had.
binary fission The reproduction process in which one cell divides into two offspring cells is named ______ _______.
Generated by Koofers.com
Cytokinins __________ are a group of plant hormones that promote mitosis both in normal rowth and in wound healing,
asexual Offspring inherit traits that are virtually identical to those of their single parent when reproduction is _______.
sexual diploid zygote In ______ reproduction, offspring recieve genetic information from two parents. Haploid (1n) gametes from the parents fuse to form a single _______ (2n) cell called the ______.
size/shape/position of their centromeres Homologous chromosomes are members of a pair of chromosomes that are similar in ____, _____, and ________ __ _____ ___________.
Generated by Koofers.com
meiosis I meiosis II Meiosis typically consists of two nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions referred to as _______ _ and _______ __.
synapsis During prophase I, homologous chromosomes come to lie lengthwise side by side in a process known as ________.
prophase genetic variability Homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material (crossing over) during the first meiotic ________, providing more _______ ___________ among the gametes and offspring.
anaphase The haploid condition is established as the members of each pair of homologous chromosomes seperate during the first meiotic ________.
Generated by Koofers.com
four two In metaphase I, chromatids are arranged in bundles of ____(#), and in metaphase II, chromatids are in groups of ___(#).
Mitosis Meiosis _______ results in two daughter cells identical to the original cell. _______ results in four genetically different, haploid daughter cells.
gametes gametogenesis Sex cells (sperm and eggs/ova) are known as _______, therefore, the formation of sex cells is referred to as _____________.
spermatogenesis The formation of sperm is called _______________.
Generated by Koofers.com
oogenesis The formation of eggs or ova is called _________.
DNA bases Gene expression involves a series of steps in which the information in the sequence of ___ _____ specifies the makeup of the cell's proteins.
recessive mutant allele Neurospora is an ideal experimental organism because it grows primarily as a haploid organism, allowing researchers to immediately identify a _________ ______ ______.
mRNA/tRNA/rRNA DNA is transcribed to form three specific kinds of RNA. These are ____, ____, and ____.
Generated by Koofers.com
amino acid Each tRNA is specific for only one _____ ____.
transcription translation Sequencing of amino acids in a protein involves two major steps: forst is _____________, wherein DNA codes are read unit a special messenger RNA, and second is ___________, involving the actual construction of polypeptide chains.
codon Each _____ in mRNA consists of three-bases that specify ine amino acid in a polypeptide chain.
Mathionine/tryptophan __________ and __________ are the only amino acids that are specified by single codons.
Generated by Koofers.com
64 61 3 There are __(#) possible codons. Of these, __(#) code for amino acids, and _(#) function to terminate protein synthesis.
reading frame The genetic code is read one triplet at a time from a fixed starting point that establishes the _______ _____.
RNA polymerases mRNA synthesis is catalyzed by DNA-dependent ___ ___________.
upstream downstream Any point closer to the 3' end of transcribed DNA (and therefore toward the 5' end of mRNA) is said to be ________ relative to a given reference point. Conversely, areas toward the 5' end ofDNA and the 3' end of mRNA are __________.
Generated by Koofers.com
promoter Transcription is initiated at sites containing specific base sequences called the ________ regions of DNA.
leader sequence Well before the protein-coding sequences at the 5' end of mRNA, a segment called the ______ ________ contains recognition signals for ribisome binding.
trailing sequences Stop codins are followed by noncoding 3' ________ _________.
peptide bonds The covalent bonds that join amino acids together are known as _______ _____.
Generated by Koofers.com
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases The specific enzymes that catalyze the formation of covalent bonds between amino acids and their respective tRNA are the _________-____ ___________.
initiation Translation begins with the formation of an __________ complex.
AVG The codon ___ initiates the formation of the protein-synthesizing complex.
elongation The addition of amino acids to a growing polypeptide chain is called __________.
Generated by Koofers.com
peptidyl transferase Peptide bond formation requires the enzyme ________ ___________.
stop codons Peptide bond formation requires the enzyme ________ ___________.
polyribosome A ____________ consists of mRNA molecule that is bound to clusters of ribosomes.
precursor mRNA The original transcript in eukaryotes is known as _________ ____.
Generated by Koofers.com
intervening sequences expressed sequences Intron is an abbreviation for ___________ _________, and exon stands for _________ _________.
Protein domains _______ _______ are regions of protein tertiary structure that may have specific functions.
posttranscriptional SiRNAs silence genes at the ___________________ level by selectively cleaving mRNA molecules with base sequences complementary to siRNA.
specific RNA/polypeptide A gene carries the information needed to produce a ________ ___ or ___________.
Generated by Koofers.com
reverse transcriptase Retroviruses are viruses that require _______ _____________.
nucleotide sequence A mutation is a change in the __________ ________ in DNA.
point/base-substitution missense nonsense _____ or ____-____________ mutations involve a change in only one pair of nucleotides. These can lead to the substitution of one amino acid for another, a so called ________ mutation or a ________ mutation involving the conversion of an amino acid-specifing codon to a termination codon.
inserted/deleted In frameshift mutations, one of two nucleotide pairs are ________ or _______ from the molecule, altering the reading frame.
Generated by Koofers.com
moveable Mobile genetic elements can disrupt the functions of some genes because they are _______.
Hot spots ___ _____ are regions of DNA that are particularly susceptible to mutations.
mutagens Agents that cause mutations are called ________.
1. Control of the amount of mRNA transcribed 2. Control the rate of translation of mRNA 3. Control the activity of the protein p What are the mechanisms that regulate gene expression? (Hint: there are three mechanisms)
Generated by Koofers.com
Transcriptional-level control _______________-_____ _______ is the most efficient mechanism of gene regulation in bacteria.
Constitutive genes ____________ _____ are genes that encode essential proteins that are in constant use.
operon A gene complex consisting of a group of structural genes with related functions and the DNA sequences responsible for controlling them is known as an ______.
promoter region A group of functionally related genes may be controlled by one ________ ______ that is located upstream from the coding sequences.
Generated by Koofers.com
operator The ________ is a sequence of bases that switches mRNA synthesis "on" or "off".
inducer An _______ inactivates a repressor in order to turn "on" a gene or operon.
corepressor Repressible operons are turned "off" when a repressor is activated by binding to a ___________.
posttranscriptional controls Protein levels can be controlled by transcriptional level control. Other regulatory mechanisms that occur AFTER transcroption are referred to as ___________________ ________.
Generated by Koofers.com
Feedback inhibition ________ __________ is when a product blocks its own production by binding to an enzyme that is required to generate that product.
TATA box RNA polymerase in multicellular eukaryotes binds to a portion of the promotor known as the ____ ___.
upstream promoter elements (UPEs) The efficency of a eukaryotic promoter depends largly on the number and type of ________ ________ ________ (____).
heterochromatin euchromatin Highly coiled and compacted chromatin containing inactive genes is called _______________, whereas loosely coiled chromatin containing genes capable of transciption is referred to as ___________.
