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Class:160 171 - INTR EXPERIMENTATION
Subject:CHEMISTRY
University:Rutgers University
Term:Spring 2010
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What is the safety activity that you should perform before you leave the lab? What is the reason for it? You must wash your hands at the end of the lab even if you have been wearing gloves. This action will prevent you from carrying something on your hands, which you might later get in your eyes or in your food.
Is the density of a substance temperature dependent? Define Density. Explain. Density is temperature dependent. Density = mass / volume. Densities are temperature dependent because most substances change in volume when heated or cooled.
“True” or “False”: Bare feet are not allowed. True
“True” or “False”: Bare midriffs are not allowed. True
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“True” or “False”: Open-toed shoes are allowed during check out. False
“True” or “False”: Shorts are allowed during check out. False
“True” or “False”: Long hair must be tied back only when we are using the Bunsen Burner. False
You need 1.12 g of ethyl alcohol (density = 0.7893 g/mL) & didn't have a balance but you had volumetric glassware such as a syringe. Show work. Measure the correct volume with a syringe. Density = mass / volume Volume = Mass / Density Volume to be measured by syringe = 1.12 g ethyl alcohol / 0.7893 g / mL = 1.42 mL ethyl alcohol
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• Describe procedure to get chemicals off the eye? • Describe procedure to get chemicals off the other parts of your body? If you get chemicals in the eye, immediately flush the eye with copious amounts of water from the eyewash. For other parts of the body, wash the affected area thoroughly using the sink or safety shower.
What is the density of the element copper in g / mL if a sample weighing 0.3245 kg has a volume of 36.2 cm^3? Density = Mass / Volume 0.3245 kg x 1000 g / kg = 324.5 g Density = 324.5 g / 36.2 cm^3 = 8.96 g / cm^3 1 cm^3 = 1 mL 8.96 g / cm^3 = 8.96 g / mL
Define the following terms: • Meniscus • Identify two sources of error in using a buret. Meniscus is the curved surface of a liquid at its interface with the atmosphere. Sources of error in using a buret (any 2): 1)Parallax error: occurs when the scale of the buret is not viewed from a _|_position. Looking down on the meniscus causes it to appear higher than where it really is. Looking up at the meniscus causes it to appear lower than it really is. 2)Delivering the liquid so rapidly that it drops from the side of the buret. 3)Not reading the buret to the correct number of decimal places (decimal places). 4)Air in the stopcock or buret tip.
Describe the Archimedes Method for measuring the volume of an object. Write complete sentences with details. 1. Objects in water are lighter (weigh less but have the same mass) than in air. 2. That is because the displaced liquid pushes back on the object with a force equal to the mass of the liquid displaced. 3. When an object floats, it displaces a volume of liquid with a mass equal to the mass of the object. 4. A submerged object displaces a volume of liquid with a mass equal to the mass of the object’s volume. 5. The object will have an apparent loss of mass equal to the mass of the liquid displaced.
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Are contact lenses, hard or soft, ever permitted in the laboratory? Explain your answer. Contact lenses (hard or soft) are not permitted. Trapped chemicals may cause injury to the eye.
Ice cube (vol=45.0 mL; density = 9000 g/cm^3) floats in liquid (density=1.36 g/mL). Describe method to measure & find the submerged cube's vol. When an object floats, it displaces a volume of liquid with a mass equal to the mass of the object, 1 mL = 1 cm^3 Mass of object = Mass of displaced liquid = (45.0 mL)(0.9000 g/cm^3) = 40.5 g Volume of displaced liquid = volume of cube submerged = 40.5 g x 1 mL / 1.36 g = 29.8 mL
Is density an extensive or intensive property? Why? Density is an intensive property. Density is mass / volume. Both mass and volume are extensive properties but the quotient is an intensive property. Density is independent of the amount of substance.
