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GEN BIO - Flashcards

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Class:119 101 - GENERAL BIOLOGY
Subject:BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
University:Rutgers University
Term:Fall 2014
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Scientific Method Steps 1. Make an observation
2. Identify the problem
3. Formulate a hypothesis that can be:
  •  testable
  • falsifiable
  • supported or disproved
4. Make a prediction (tested)
5. Design an experiment
6. Make a conclusion
Two Types of Reasoning Deductive: general-> specific

Inductive: specific-> general
Protons Subatomic particle with (+) charge

This is also the top number of each element on the periodic table

mass # is the number of protons + number of neutrons
Isotopes  All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom, but they differ in the number of neutrons
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Electrons How to Find Charge Subatomic particle with a (-) charge

Neutral: # electrons = # protons
Positive: # protons > # electrons
Negative: # electrons > # protons

Ionic & Covalent Bonds Ionic: 1 atom gains the electron and another atom loses the electron


Covalent
  1. Polar- Water has a partially (-) Oxygen atom and a partially (+) Hydrogen atom
  2. Non-polar- Absolute sharing; best relationship (electronegativity is the same)
 
Properties of Water 1. High Specific Heat: 100 degrees Celsius for water to boil
2. Adhesion: water sticks to other objects
3. Cohesion: water sticks to itself
4. High Surface Tension: allows insects to walk on water
5. Capillary Action: cohesion + adhesion; allows water to be moved from roots to leaves; high concentration to low concentration
The Four Macromolecules 1. Lipids

2. Carbohydrates

3. Nucleic Acids

4. Proteins

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What is the monomer of lipids? Fatty acids or hydrocarbon
What are the bonds that make up a protein? Peptide bonds
What are the bonds of nucleic acids? Phosphodiester bonds
What is the monomer of carbohydrates? Monosaccharides
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What is the monomer of nucleic acids? Nucleotides
What are the bonds in carbohydrates? Glycosidic bonds
What are the monomers of proteins? amino acids
Name the monosaccharides (monomer) in carbohydrates 1. Glucose

2. Fructose

3. Galactose

C, H, & O
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Name the disaccharides (2) in carbohydrates 1. Sucrose= glucose+fructose

2. Maltose= glucose+glucose

3. Lactose= glucose+galactose
Name the disaccharides (3+) in carbohydrates STRUCTURAL:
  • Cellulose
  • Chitin   WE CANT BREAK THESE DOWN
STORAGE:
  • Glycogen
  • Starch
How can a monomer become a polymer?
Take out WATER
  • Condensation
  • Synthesis
  • Dehydration
How can a polymer become a monomer? Add WATER

  • Hydrolysis
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Define: Prokaryotic The prokaryotes are single-celled organisms and lack a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelles.

  1. Simpler
  2. Nucleoid; Free floating DNA
Define: Eukaryotic A eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other structures (organelles) enclosed within membranes.

  1. Complex, larger
  2. Nucleus
  3. Membrane-bound organelles
What does the nucleus contain? Genetic information/ DNA
DNA is negatively charged
                      +
Histone proteins are positively charged 
= chromatin ------> which becomes a chromosome

* only becomes a chromosome when the cell is about to divide
Mitosis & Steps Mitosis is the process, in the cell cycle, by which the chromosomes in the cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes, each in its own nucleus.

PMAT----> Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
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Nucleolus The nucleolus is an organelle found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It forms around specific chromosomal regions in the nucleus and is made up of proteins and RNA.

THIS IS WHERE RIBOSOMES ARE MADE
Cytosol Intracellular fluid
The Central Dogma DNA --------------> RNA --------------> PROTEIN
      (transcription)         (translation)
OCCURS IN                        OCCURS IN 
NUCLEUS                            CYTOPLASM
Nuclear Pore Allows things to move from the nucleus ti the cytoplasm and vice verse
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Ribosomes
Serves as the primary site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

Make proteins in the nucleolus
Parts of the Endomembrane System 1. Nuclus
2. ERs (smooth & rough)
3. Golgi Apparatus (protein factory)
4. Lysosomes
5. Vacuoles
6. Vesicles (transportation)
Endosymbiotic Theory Mitochondria and chloroplasts come from prokaryotic cells
Rough ERs Make proteins, which go to specific places -----> protein synthesis

Ribosomes on top of the membrane
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Molecular Chaperones help ensure that proteins are folded correctly