Generated by Koofers.com
differantial mRNA processing Through ____________ ____ __________, the cells in each tissue produce their own version of mRNA corresponding to the particular gene.
chemical modification The addition or removal of phosphate groups is an example of ________ ____________, a mechanism used by eukaryotic cells to regulate protein activity.
kinases Enzymes that modify chemicals by adding phosphate groups are called _______.
phosphatases Enzymes that modify chemicals by removing phosphate groups are called ____________.
Generated by Koofers.com
genetic engineering The modification of an organism's DNA to produce new genes with new traits is called _______ ___________.
Restriction enzymes ___________ _______ cut DNA molecules are specific loci, producing precise fragments that can be incorporated into vector molecules.
plasmids Recombinant DNA vectors are usually constructed from ________.
palindromic A ___________ sequence reads the same as its complement when both are read in the 5' to 3' direction.
Generated by Koofers.com
Cosmid cloning vectors ______ _______ _______ are combination vectors with heatures from both bacteriophages and plasmids.
genomic DNA library A _______ ___ _______ is a collection of thousands of DNA fragments that represent the entire DNA in the genome.
Genetic probes _______ ______ are radioactive strands of RNA or DNA that are complementary to specific targeted cloned fragments. They are used to identify a particular fragment in a large population of clones.
reverse transcritase The enzyme _______ _____________ is used to synthesize single-stranded complementary DNA (cDNA) on a mRNA remplate.
Generated by Koofers.com
DNA polymerase heat The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for amplifying DNA is advantageous because it side steps the cumbersome, time-consuming process of cloning DNA. PCR is an "in vitro" process that alternately uses ___ __________ to replicate DNA with the use of ____ to dissociate the replicated DNA strands for further replications.
Taq The PCR technique must use a heat stable DNA polymerase named ___ polymerase after the organism from which it is obtained.
positive pole In gel electrophoresis, nucleic acids migrate through the gel toward the ________ ____ of the electric field because they are negatively charged.
Southern blot The method of detecting DNA fragments by seperating them by gel electrophoresis and then transferring them to a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane is called a ________ ____.
Generated by Koofers.com
polymorphism In molecular biology, a ____________ is the presence of detectable variation in the genomes of different individuals in a population .
chain termination method Automated DNA sequencing relies on the _____ ___________ ______.
expressed sequence tags cDNA sequences that can identify protein-coding agents are known as _________ ________ ____.
gene targeting Gene function is revealed in a procedure called ____ _________ in which the researcher chooses and "knocks out" a single gene in an organism.
Generated by Koofers.com
DNA microarrays ___ ___________ enable researchers to compare the activities of thousands of genes in normal and diseased cells from tissue samples.
bioinformatics/pharmacogenetics/proteomics Several scientific fields, including ______________, ________________, and __________ emerged in the wake of the HUman Genome Project.
Gene therapy ____ _______, the use of specific DNA to treat a genetic disease by correcting the genetic problem, is another application of DNA technology.
polymorphic STRs are highly ___________ because they vary in length from one individual to another, making them useful in identifying indiviuals.
Generated by Koofers.com
fertilized egg/stem cell Transgenetic organisms (plants or animals) are generally produced by injecting the DNA of a gene into a recipient's __________ ___ or ____ ____.
Gene targeting Transgenetic organisms (plants or animals) are generally produced by injecting the DNA of a gene into a recipient's __________ ___ or ____ ____.
genetically modified crops Transgenic plants that are resistant to insect pests, viral diseases, drought, heat, cold, herbicides, and salty or acidic soil are known as ___________ ________ _____.
risk assessment The science of ____ __________ uses statistical methods to quanitify risks so they can be compared and contrasted.
Generated by Koofers.com
nuceotides/DNA In DNA sequencing, researchers identify the order of ___________ in ___ to understand the genetic basis of human similarities and differences.
Cytogenetics ____________ is the study of chromosomes and their role in inheritance.
karyotype A _________ is an individual's chromosome composition.
oedigree analysis A ________ ________ shows the transmission of genetic traits within a family over several generations and helps determine the exact interrelationships of the DNA molecules from related individuals.
Generated by Koofers.com
2.9 billion The Human Genome Project sequenced _._ _______ (#) base pairs.
500 About ___(#) DNA segments longer than 200 base pairs are known to be 100% identical between the mouse and human genomes.
gene targeting Researchers have used ____ _________ to produce strains of mice that are homozygous or heterozygous to genetic diseases.
Polyploidy __________, the presence of multiple sets of chromosomes, is usually lethal in humans.
Generated by Koofers.com
aneuploidy/trisomic/monosomic The abnormal presence or absence of one chromosome in a set is called __________. For the affected chromosome, the normal condition called disomy, becomes a ________ condition with the addition of an extra chromosome, and a _________ condition when one member of a pair is missing.
Down syndrome ____ ________ is a condition that results when chromosome 21 does not separate at anaphase.
Klinfelter syndrome Persons with __________ ________ are nearly normal males, except for an extra X chromosome.
Turner syndrome Persons with ______ ________ are sterile females with ought Barr Bodies.
Generated by Koofers.com
Translocation _____________ is the attachment of a fragment of one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome.
deletion A ________ is loss of part of a chromosome.
Fragile sites _______ _____ are weak points where part of a chromatid appears to be attached to the rest of the chromosome by a thin thread of DNA.
inborn erros of metabolism PKU and akaptonuria are examples of disorders involving enzyme defects, collectively known as ______ ______ of __________.
Generated by Koofers.com
enzyme Phyenlketonuria results from an ______ deficiency.
hemoglobin Sickle cell anemia results from a __________ defect.
ion transport Cystic fibrosis results from defective ___ _________.
mucous In cystic fibrosis, a mutant protein causes the production of a very heavy ______ that eventually causes severe tissue damage.
Generated by Koofers.com
lipid brain Tay-Sachs disease results from abnormal _____ metabolism in the _____.
autosomal dominant allele Huntington's disease is caused by a rare _________ ________ ______ that affects the central nervous system.
factor VIII Hemophilia A is caused by the absence of a blood-clotting protein called ______ ____(Roman #).
mutant normal Gene therapy is a strategy that aims to replace a ______ allele with a ______ allele to treat some serious diseases.
Generated by Koofers.com
Amniocentesis _____________ may be used to diagnose prenatal genetic diseases. It analyzes cells in amniotic fluid withdrawn from the uterus of a pregnant woman.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS) One technique designed to detect prenatal genetic defects is _________ ______ ________ (___) which involves inspecting fetal cells involved in forming the placenta.
preventative medicine New born genetic screening is used primarily as the first step in _________ ________.
probability Genetic counselors use family histories of each partner to acquire the ___________ that any given offspring will inherit a particular condition.