When metal and non-metal atoms join, they usually form an _______ compound. ionic
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Metal atoms usually form _______. cations
The force holding an ionic compound together is governed by _______. Coulomb’s Law
The force holding an ionic compound together is _______. electrostatic attraction
Non-metals tend to form _______. anions
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Olympic size pool = 50.0m long & 25.0m wide. F.: H2O's vol to fill pool to avg depth of 4.8ft. 1in=2.54cm; 1.057qt/1gal; 1 gal=4 qt; V=abc Depth in m = 4.8 ft x 12 in / ft x 2.54 cm / in = 146 cm V = 50.0 m x 100 cm/m x 25.0 m x 100 cm/m x 146 cm = 1.825 x 109cm^3 V in Liters = 1.828 x 109cm^3 x 1 L / 1000 cm^3 = 1.825 x 106 L = 1.8 x 106 L
An Olympic size pool is 50.0 m long and 25.0 m wide. F.: water's mass in pool in kg. 1 in = 2.54 cm. 1.057 qt / 1 gal. 1 gal = 4 qt. V = abc Mass of water = 1.8 x 10 9cm^3 x 1.0 g /cm^3 = 1.8 x 109 g Mass of water = 1.8 x 109 g x 1 kg / 1000g = 1.8 x 106 kg
Briefly explain the hazards associated with 1.0 M CH3COOH solution. 1.0 M acetic acid is an irritant
Briefly explain the hazards associated with 0.10 M BaCl2. 0.10 M BaCl2 is highly toxic and irritant
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What is the SI unit for density? The SI unit for density is kg/m^3.
Coin of Au weighs 33.436 g & is 90.0% gold by mass. F.: # coins made from 2.00 in^3 of gold. The density of gold is 19.3 g /cm3. 1 in = 2.54 cm Vol of gold in cm^3 = 2.00 in^3 (2.54 cm)^3/in^3 = 32.774 cm^3 Mass of gold in g = 32.774 cm^3x 19.3 g / cm^3 = 632.5 g Mass of gold needed for one coin = 33.436 g x 90 / 100 = 30.0924 g Number of gold coins = 632.5 g / 30.0924 g = 21 coins
Write complete & net ionic equ'n. Write NR no reaction occurs. F.: spectator ions. Show phases. Ag2SO4 (s) + NaNO3 (aq) → Ag2SO4 (s) + NaNO3 (aq) → NR
Write complete & net ionic equ'ns. Write NR no reaction occurs. F.: spectator ions. Show phases. CaBr2 (Aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) → Complete Ionic Equation Ca2+ (aq) + 2 Br –(aq) + 2 Na+ (aq)+ SO42- (aq) → CaSO4 (s) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2 Br – (aq) Net Ionic Equation Ca2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) → CaSO4 (s) Br – and Na+ are spectator ions.
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Does density of the object inc, dec, or remains the same. Explain your answer: a sample of chlorine gas is compressed. For the chlorine gas, the density increases. Density is mass / volume. The mass of the chlorine gas is not changed, but its volume is smaller.
Does density of the object inc, dec, or remains the same. Explain your answer: a lead weight is carried from sea level to the top of a high mountain. For the lead weight, the density remains the same. Density is mass / volume. Neither the mass nor the volume of the solid has changed.
Write complete & net ionic equ'n. Write NR no reaction occurs. F.: spectator ions. Show phases. Pb(IO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) → Pb2+(aq) + 2IO3-(aq) + 2 Na+ + 2 OH – (aq) → Pb(OH)2 (s) +2IO3- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq) Pb2+(aq) + 2 OH – (aq) → Pb(OH)2 (s)
Write complete & net ionic equ'n. Write NR no reaction occurs. F.: spectator ions. Show phases. KNO3 (aq) + Ag2SO4 (s ) → Na+ and IO3- are spectator ions KNO3 (aq) + Ag2SO4 (s) → NR
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Does density of the object inc, dec, or remains the same. Explain your answer: a diamond is submerged in water. For the diamond, the density remains the same. The water does not alter either the mass or the volume of the diamond.
Does density of the object inc, dec, or remains the same. Explain your answer: a sample of water is frozen. For the frozen water, density decreases. Density is mass / volume. Water is one of the few substances that expands on freezing. The mass is constant but the volume increases.
Does density of the object inc, dec, or remains the same. Explain your answer: a diamond is submerged in water. For the diamond, the density remains the same. The water does not alter either the mass or the volume of the diamond
Write complete & net ionic equ'n. Write NR no reaction occurs. F.: spectator ions. Show phases. Pb(OH)2(s) + 2 CH3COOH (aq) → Pb2+ (aq) +2 CH3COO –(aq)+ 2 H2O (l) No spectator ions
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 What is the safety activity that you should perform before you leave the lab? What is the reason for it?You must wash your hands at the end of the lab even if you have been wearing gloves.