  1. Lumen: Space inside ER
  2. Enzymes
*** If they aren't folded correctly, they are moved to proteasomes; the site of destruction (inside the cytosol)
Smooth ERs
  • Synthesizes + metabolizes carbs & lipids
  • Detoxifies drugs & poisons
  • Stores calcium ions
  • breaks down glycogen, which is stored energy
Golgi Apparatus CIS Golgi Apparatus, THEN TRANS Golgi Apparatus

CIS: Entry
TRANS: Exit
Define: Golgi Apparatus Flattened sac of membranes-----> cisternae

Has increased surface area so more proteins can be packaged
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Function: Golgi Apparatus Process, sort, & modify proteins
Define: Lysosomes "garbage man"

degrades wastes (in an acidic environment- ph 5)

HYDRO LITIC enzymes        MADE IN
(water)   (break)                    ROUGH ER
Denaturation occurs when ph or temperature is changed, causing a protein to lose its function
Tay Sachs Lipid (fat) accumulation
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Vacuoles fluid-filled sac

Make up most of a plant cell's volume
Vacuole Fuction Growth of plant cell; wastes---> works with lysosomes

Responsible for pigmentation
Mitochondria "power house"
  1. Makes ATO
  2. Has its own mitochondrial SNA
  3. Double membrane
  4. Cristae (folds) within the inner membrane makes mitochondria produce ATP faster
Cellular Respiration Glucose-----> ATP
mitochondria release electrons aka free radicals---> oxidants (bad)


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Necrosis uncontrolled cell death
Apoptosis programmed cell death
Mitochondria is injured 1. Pores open---> cytochrome C is released into the cytoplasm
2. Activates caspases, which are enzymes responsible for relieving injury
If caspase activity is too low... cancerous

(necrosis)--> good cells are being killed
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If caspase activity it too high... AIDS; Arthritis

(necrosis)--> good cells are being killed
Chloroplast plants ---> photosynthesis

1. Thylakoid: one individual flattened sac
2. Granum: one stack of thylakoids
3. Grana: 2 or more stacks of thylakoids
4. Stroma: space between the granum
Pigments 1. Chlorophyll A    MAIN
2. Chlorophyll B      ACCESSORY
3. Cartenoids          PIGMENTS
Plastids organelles in a plant

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Types of Plastids 1. Chloroplasts: photosynthesis
2. Leukoplasts: amyloplast- stores starch
3. Chromoplasts: pigmented; give flowers color
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 Scientific Method Steps1. Make an observation
2. Identify the problem
3. Formulate a hypothesis that can be:
  •  testable
  • falsifiable
  • supported or disproved
4. Make a prediction (tested)
5. Design an experiment
6. Make a conclusion
 Two Types of ReasoningDeductive: general-> specific

Inductive: specific-> general
 ProtonsSubatomic particle with (+) charge

This is also the top number of each element on the periodic table

mass # is the number of protons + number of neutrons
 Isotopes All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom, but they differ in the number of neutrons
 Electrons How to Find ChargeSubatomic particle with a (-) charge

Neutral: # electrons = # protons
Positive: # protons > # electrons
Negative: # electrons > # protons

 Ionic & Covalent BondsIonic: 1 atom gains the electron and another atom loses the electron


Covalent
  1. Polar- Water has a partially (-) Oxygen atom and a partially (+) Hydrogen atom
  2. Non-polar- Absolute sharing; best relationship (electronegativity is the same)
 
 Properties of Water1. High Specific Heat: 100 degrees Celsius for water to boil
2. Adhesion: water sticks to other objects
3. Cohesion: water sticks to itself
4. High Surface Tension: allows insects to walk on water
5. Capillary Action: cohesion + adhesion; allows water to be moved from roots to leaves; high concentration to low concentration
 The Four Macromolecules1. Lipids

2. Carbohydrates

3. Nucleic Acids

4. Proteins

 What is the monomer of lipids?Fatty acids or hydrocarbon
 What are the bonds that make up a protein?Peptide bonds
 What are the bonds of nucleic acids?Phosphodiester bonds
 What is the monomer of carbohydrates?Monosaccharides
 What is the monomer of nucleic acids?Nucleotides
 What are the bonds in carbohydrates?Glycosidic bonds
 What are the monomers of proteins?amino acids
 Name the monosaccharides (monomer) in carbohydrates1. Glucose

2. Fructose

3. Galactose

C, H, & O
 Name the disaccharides (2) in carbohydrates1. Sucrose= glucose+fructose

2. Maltose= glucose+glucose

3. Lactose= glucose+galactose
 Name the disaccharides (3+) in carbohydratesSTRUCTURAL:
  • Cellulose
  • Chitin   WE CANT BREAK THESE DOWN
STORAGE:
  • Glycogen
  • Starch
 How can a monomer become a polymer?
Take out WATER
  • Condensation
  • Synthesis
  • Dehydration
 How can a polymer become a monomer?Add WATER

  • Hydrolysis
 Define: ProkaryoticThe prokaryotes are single-celled organisms and lack a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelles.