Generated by Koofers.com
normal Genetic discrimination is discrimination against an individual or family members because of differences from the ______ genome in that individual.
blade petiole stipules The broad, flat portion of a leaf is the _____; the stalk that attaches the blade to the stem is the _______. Some leaves also have ________, which are leaflike outgrowths usually present in pairs at the base of the periole.
simple compound Leaves may be ______, having a single blade, or ________, having a blade divided into two or more leaflets.
alternate leaf arrangement opposite leaf arrangement whorled leaf arrangement Leaves are arranged on a stem in one of three possible ways. These are _________ ____ ___________, with one leaf at each node; ________ ____ ___________, with two leaves at each node; and _______ ____ ___________, with three or more leaves at each node.
Generated by Koofers.com
mesophyll palisade mesophyll spongy mesophyll The photosynthetic ground tissue of the leaf, called the _________, is sandwiched between the upper epidermis and the lower epidermis. When this tissue is divided into two regions, the upper layer, nearest to the upper epidermis, is called the ________ _________, and the lower portion is called the ______ _________.
Xylem phloem bundle sheath _____ in veins of a leaf conduct water and essential minerals to the leaf, while ______ in veins conducts sugar produced by photosynthesis to the rest of the plant. Veins may be surrounded by a ______ ______, consisting of parenchyma or sclerenchyma cells.
Parallel ________ venation is characteristic of monocot leaves
Carbon dioxide oxygen ______ _______, a raw material of photosynthesis, diffuses into the leaf through stomata, and the ______ produced during photosynthesis diffuses rapidly out of the leaf through stomata.
Generated by Koofers.com
turgid (swollen) flaccid (limp) When water moves into guard cells from surrounding cells, they become ______ (_______) and bend, producing a pore. When water leaves the guard cells, they become _______ (____) and collapse agianst one another, closing the pore.
vacuoles/guard open Light triggers an influx of potassium, malate, and chloride ions into the ________ of _____ cells, thereby increasing internal solute concentration. Water then moves into these cells, changing their shape, causing the pores to ____ (open or close?).
close As evening approaches, the sucrose concentration in the guard cells declines, water leaves by osmosis, the guard cells lose their turgidity, and the pores _____ (open or close?).
light/darkness CO2 circadian rhythm Stomates open during the day and clode at night. Factors that affect opening and closing of stomata include _____/________, ___, and _________ ______.
Generated by Koofers.com
overheating distribute essential minerals Two benefits of transpiration are to prevent the plant from ___________ and to __________ _________ ________ throughout the plant.
hydrologic Transpiration is an important part of the __________ cycle, in which water cycles from the ocean and land to the atmosphere, and then back to the ocean and land.
guttation Loss of liquid water from leaves by force is known as _________.
ethylene Leaf abscission is a complex process that involves many physiological changes, all initiated and orchestrated by changing levels of plant hormones, particularly ________.
Generated by Koofers.com
caratenoids/anthocyanins The brilliant colors found in autumn landscapes in temperate climates are due to the various combinations of ___________ and ____________.
abscission zone fibers The area where a petiole detaches from the stem is a structurally distinct area called the __________ ____; it is a weak area because it contains relatively few strengthening ______.
middle lamella The "cement" that holds the primary cell walls of adjecent cells together is called the ______ _______.
spines Leaves are variously modified for a plethroa of specialized functions. For example, the hard, pointed ______ on a cactus are leaves modified for protection.
Generated by Koofers.com
Tendrils ________ are specialized leaves that anchor long, climbing wines to the supporting structures on which they are growing.
passive/active The traps of the pitcher plant are _______, whereas those of the Venus flytrap are ______.
roots/leaves/stems The three main parts of a vegatative vascular plants are the _____, ______, and _____.
support/conduction (internal transport)/produce new stem tissue The primary functions of stems are to _______, __________ (________ _________), and _______ ___ ____ ______.
Generated by Koofers.com
buds/terminal bud/bud scales All stems have ____, which are embryonic shoots. A ________ ___ is the embryonic shoot located at the tip of a stem. The dormant apical meristem of a terminal bud is covered ad protected by an outer layer of ___ ______, which are modified leaves.
vascular bundles Vascular tissues in herbaceous eudicots are located in ________ _______.
xylem/phloem/vascular cambium Each vascular bundle contains two vascular tissues, the _____ and ______, and a single layer of cells, the ________ _______, sandiwched between them.
vascular cambium/cork cambium/periderm Secondary growth occurs in woody plants as a result of cell divisions in two lateral meristems, the ________ _______, which gives rise to secondary xylem and phloem, and the ____ _______, which, along with the tissues it produces, is called the ________.
Generated by Koofers.com
xylem (wood)/phloem (inner bark) The vascular cambium produces secondary _____ (____) and secondary ______ (_____ ____) to replace the primary conducting and supporting tissues.
ray(s) parachyma Lateral transport takes place in (a) ____, which are chains of _________ cells that radiate out from the center of the woody stem or root.
cork cells Cork cambium cells divide to form new tissues toward the inside and the outside. The layer toward the outside consists of ____ _____, heavily waterproofed cells that protect the plant.
cork parachyma To the inside, cork cambium forms the ____ _________ that stores water and starch.
Generated by Koofers.com
heartwood/sap wood The older wood in the center of a tree is called _________, and the younger, lighter-colored, more peripheral wood is ___ ____.
spring wood/late summer wood Annual rings are composed of two types of cells arranged in alternating concentric circles, wach layer appropriately named for the season in which it developed. The ______ ____ has larger-diameter conducting cells and few fibers, whereas the ____ ______ ____ has narrower conducting cells and numerous fibers.
natural physical processes In constrast to internal circulation in animals, in plants movement of minerals thoughout the organism is driven largely by _______ ________ _________.
water potential less higher (less negative) lower (more negative) One of the principal forces behind water movements through plants is a function of a cell's ability to absorb water by osmosis, also known as the "free energy of water", or the _____ _________. Water containing solutes has ____ (more or less?) free energy than pure water. Water moves from a region of ______ (____ ________) water potential to a region of _____ (____ ________) water potential.
Generated by Koofers.com
negative Under normal conditions, the water potential of the root is more ________ (negative or positive?) than the water potential of the soil. Thus water moves by osmosis from the soil into the root.
tension-cohesion model According to the _______-________ _____, water is pulled up the plant as a result of a tension produced at the top of the plant.
transpiration The tension results from the evaporative pull of _____________.
pressure flow/source/sink Dissolved food, predominantly sucrose, is transported up or down in the phloem. Movement of materials in the phloem is explained by the ________ ____ hypothesis. Sugar is actively loaded into the sieve tubes at the ______, causing water to move into sieve tubes by osmosis, then sugar is actively unloaded from the sieve tubes at the ____ causing water to leave sieve tubes by osmosis.