This action will prevent you from carrying something on your hands, which you might
later get in your eyes or in your food.
 Is the density of a substance temperature dependent? Define Density. Explain.Density is temperature dependent.
Density = mass / volume.
Densities are temperature dependent because most substances change in volume when
heated or cooled.
 “True” or “False”: Bare feet are not allowed. True
 “True” or “False”: Bare midriffs are not allowed.True
 “True” or “False”: Open-toed shoes are allowed during check out.False
 “True” or “False”: Shorts are allowed during check out.False
 “True” or “False”: Long hair must be tied back only when we are using the Bunsen Burner.False
 You need 1.12 g of ethyl alcohol (density = 0.7893 g/mL) & didn't have a balance but you had volumetric glassware such as a syringe. Show work.Measure the correct volume with a syringe.
Density = mass / volume
Volume = Mass / Density
Volume to be measured by syringe = 1.12 g ethyl alcohol / 0.7893 g / mL = 1.42 mL ethyl
alcohol
 • Describe procedure to get chemicals off the eye? • Describe procedure to get chemicals off the other parts of your body?If you get chemicals in the eye, immediately flush the eye with copious amounts of water
from the eyewash.
For other parts of the body, wash the affected area thoroughly using the sink or safety
shower.
 What is the density of the element copper in g / mL if a sample weighing 0.3245 kg has a volume of 36.2 cm^3?Density = Mass / Volume
0.3245 kg x 1000 g / kg = 324.5 g
Density = 324.5 g / 36.2 cm^3 = 8.96 g / cm^3
1 cm^3 = 1 mL
8.96 g / cm^3 = 8.96 g / mL
 Define the following terms: • Meniscus • Identify two sources of error in using a buret.Meniscus is the curved surface of a liquid at its interface with the atmosphere.
Sources of error in using a buret (any 2): 1)Parallax error: occurs when the scale of the buret is not viewed from a _|_position. Looking down on the meniscus causes it to appear higher than where it really is. Looking up at the meniscus causes it to appear lower than it really is. 2)Delivering the liquid so rapidly that it drops from the side of the buret. 3)Not reading the buret to the correct number of decimal places (decimal places). 4)Air in the stopcock or buret tip.
 Describe the Archimedes Method for measuring the volume of an object. Write complete sentences with details.1. Objects in water are lighter (weigh less but have the same mass) than in air.
2. That is because the displaced liquid pushes back on the object with a force equal to the mass of the liquid displaced.
3. When an object floats, it displaces a volume of liquid with a mass equal to the mass of the object.
4. A submerged object displaces a volume of liquid with a mass equal to the mass of the object’s volume.
5. The object will have an apparent loss of mass equal to the mass of the liquid displaced.
 Are contact lenses, hard or soft, ever permitted in the laboratory? Explain your answer.Contact lenses (hard or soft) are not permitted.
Trapped chemicals may cause injury to the eye.
 Ice cube (vol=45.0 mL; density = 9000 g/cm^3) floats in liquid (density=1.36 g/mL). Describe method to measure & find the submerged cube's vol.When an object floats, it displaces a volume of liquid with a mass equal to the mass of the object, 1 mL = 1 cm^3
Mass of object = Mass of displaced liquid = (45.0 mL)(0.9000 g/cm^3) = 40.5 g
Volume of displaced liquid = volume of cube submerged = 40.5 g x 1 mL / 1.36 g = 29.8 mL
 Is density an extensive or intensive property? Why? Density is an intensive property. Density is mass / volume. Both mass and volume are extensive properties but the quotient is an intensive property. Density is independent of
the amount of substance.