  1. Simpler
  2. Nucleoid; Free floating DNA
 Define: EukaryoticA eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other structures (organelles) enclosed within membranes.

  1. Complex, larger
  2. Nucleus
  3. Membrane-bound organelles
 What does the nucleus contain?Genetic information/ DNA
DNA is negatively charged
                      +
Histone proteins are positively charged 
= chromatin ------> which becomes a chromosome

* only becomes a chromosome when the cell is about to divide
 Mitosis & StepsMitosis is the process, in the cell cycle, by which the chromosomes in the cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes, each in its own nucleus.

PMAT----> Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
 NucleolusThe nucleolus is an organelle found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It forms around specific chromosomal regions in the nucleus and is made up of proteins and RNA.

THIS IS WHERE RIBOSOMES ARE MADE
 CytosolIntracellular fluid
 The Central DogmaDNA --------------> RNA --------------> PROTEIN
      (transcription)         (translation)
OCCURS IN                        OCCURS IN 
NUCLEUS                            CYTOPLASM
 Nuclear PoreAllows things to move from the nucleus ti the cytoplasm and vice verse
 Ribosomes
Serves as the primary site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

Make proteins in the nucleolus
 Parts of the Endomembrane System1. Nuclus
2. ERs (smooth & rough)
3. Golgi Apparatus (protein factory)
4. Lysosomes
5. Vacuoles
6. Vesicles (transportation)
 Endosymbiotic TheoryMitochondria and chloroplasts come from prokaryotic cells
 Rough ERsMake proteins, which go to specific places -----> protein synthesis

Ribosomes on top of the membrane
 Molecular Chaperoneshelp ensure that proteins are folded correctly

  1. Lumen: Space inside ER
  2. Enzymes
*** If they aren't folded correctly, they are moved to proteasomes; the site of destruction (inside the cytosol)
 Smooth ERs
  • Synthesizes + metabolizes carbs & lipids
  • Detoxifies drugs & poisons
  • Stores calcium ions
  • breaks down glycogen, which is stored energy
 Golgi ApparatusCIS Golgi Apparatus, THEN TRANS Golgi Apparatus

CIS: Entry
TRANS: Exit
 Define: Golgi ApparatusFlattened sac of membranes-----> cisternae

Has increased surface area so more proteins can be packaged
 Function: Golgi ApparatusProcess, sort, & modify proteins
 Define: Lysosomes"garbage man"

degrades wastes (in an acidic environment- ph 5)

HYDRO LITIC enzymes        MADE IN
(water)   (break)                    ROUGH ER
 Denaturationoccurs when ph or temperature is changed, causing a protein to lose its function
 Tay SachsLipid (fat) accumulation
 Vacuolesfluid-filled sac

Make up most of a plant cell's volume
 Vacuole FuctionGrowth of plant cell; wastes---> works with lysosomes

Responsible for pigmentation
 Mitochondria"power house"
  1. Makes ATO
  2. Has its own mitochondrial SNA
  3. Double membrane
  4. Cristae (folds) within the inner membrane makes mitochondria produce ATP faster
 Cellular RespirationGlucose-----> ATP
mitochondria release electrons aka free radicals---> oxidants (bad)


 Necrosisuncontrolled cell death
 Apoptosisprogrammed cell death
 Mitochondria is injured1. Pores open---> cytochrome C is released into the cytoplasm
2. Activates caspases, which are enzymes responsible for relieving injury
 If caspase activity is too low...cancerous

(necrosis)--> good cells are being killed
 If caspase activity it too high...AIDS; Arthritis

(necrosis)--> good cells are being killed
 Chloroplastplants ---> photosynthesis

1. Thylakoid: one individual flattened sac
2. Granum: one stack of thylakoids
3. Grana: 2 or more stacks of thylakoids
4. Stroma: space between the granum
 Pigments1. Chlorophyll A    MAIN
2. Chlorophyll B      ACCESSORY
3. Cartenoids          PIGMENTS
 Plastidsorganelles in a plant

 Types of Plastids1. Chloroplasts: photosynthesis
2. Leukoplasts: amyloplast- stores starch
3. Chromoplasts: pigmented; give flowers color
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