Generated by Koofers.com
hormones Growth and development of a plant are controlled by its ________ organic compounds present in low concentration in the plant's tissues that act as chemical signals between cells.
photoreceptor For an organism to have a biological response to light, it must contain a light-sensitive substance, called a _____________, to absorb the light.
phototropism/gravitropism/thigmotropism Tropisms are catagorized according to the stimulus that causes them to occur. For example, growth or movement initiated by light is ____________, response to gravity is ____________, and movement caused by a mechanical stimulus is _____________.
auxins/gibberellins/cytokinins/ethylene/abscisic acid The five major classes of hormones that regulate responses in planst are ______, ____________, __________, ________, and ________ ____
Generated by Koofers.com
enzyme-linked receptors Many plant hormones bind to ______-______ _________, located in the plasma membrane where they trigger enzymatic reactions.
Indoleacetic acid (IAA) ____________ ____ (___) is the most common and physiologically important auxin.
shoot apical meristem/polar transport Auxins always move in one direction, specifically from the _____ ______ ________ oward the roots. Such unidirectional movement is called _____ _________. Auxins are also involved in phototropism, gravitropism, apical dominance, and fruit development.
fungus Seedling disease is caused by a ______ that produces gibberellin.
Generated by Koofers.com
flowering/germination In addition to influencing stem elongation, gibberellins are also involved in _________ and ___________.
cell division/differentiation Cytokinins mainly promote ____ ________ and _______________.
senescence Cytokinins also delay __________ (aging), and they interact with auxins in apical dominance.
thigmomorphogenesis A developmental response to a mechanical stimulus is know as ___________________.
Generated by Koofers.com
Dormacy ________ is the temporary state of reduced physiological activity in flowering plants.
abscisis acid The seeds of many desert plants contain high concentrations of ________ ____, which inhibits germination under unfavorable conditions.
gibberellin In seeds, the level of abscisis acid decreases during the winter, and the level of ___________ increases.
brassinosteroids/jasmonates/salicylic acid/systemin/oligosaccharins The five groups of signaling molecules involved in defense repsonses to plant diseases are ________________, __________, _________ ____, ________, and _______________.
Generated by Koofers.com
Florigen ________ is a flower-promoting substance.
Photoperiodsim ______________ is any response of a plant to the relative lengths of daylight and darkness.
short day (long night)/long day (short night)/intermediate-day/day-neutral _____ ___ (____ _____) plants flower when the night length is equal to or greater than some critical period; ____ ___ (_____ _____) plants flower when the night length is equal to or less than some critical period; ____________-___ plants do not flower when night length is either too long or too short; ___-_______ plants do not initiate flowering in response to seasonal changes in the period of daylight and darkness but instead respond to some other type of stimulus, external or internal.
Phytochrome ___________ is the main photoreceptor for photoperiodism and many other light-initiated plant responses.
Generated by Koofers.com
shade avoidance Plants tend to grow taller when closely surrounded by other plants, a phenomenon known as _____ _________.
red/Pr/Pfr Seeds with a light requirement must be exposed to light containing ___ wavelengths to convert __ to ___.
potassium/turgot movements A mechanical stimulus may initiate an electrical "impulse" that causes changes in cell membrane permeability. When this occurs, _________ ions flow out of the affected cells, resulting in the net movement of water out of these cells. This sudden change in water volume cases the leaf to move. Such movements, known as ______ _________, are temporary.
time of day Internal cycles, known as circadian rhythms, help organisms detect the ____ __ ___.
Generated by Koofers.com
leaf-scar A ____-____ shows where each leaf was attached on the stem.
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 245 Print
 
Front
Back
 inheritanceDNA is a nucleic acid which carries the molecular basis of ___________.
 transformationA type of permanent genetic change in which the properties of one genetic type are conferred on another genetic type is known as ______________.
 Bacteriophages______________ can reproduce by injecting only their DNA into cells, indicating that DNA is the genetic material.
 pentose sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate, nitrogenous baseNucleotides consist of _______ _____ (___________), _________, ___________ ____.
 adenine/guanine cytosine/thymineThe bases in nucleotides include the two purines, _______ and _______, and two pyrimidines ________ and _______.
 X-ray diffraction_-___ ___________ studies by Franklin and Wilkins showed that DNA has a helical structure with nucleotide bases stacked like rungs of a ladder.
 antiparallel nucleotide strandsWatson and Crick devised a DNA model based for the most part on existing data. Their model suggested that DNA was formed from two ____________ __________ _______ aranged in a coiled double helix.
 Two three___(#) hydrogen bonds form between adenine and thymine, and _____(#) hydrogen bonds form between guanine and cytosine.
 templateReplication of DNA is considered semiconservative because each "old" strand serves as a ________ for the formation of a new strand.
 densityUsing density gradient centrifugation, scientists can sperate large molecules like DNA on the basis of differences in their _______.
 mutationA change in the sequence of bases in a strand of DNA that results in a genetic change is known as a ________.
 DNA polymerases___ ___________ catalyze the linking together of nucleotide subunits.
 5/3 okazakiDNA synthesis proceeds in a _' -->_' direction. One strand is copied continuously, the other adds _______ fragments discontinuously.
 nuclease/DNA polymerase/DNA ligaseThe three enzymes involved in nucleotide excision repair are ________, ___ __________, and ___ ______.
 apoptosisProgrammed cell death is known as _________.
 cell aging/apoptosisThe shortening of telimeres may contribute to ___ _____ and _________.
 Gregor MendelIn the mid-19th century, the study of inheritance as a modern branch of science began with the work of ______ ______.
 first filial F2/second filialOffspring from the P generation corss are heterozygous; they are called the F1 or _____ ______ generation. Offspring from the F1 cross are called the __ or ______ ______ generation.
 dominant recessiveA ________ gene may mask the expression of a _________ gene.
 segregateDuring meiosis, members of paired genes at each allele _________ so that each gamete contains only one allele of each pair.
 locusThe site of a gene on a chromosome is called its _____.
 homologousThe two chromosomes that make up a pair are called __________ chromosomes.
 heterozygousAn individual is said to be ____________ for a particular feature when the two alleles it carries for that feature are different.