 When metal and non-metal atoms join, they usually form an _______ compound.ionic
 Metal atoms usually form _______. cations
 The force holding an ionic compound together is governed by _______.Coulomb’s Law
 The force holding an ionic compound together is _______. electrostatic attraction
 Non-metals tend to form _______. anions
 Olympic size pool = 50.0m long & 25.0m wide. F.: H2O's vol to fill pool to avg depth of 4.8ft. 1in=2.54cm; 1.057qt/1gal; 1 gal=4 qt; V=abcDepth in m = 4.8 ft x 12 in / ft x 2.54 cm / in = 146 cm
V = 50.0 m x 100 cm/m x 25.0 m x 100 cm/m x 146 cm = 1.825 x 109cm^3
V in Liters = 1.828 x 109cm^3 x 1 L / 1000 cm^3 = 1.825 x 106 L = 1.8 x 106 L
 An Olympic size pool is 50.0 m long and 25.0 m wide. F.: water's mass in pool in kg. 1 in = 2.54 cm. 1.057 qt / 1 gal. 1 gal = 4 qt. V = abc Mass of water = 1.8 x 10 9cm^3 x 1.0 g /cm^3 = 1.8 x 109 g
Mass of water = 1.8 x 109 g x 1 kg / 1000g = 1.8 x 106 kg
 Briefly explain the hazards associated with 1.0 M CH3COOH solution.1.0 M acetic acid is an irritant
 Briefly explain the hazards associated with 0.10 M BaCl2.0.10 M BaCl2 is highly toxic and irritant
 What is the SI unit for density?The SI unit for density is kg/m^3.
 Coin of Au weighs 33.436 g & is 90.0% gold by mass. F.: # coins made from 2.00 in^3 of gold. The density of gold is 19.3 g /cm3. 1 in = 2.54 cmVol of gold in cm^3 = 2.00 in^3 (2.54 cm)^3/in^3 = 32.774 cm^3
Mass of gold in g = 32.774 cm^3x 19.3 g / cm^3 = 632.5 g
Mass of gold needed for one coin = 33.436 g x 90 / 100 = 30.0924 g
Number of gold coins = 632.5 g / 30.0924 g = 21 coins
 Write complete & net ionic equ'n. Write NR no reaction occurs. F.: spectator ions. Show phases. Ag2SO4 (s) + NaNO3 (aq) →Ag2SO4 (s) + NaNO3 (aq) → NR
 Write complete & net ionic equ'ns. Write NR no reaction occurs. F.: spectator ions. Show phases. CaBr2 (Aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) →Complete Ionic Equation
Ca2+ (aq) + 2 Br –(aq) + 2 Na+ (aq)+ SO42- (aq) → CaSO4 (s) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2 Br – (aq)
Net Ionic Equation
Ca2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) → CaSO4 (s)
Br – and Na+ are spectator ions.
 Does density of the object inc, dec, or remains the same. Explain your answer: a sample of chlorine gas is compressed.For the chlorine gas, the density increases. Density is mass / volume. The mass of the chlorine gas is not changed, but its volume is smaller.
 Does density of the object inc, dec, or remains the same. Explain your answer: a lead weight is carried from sea level to the top of a high mountain.For the lead weight, the density remains the same. Density is mass / volume. Neither the mass nor the volume of the solid has changed.
 Write complete & net ionic equ'n. Write NR no reaction occurs. F.: spectator ions. Show phases. Pb(IO3)2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) →Pb2+(aq) + 2IO3-(aq) + 2 Na+ + 2 OH – (aq) → Pb(OH)2 (s) +2IO3- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq)
Pb2+(aq) + 2 OH – (aq) → Pb(OH)2 (s)
 Write complete & net ionic equ'n. Write NR no reaction occurs. F.: spectator ions. Show phases. KNO3 (aq) + Ag2SO4 (s ) →Na+ and IO3- are spectator ions
KNO3 (aq) + Ag2SO4 (s) → NR
 Does density of the object inc, dec, or remains the same. Explain your answer: a diamond is submerged in water. For the diamond, the density remains the same. The water does not alter either the mass or the volume of the diamond.
 Does density of the object inc, dec, or remains the same. Explain your answer: a sample of water is frozen.For the frozen water, density decreases. Density is mass / volume. Water is one of the few substances that expands on freezing. The mass is constant but the volume increases.
 Does density of the object inc, dec, or remains the same. Explain your answer: a diamond is submerged in water.For the diamond, the density remains the same. The water does not alter either the mass or the volume of the diamond
 Write complete & net ionic equ'n. Write NR no reaction occurs. F.: spectator ions. Show phases. Pb(OH)2(s) + 2 CH3COOH (aq) → Pb2+ (aq) +2 CH3COO –(aq)+ 2 H2O (l)
No spectator ions
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