 Punnette squareA ________ ______ predicts the ratios of genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring of a cross.
 genotypeThe phenotype of an individual does not always reveal its ________.
 homozygous recessiveA test cross is a cross between an individual of unknown genetic composition and a __________ _________ individual.
 two lociA dihybrid cross is a cross between individuals that differ with respect to their alleles at ___(#) ____.
 meiosisThe mechanics of _______ are the basis for independent assortment.
 linearly arrangedThe chromosome theory of inheritence can be explained by assuming that genes are ________ ________ in specific locations along the chromosomes.
 product ruleThe _______ ____ predicts the combined probabilities of independant events.
 zero oneProbability can range from ____(#)(impossible) to ___ (#) (certain).
 productThe probability of two independent events occuring together is the _______ of the probabilities of each occuring sperately.
 sum ruleThe ___ ____ predicts the combined probabilities of mutually exclusive events.
 past events future eventsIf events are truly independent, ____ ______ have no influence on the probability of the occurrence of ______ ______.
 linkedGenes in the same chromosome are said to be ______ and do not assort independently.
 crossing overLinked genes are recombined when chromatids exchange genetic material, a process known as ________ ____ that occurs during meiotic prophase.
 recombinationA chromosome can be genetically mapped by determining the frequency of _____________ among genes.
 autosomesThe sex or gender of many animals is determined by the X and Y sex chromosomes. The other chromosomes in a given organism's genome are called _________.
 XY male XX femaleWhen a Y-bearing sperm fertilizes an ovum, the result is a(n) __ ____, and fertilization by an X-bearing sperm produces a(n) __ ______.
 hyperactive inactivationThe effect of X-linked genes is made equivalent in males and females by dose compensation, which is accomplished by a ___________ X-chromosome in the male or ____________ of one X-chomosome in the female.
 Barr bodyA dense, metabolically inactive X chromosome at the edge of the nucleus in female mammalian cells is known as the ____ ____.
 incomplete dominanceIn genetic crosses involving __________ _________, the genotypic and phenotypic ratios are identitical.
 three locusMultiple alleles are _____(#) or more alleles that can occupy the same _____.
 Pleiotropy__________ refers to the many different effects that can often result from a given gene.
 Epistasis_________ is when one allele of a gene pair determines whether alleles of other gene pairs are expressed.
 polygenic inheritanceIt is called _________ ___________ when two or more independent pairs of genes have similar and additive effects on a phenotype.
 norm of reactionThe range of phenotypic possibilities that can develop from a single genotype under different enviromental conditions is known as the ____ __ ________.
 genomeCells contain a massive amount of precisely coded gentic information in the form of DNA, collectively called the organism's ______.
 chromatinDNA and associated proteins form a complex, the _________, that make up chromosomes.
 25,000According to the HUman Genome Project, humans have about __,___(#) genes that code for proteins.
 nucleosomesPositively charges histones associate with DNA forming structures called ___________.
 46Most human body cells have exactly__(#) chromosomes.
 cell cycleThe period from the beginning of one cell division to the beginning of the next cell division is the ____ _____.
 first gap synthesis second gapInterphase is divided into the G1 phase, which stands for _____ ___ phase, the S phase, or _________ phase, and the G2 phase, or the ______ ___ phase.
 centromereEach chromatid includes a constricted region called the __________.
 kinetochoreAttached to each centromere is a ___________, a structure formed from proteins to which microtubules can bind.
 mitotic spindleSome of the microtubules radiating from each pole elongate toward the chromosome, forming the _______ _______, which seperates the chromosomes during anaphase.
 spindle microtubulesIn prometaphase, sister chromatids of each duplicated chromosome become attached to _______ ____________ at opposite poles of the cell.
 metaphase plateDuring metaphase, all the cell's chromomes align at the cell's midplane, or _________ _____.
 depolymerizeKinetochore microtubules shorten, or ____________, during anaphase.
 arrival of the chromosomes at the polesTelophase is characterized by the _______ __ ___ ___________ __ ___ _____ and a return to interphase-like condition.
 cell plateIn plants cells, cytokinesis occurs by forming a ____ _____, a partition constricted in the equatorial region of the spindle and growing laterally toward the cell wall.
 chromosomesThe regularity of the process of cell division ensures that each daughter nucleus recieves exactly the same number and kinds of ___________ the parent cell had.
 binary fissionThe reproduction process in which one cell divides into two offspring cells is named ______ _______.
 Cytokinins__________ are a group of plant hormones that promote mitosis both in normal rowth and in wound healing,
 asexualOffspring inherit traits that are virtually identical to those of their single parent when reproduction is _______.
 sexual diploid zygoteIn ______ reproduction, offspring recieve genetic information from two parents. Haploid (1n) gametes from the parents fuse to form a single _______ (2n) cell called the ______.
 size/shape/position of their centromeresHomologous chromosomes are members of a pair of chromosomes that are similar in ____, _____, and ________ __ _____ ___________.
 meiosis I meiosis IIMeiosis typically consists of two nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions referred to as _______ _ and _______ __.
 synapsisDuring prophase I, homologous chromosomes come to lie lengthwise side by side in a process known as ________.
 prophase genetic variabilityHomologous chromosomes exchange genetic material (crossing over) during the first meiotic ________, providing more _______ ___________ among the gametes and offspring.
 anaphaseThe haploid condition is established as the members of each pair of homologous chromosomes seperate during the first meiotic ________.
 four twoIn metaphase I, chromatids are arranged in bundles of ____(#), and in metaphase II, chromatids are in groups of ___(#).
 Mitosis Meiosis_______ results in two daughter cells identical to the original cell. _______ results in four genetically different, haploid daughter cells.
 gametes gametogenesisSex cells (sperm and eggs/ova) are known as _______, therefore, the formation of sex cells is referred to as _____________.
 spermatogenesisThe formation of sperm is called _______________.
 oogenesisThe formation of eggs or ova is called _________.
 DNA basesGene expression involves a series of steps in which the information in the sequence of ___ _____ specifies the makeup of the cell's proteins.
 recessive mutant alleleNeurospora is an ideal experimental organism because it grows primarily as a haploid organism, allowing researchers to immediately identify a _________ ______ ______.
 mRNA/tRNA/rRNADNA is transcribed to form three specific kinds of RNA. These are ____, ____, and ____.
 amino acidEach tRNA is specific for only one _____ ____.
 transcription translationSequencing of amino acids in a protein involves two major steps: forst is _____________, wherein DNA codes are read unit a special messenger RNA, and second is ___________, involving the actual construction of polypeptide chains.
 codonEach _____ in mRNA consists of three-bases that specify ine amino acid in a polypeptide chain.
 Mathionine/tryptophan__________ and __________ are the only amino acids that are specified by single codons.
 64 61 3There are __(#) possible codons. Of these, __(#) code for amino acids, and _(#) function to terminate protein synthesis.
 reading frameThe genetic code is read one triplet at a time from a fixed starting point that establishes the _______ _____.
 RNA polymerasesmRNA synthesis is catalyzed by DNA-dependent ___ ___________.
 upstream downstreamAny point closer to the 3' end of transcribed DNA (and therefore toward the 5' end of mRNA) is said to be ________ relative to a given reference point. Conversely, areas toward the 5' end ofDNA and the 3' end of mRNA are __________.
 promoterTranscription is initiated at sites containing specific base sequences called the ________ regions of DNA.
 leader sequenceWell before the protein-coding sequences at the 5' end of mRNA, a segment called the ______ ________ contains recognition signals for ribisome binding.
 trailing sequencesStop codins are followed by noncoding 3' ________ _________.
 peptide bondsThe covalent bonds that join amino acids together are known as _______ _____.
 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetasesThe specific enzymes that catalyze the formation of covalent bonds between amino acids and their respective tRNA are the _________-____ ___________.
 initiationTranslation begins with the formation of an __________ complex.
 AVGThe codon ___ initiates the formation of the protein-synthesizing complex.
 elongationThe addition of amino acids to a growing polypeptide chain is called __________.
 peptidyl transferasePeptide bond formation requires the enzyme ________ ___________.
 stop codonsPeptide bond formation requires the enzyme ________ ___________.
 polyribosomeA ____________ consists of mRNA molecule that is bound to clusters of ribosomes.
 precursor mRNAThe original transcript in eukaryotes is known as _________ ____.
 intervening sequences expressed sequencesIntron is an abbreviation for ___________ _________, and exon stands for _________ _________.
 Protein domains_______ _______ are regions of protein tertiary structure that may have specific functions.
 posttranscriptionalSiRNAs silence genes at the ___________________ level by selectively cleaving mRNA molecules with base sequences complementary to siRNA.
 specific RNA/polypeptideA gene carries the information needed to produce a ________ ___ or ___________.
 reverse transcriptaseRetroviruses are viruses that require _______ _____________.
 nucleotide sequenceA mutation is a change in the __________ ________ in DNA.
 point/base-substitution missense nonsense_____ or ____-____________ mutations involve a change in only one pair of nucleotides. These can lead to the substitution of one amino acid for another, a so called ________ mutation or a ________ mutation involving the conversion of an amino acid-specifing codon to a termination codon.
 inserted/deletedIn frameshift mutations, one of two nucleotide pairs are ________ or _______ from the molecule, altering the reading frame.
 moveableMobile genetic elements can disrupt the functions of some genes because they are _______.
 Hot spots___ _____ are regions of DNA that are particularly susceptible to mutations.
 mutagensAgents that cause mutations are called ________.
 1. Control of the amount of mRNA transcribed 2. Control the rate of translation of mRNA 3. Control the activity of the protein pWhat are the mechanisms that regulate gene expression? (Hint: there are three mechanisms)
 Transcriptional-level control_______________-_____ _______ is the most efficient mechanism of gene regulation in bacteria.
 Constitutive genes____________ _____ are genes that encode essential proteins that are in constant use.
 operonA gene complex consisting of a group of structural genes with related functions and the DNA sequences responsible for controlling them is known as an ______.
 promoter regionA group of functionally related genes may be controlled by one ________ ______ that is located upstream from the coding sequences.
 operatorThe ________ is a sequence of bases that switches mRNA synthesis "on" or "off".
 inducerAn _______ inactivates a repressor in order to turn "on" a gene or operon.
 corepressorRepressible operons are turned "off" when a repressor is activated by binding to a ___________.
 posttranscriptional controlsProtein levels can be controlled by transcriptional level control. Other regulatory mechanisms that occur AFTER transcroption are referred to as ___________________ ________.
 Feedback inhibition________ __________ is when a product blocks its own production by binding to an enzyme that is required to generate that product.
 TATA boxRNA polymerase in multicellular eukaryotes binds to a portion of the promotor known as the ____ ___.
 upstream promoter elements (UPEs)The efficency of a eukaryotic promoter depends largly on the number and type of ________ ________ ________ (____).
 heterochromatin euchromatinHighly coiled and compacted chromatin containing inactive genes is called _______________, whereas loosely coiled chromatin containing genes capable of transciption is referred to as ___________.
 differantial mRNA processingThrough ____________ ____ __________, the cells in each tissue produce their own version of mRNA corresponding to the particular gene.
 chemical modificationThe addition or removal of phosphate groups is an example of ________ ____________, a mechanism used by eukaryotic cells to regulate protein activity.
 kinasesEnzymes that modify chemicals by adding phosphate groups are called _______.
 phosphatasesEnzymes that modify chemicals by removing phosphate groups are called ____________.
 genetic engineeringThe modification of an organism's DNA to produce new genes with new traits is called _______ ___________.
 Restriction enzymes___________ _______ cut DNA molecules are specific loci, producing precise fragments that can be incorporated into vector molecules.
 plasmidsRecombinant DNA vectors are usually constructed from ________.
 palindromicA ___________ sequence reads the same as its complement when both are read in the 5' to 3' direction.
 Cosmid cloning vectors______ _______ _______ are combination vectors with heatures from both bacteriophages and plasmids.
 genomic DNA libraryA _______ ___ _______ is a collection of thousands of DNA fragments that represent the entire DNA in the genome.
 Genetic probes_______ ______ are radioactive strands of RNA or DNA that are complementary to specific targeted cloned fragments. They are used to identify a particular fragment in a large population of clones.
 reverse transcritaseThe enzyme _______ _____________ is used to synthesize single-stranded complementary DNA (cDNA) on a mRNA remplate.
 DNA polymerase heatThe polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for amplifying DNA is advantageous because it side steps the cumbersome, time-consuming process of cloning DNA. PCR is an "in vitro" process that alternately uses ___ __________ to replicate DNA with the use of ____ to dissociate the replicated DNA strands for further replications.
 TaqThe PCR technique must use a heat stable DNA polymerase named ___ polymerase after the organism from which it is obtained.
 positive poleIn gel electrophoresis, nucleic acids migrate through the gel toward the ________ ____ of the electric field because they are negatively charged.
 Southern blotThe method of detecting DNA fragments by seperating them by gel electrophoresis and then transferring them to a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane is called a ________ ____.
 polymorphismIn molecular biology, a ____________ is the presence of detectable variation in the genomes of different individuals in a population .
 chain termination methodAutomated DNA sequencing relies on the _____ ___________ ______.
 expressed sequence tagscDNA sequences that can identify protein-coding agents are known as _________ ________ ____.
 gene targetingGene function is revealed in a procedure called ____ _________ in which the researcher chooses and "knocks out" a single gene in an organism.
 DNA microarrays___ ___________ enable researchers to compare the activities of thousands of genes in normal and diseased cells from tissue samples.
 bioinformatics/pharmacogenetics/proteomicsSeveral scientific fields, including ______________, ________________, and __________ emerged in the wake of the HUman Genome Project.
 Gene therapy____ _______, the use of specific DNA to treat a genetic disease by correcting the genetic problem, is another application of DNA technology.
 polymorphicSTRs are highly ___________ because they vary in length from one individual to another, making them useful in identifying indiviuals.
 fertilized egg/stem cellTransgenetic organisms (plants or animals) are generally produced by injecting the DNA of a gene into a recipient's __________ ___ or ____ ____.
 Gene targetingTransgenetic organisms (plants or animals) are generally produced by injecting the DNA of a gene into a recipient's __________ ___ or ____ ____.
 genetically modified cropsTransgenic plants that are resistant to insect pests, viral diseases, drought, heat, cold, herbicides, and salty or acidic soil are known as ___________ ________ _____.
 risk assessmentThe science of ____ __________ uses statistical methods to quanitify risks so they can be compared and contrasted.
 nuceotides/DNAIn DNA sequencing, researchers identify the order of ___________ in ___ to understand the genetic basis of human similarities and differences.
 Cytogenetics____________ is the study of chromosomes and their role in inheritance.
 karyotypeA _________ is an individual's chromosome composition.
 oedigree analysisA ________ ________ shows the transmission of genetic traits within a family over several generations and helps determine the exact interrelationships of the DNA molecules from related individuals.
 2.9 billionThe Human Genome Project sequenced _._ _______ (#) base pairs.
 500About ___(#) DNA segments longer than 200 base pairs are known to be 100% identical between the mouse and human genomes.
 gene targetingResearchers have used ____ _________ to produce strains of mice that are homozygous or heterozygous to genetic diseases.
 Polyploidy__________, the presence of multiple sets of chromosomes, is usually lethal in humans.
 aneuploidy/trisomic/monosomicThe abnormal presence or absence of one chromosome in a set is called __________. For the affected chromosome, the normal condition called disomy, becomes a ________ condition with the addition of an extra chromosome, and a _________ condition when one member of a pair is missing.
 Down syndrome____ ________ is a condition that results when chromosome 21 does not separate at anaphase.
 Klinfelter syndromePersons with __________ ________ are nearly normal males, except for an extra X chromosome.
 Turner syndromePersons with ______ ________ are sterile females with ought Barr Bodies.
 Translocation_____________ is the attachment of a fragment of one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome.
 deletionA ________ is loss of part of a chromosome.
 Fragile sites_______ _____ are weak points where part of a chromatid appears to be attached to the rest of the chromosome by a thin thread of DNA.
 inborn erros of metabolismPKU and akaptonuria are examples of disorders involving enzyme defects, collectively known as ______ ______ of __________.
 enzymePhyenlketonuria results from an ______ deficiency.
 hemoglobinSickle cell anemia results from a __________ defect.
 ion transportCystic fibrosis results from defective ___ _________.
 mucousIn cystic fibrosis, a mutant protein causes the production of a very heavy ______ that eventually causes severe tissue damage.
 lipid brainTay-Sachs disease results from abnormal _____ metabolism in the _____.
 autosomal dominant alleleHuntington's disease is caused by a rare _________ ________ ______ that affects the central nervous system.
 factor VIIIHemophilia A is caused by the absence of a blood-clotting protein called ______ ____(Roman #).
 mutant normalGene therapy is a strategy that aims to replace a ______ allele with a ______ allele to treat some serious diseases.
 Amniocentesis_____________ may be used to diagnose prenatal genetic diseases. It analyzes cells in amniotic fluid withdrawn from the uterus of a pregnant woman.
 chorionic villus sampling (CVS)One technique designed to detect prenatal genetic defects is _________ ______ ________ (___) which involves inspecting fetal cells involved in forming the placenta.
 preventative medicineNew born genetic screening is used primarily as the first step in _________ ________.
 probabilityGenetic counselors use family histories of each partner to acquire the ___________ that any given offspring will inherit a particular condition.
 normalGenetic discrimination is discrimination against an individual or family members because of differences from the ______ genome in that individual.
 blade petiole stipulesThe broad, flat portion of a leaf is the _____; the stalk that attaches the blade to the stem is the _______. Some leaves also have ________, which are leaflike outgrowths usually present in pairs at the base of the periole.
 simple compoundLeaves may be ______, having a single blade, or ________, having a blade divided into two or more leaflets.
 alternate leaf arrangement opposite leaf arrangement whorled leaf arrangementLeaves are arranged on a stem in one of three possible ways. These are _________ ____ ___________, with one leaf at each node; ________ ____ ___________, with two leaves at each node; and _______ ____ ___________, with three or more leaves at each node.
 mesophyll palisade mesophyll spongy mesophyllThe photosynthetic ground tissue of the leaf, called the _________, is sandwiched between the upper epidermis and the lower epidermis. When this tissue is divided into two regions, the upper layer, nearest to the upper epidermis, is called the ________ _________, and the lower portion is called the ______ _________.
 Xylem phloem bundle sheath_____ in veins of a leaf conduct water and essential minerals to the leaf, while ______ in veins conducts sugar produced by photosynthesis to the rest of the plant. Veins may be surrounded by a ______ ______, consisting of parenchyma or sclerenchyma cells.
 Parallel________ venation is characteristic of monocot leaves
 Carbon dioxide oxygen______ _______, a raw material of photosynthesis, diffuses into the leaf through stomata, and the ______ produced during photosynthesis diffuses rapidly out of the leaf through stomata.
 turgid (swollen) flaccid (limp)When water moves into guard cells from surrounding cells, they become ______ (_______) and bend, producing a pore. When water leaves the guard cells, they become _______ (____) and collapse agianst one another, closing the pore.
 vacuoles/guard openLight triggers an influx of potassium, malate, and chloride ions into the ________ of _____ cells, thereby increasing internal solute concentration. Water then moves into these cells, changing their shape, causing the pores to ____ (open or close?).
 closeAs evening approaches, the sucrose concentration in the guard cells declines, water leaves by osmosis, the guard cells lose their turgidity, and the pores _____ (open or close?).
 light/darkness CO2 circadian rhythmStomates open during the day and clode at night. Factors that affect opening and closing of stomata include _____/________, ___, and _________ ______.
 overheating distribute essential mineralsTwo benefits of transpiration are to prevent the plant from ___________ and to __________ _________ ________ throughout the plant.
 hydrologicTranspiration is an important part of the __________ cycle, in which water cycles from the ocean and land to the atmosphere, and then back to the ocean and land.
 guttationLoss of liquid water from leaves by force is known as _________.
 ethyleneLeaf abscission is a complex process that involves many physiological changes, all initiated and orchestrated by changing levels of plant hormones, particularly ________.
 caratenoids/anthocyaninsThe brilliant colors found in autumn landscapes in temperate climates are due to the various combinations of ___________ and ____________.
 abscission zone fibersThe area where a petiole detaches from the stem is a structurally distinct area called the __________ ____; it is a weak area because it contains relatively few strengthening ______.
 middle lamellaThe "cement" that holds the primary cell walls of adjecent cells together is called the ______ _______.
 spinesLeaves are variously modified for a plethroa of specialized functions. For example, the hard, pointed ______ on a cactus are leaves modified for protection.
 Tendrils________ are specialized leaves that anchor long, climbing wines to the supporting structures on which they are growing.
 passive/activeThe traps of the pitcher plant are _______, whereas those of the Venus flytrap are ______.
 roots/leaves/stemsThe three main parts of a vegatative vascular plants are the _____, ______, and _____.
 support/conduction (internal transport)/produce new stem tissueThe primary functions of stems are to _______, __________ (________ _________), and _______ ___ ____ ______.
 buds/terminal bud/bud scalesAll stems have ____, which are embryonic shoots. A ________ ___ is the embryonic shoot located at the tip of a stem. The dormant apical meristem of a terminal bud is covered ad protected by an outer layer of ___ ______, which are modified leaves.
 vascular bundlesVascular tissues in herbaceous eudicots are located in ________ _______.
 xylem/phloem/vascular cambiumEach vascular bundle contains two vascular tissues, the _____ and ______, and a single layer of cells, the ________ _______, sandiwched between them.
 vascular cambium/cork cambium/peridermSecondary growth occurs in woody plants as a result of cell divisions in two lateral meristems, the ________ _______, which gives rise to secondary xylem and phloem, and the ____ _______, which, along with the tissues it produces, is called the ________.
 xylem (wood)/phloem (inner bark)The vascular cambium produces secondary _____ (____) and secondary ______ (_____ ____) to replace the primary conducting and supporting tissues.
 ray(s) parachymaLateral transport takes place in (a) ____, which are chains of _________ cells that radiate out from the center of the woody stem or root.
 cork cellsCork cambium cells divide to form new tissues toward the inside and the outside. The layer toward the outside consists of ____ _____, heavily waterproofed cells that protect the plant.
 cork parachymaTo the inside, cork cambium forms the ____ _________ that stores water and starch.
 heartwood/sap woodThe older wood in the center of a tree is called _________, and the younger, lighter-colored, more peripheral wood is ___ ____.
 spring wood/late summer woodAnnual rings are composed of two types of cells arranged in alternating concentric circles, wach layer appropriately named for the season in which it developed. The ______ ____ has larger-diameter conducting cells and few fibers, whereas the ____ ______ ____ has narrower conducting cells and numerous fibers.
 natural physical processesIn constrast to internal circulation in animals, in plants movement of minerals thoughout the organism is driven largely by _______ ________ _________.
 water potential less higher (less negative) lower (more negative)One of the principal forces behind water movements through plants is a function of a cell's ability to absorb water by osmosis, also known as the "free energy of water", or the _____ _________. Water containing solutes has ____ (more or less?) free energy than pure water. Water moves from a region of ______ (____ ________) water potential to a region of _____ (____ ________) water potential.
 negativeUnder normal conditions, the water potential of the root is more ________ (negative or positive?) than the water potential of the soil. Thus water moves by osmosis from the soil into the root.
 tension-cohesion modelAccording to the _______-________ _____, water is pulled up the plant as a result of a tension produced at the top of the plant.
 transpirationThe tension results from the evaporative pull of _____________.
 pressure flow/source/sinkDissolved food, predominantly sucrose, is transported up or down in the phloem. Movement of materials in the phloem is explained by the ________ ____ hypothesis. Sugar is actively loaded into the sieve tubes at the ______, causing water to move into sieve tubes by osmosis, then sugar is actively unloaded from the sieve tubes at the ____ causing water to leave sieve tubes by osmosis.
 hormonesGrowth and development of a plant are controlled by its ________ organic compounds present in low concentration in the plant's tissues that act as chemical signals between cells.
 photoreceptorFor an organism to have a biological response to light, it must contain a light-sensitive substance, called a _____________, to absorb the light.
 phototropism/gravitropism/thigmotropismTropisms are catagorized according to the stimulus that causes them to occur. For example, growth or movement initiated by light is ____________, response to gravity is ____________, and movement caused by a mechanical stimulus is _____________.
 auxins/gibberellins/cytokinins/ethylene/abscisic acidThe five major classes of hormones that regulate responses in planst are ______, ____________, __________, ________, and ________ ____
 enzyme-linked receptorsMany plant hormones bind to ______-______ _________, located in the plasma membrane where they trigger enzymatic reactions.
 Indoleacetic acid (IAA)____________ ____ (___) is the most common and physiologically important auxin.
 shoot apical meristem/polar transportAuxins always move in one direction, specifically from the _____ ______ ________ oward the roots. Such unidirectional movement is called _____ _________. Auxins are also involved in phototropism, gravitropism, apical dominance, and fruit development.
 fungusSeedling disease is caused by a ______ that produces gibberellin.
 flowering/germinationIn addition to influencing stem elongation, gibberellins are also involved in _________ and ___________.
 cell division/differentiationCytokinins mainly promote ____ ________ and _______________.
 senescenceCytokinins also delay __________ (aging), and they interact with auxins in apical dominance.
 thigmomorphogenesisA developmental response to a mechanical stimulus is know as ___________________.
 Dormacy________ is the temporary state of reduced physiological activity in flowering plants.
 abscisis acidThe seeds of many desert plants contain high concentrations of ________ ____, which inhibits germination under unfavorable conditions.
 gibberellinIn seeds, the level of abscisis acid decreases during the winter, and the level of ___________ increases.
 brassinosteroids/jasmonates/salicylic acid/systemin/oligosaccharinsThe five groups of signaling molecules involved in defense repsonses to plant diseases are ________________, __________, _________ ____, ________, and _______________.
 Florigen________ is a flower-promoting substance.
 Photoperiodsim______________ is any response of a plant to the relative lengths of daylight and darkness.
 short day (long night)/long day (short night)/intermediate-day/day-neutral_____ ___ (____ _____) plants flower when the night length is equal to or greater than some critical period; ____ ___ (_____ _____) plants flower when the night length is equal to or less than some critical period; ____________-___ plants do not flower when night length is either too long or too short; ___-_______ plants do not initiate flowering in response to seasonal changes in the period of daylight and darkness but instead respond to some other type of stimulus, external or internal.
 Phytochrome___________ is the main photoreceptor for photoperiodism and many other light-initiated plant responses.
 shade avoidancePlants tend to grow taller when closely surrounded by other plants, a phenomenon known as _____ _________.
 red/Pr/PfrSeeds with a light requirement must be exposed to light containing ___ wavelengths to convert __ to ___.
 potassium/turgot movementsA mechanical stimulus may initiate an electrical "impulse" that causes changes in cell membrane permeability. When this occurs, _________ ions flow out of the affected cells, resulting in the net movement of water out of these cells. This sudden change in water volume cases the leaf to move. Such movements, known as ______ _________, are temporary.
 time of dayInternal cycles, known as circadian rhythms, help organisms detect the ____ __ ___.
 leaf-scarA ____-____ shows where each leaf was attached on the stem.
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"