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Final Exam - Flashcards

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Class:460 100 - PLANET EARTH
Subject:GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES
University:Rutgers University
Term:Unknown
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Climate the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of time.
Troposphere The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. Gets colder as you go up.
Stratosphere The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. Gets hotter as you go up
Ozone Layer The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). Protects the Earth from UV rays
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Insolation Insolation is a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in a given time.
Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is the heating of the surface of a planet or moon due to the presence of an atmosphere containing gases that absorb and emit infrared radiation.
Uneven Heating Hotter at the Equator
Coriolis Effect Winds are deflected to the right in teh northern hemisphere and to the left in the south due to teh rotationo of the earth
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Hadley Circulation The Hadley cell is a circulation pattern that dominates the tropical atmosphere, with rising motion near the equator, poleward flow 10-15 kilometers above the surface, descending motion in the subtropics, and equatorward flow near the surface.
Trade Winds The trade winds (also called trades) are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics near the Earth's equator.
Doldrums The Doldrums, also called the "equatorial calms", is a nautical term for the inter-tropical convergence zone, with special reference to the light and variable nature of the winds.
Prevailing Westerlies The Westerlies, anti-trades, or Prevailing Westerlies, are the prevailing winds in the middle latitudes between 35 and 65 degrees latitude, blowing from the high pressure area in the horse latitudes towards the poles.
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Sea Surface Temperatures Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the surface. Mean annual=63F. Colder water is denser.
Sea Surface Salinity Saltier=Denser
Surface Zone Mixed layer. High temps low salinity and low density.
Pycnocline Zone A pycnocline is a cline caused by a strong, vertical density gradient within a body of water.
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Deep Ocean The deep sea, or deep layer, is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1828 m) or more.
Thermohaline circulation The term thermohaline circulation (THC) refers to the part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.
Antarctic bottom water The Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is a type of water mass in the seas surrounding Antarctica with temperatures ranging from 0 to -0.8 C, salinities from 34.6 to 34.7 psu, and a density near 27.88. Causes global conveyor belt.
North Atlantic Deep Water North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is a water mass that forms in the North Atlantic Ocean. Causes global conveyor belt.
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Glacier A glacier is a perennial mass of ice which moves over land.
Continental Glaciers Glaciers that move over continents
Firn A type of snow that has been left over from past seasons and has been recrystallized
Plastic Flow small movements of ice crystals that accumulate into larger ones. slow movement.
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Basal Slip Basal Sliding is the act of a glacier sliding over the bed before it due to meltwater under the ice acting as a lubricant.
Zone of Ablation the area in which annual loss of snow through melting, evaporation, iceberg calving and sublimation exceeds annual gain of snow and ice on the surface.
Zone of Accumulation Snowfall accumulates on a glacier
Plucking Glacial plucking exploits pre-existing fractures in the bedrock.
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Abrasion Abrasion is the mechanical scraping of a rock surface by friction between rocks and moving particles during their transport by wind, glacier, waves, gravity, running water or erosion.
Glacial Striations Glacial striations or glacial grooves are scratches or gouges cut into bedrock by process of glacial abrasion.
Cirque A cirque (French for "circus") is an amphitheater-like valley, or valley head, formed at the head of a glacier by erosion.
Arete Sharp ridge of rock between two glaciers
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Horn Pyramid-like peak
Hanging Valleys In geology, a valley or dale is a depression with predominant extent in one direction.
Fjord Geologically, a fjord ( or ) is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides, created in a valley carved by glacial activity and filled in by rising sea levels
drift All material of glacial origin
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Till Till is unsorted glacial sediment.
Stratified Drift sediment deposited by drift water
ground moraine A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (soil and rock) which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions, such as those areas acted upon by a past ice age.
end moraine A terminal moraine, also called end moraine, is a moraine that forms at the end of the glacier called the snout.
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lateral moraine deposited in a valley after glacial melt
Eskers An esker is a long winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel, examples of which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America.
Continental Shelf The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, and was part of the continent during the glacial periods, but is undersea during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs.
Coastal Plain A coastal plain is an area of flat, low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast and separated from the interior by other features.
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Epicontinental Sea An epeiric sea (also known as an epicontinental sea) is a shallow sea that extends over part of a continent.
Continental Shelf Break The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, and was part of the continent during the glacial periods, but is undersea during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs.
Continental Slope The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, and was part of the continent during the glacial periods, but is undersea during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs.
Submarine Canyons A submarine canyon is a steep-sided valley on the sea floor of the continental slope.
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Turbidity Currents Dirty currents flowing under clean water layer
Turbidite Turbidite geological formations have their origins in turbidity current deposits, which are deposits from a form of underwater avalanche that are responsible for distributing vast amounts of clastic sediment into the deep ocean.
Continental Rise The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, and was part of the continent during the glacial periods, but is undersea during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs.
Abyssal Plain Abyssal plains are flat or very gently sloping areas of the deep ocean basin floor.
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Lithogenic Lithogenic silica (LSi) comes from the Greek words lithos, which means rock, and genesis, which means coming from.
Hydrogenic derived from water manganese molecules
Biogenic A biogenic substance is a substance produced by life processes.
Hydrologic Cycle rain--streams--run-off--groundwater
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Reservoirs A reservoir is an artificial lake used to store water.
Groundwater Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations.
Infiltration Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.
Water Table The water table is the level at which the groundwater pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure.
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Aeration open spaces filled with air
Saturation open spaces filled with water
Porosity Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material
Permeability a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or unconsolidated material) to transmit fluids.
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Confining Beds Restricts flow of water. example: clay
Aquifer An underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well.
Perched Water Bodies Water trapped on a confining bed. above water table
Artesian Well An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing groundwater that will flow upward through a well, called an artesian well, without the need for pumping.
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Salt Water Intrusion Saltwater intrusion is the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers.
Karst Topography Karst topography is a landscape shaped by the dissolution of a layer or layers of soluble bedrock, usually carbonate rock such as limestone or dolomite.
Stalactites hangs from the ceiling of limestone caves.
Stalagmites rises from the floor of a limestone cave due to the dripping of mineralized solutions and the deposition of calcium carbonate.
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Climatethe statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of time.
 TroposphereThe troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. Gets colder as you go up.
 StratosphereThe stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. Gets hotter as you go up
 Ozone LayerThe ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). Protects the Earth from UV rays
 InsolationInsolation is a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in a given time.
 Greenhouse EffectThe greenhouse effect is the heating of the surface of a planet or moon due to the presence of an atmosphere containing gases that absorb and emit infrared radiation.
 Uneven HeatingHotter at the Equator
 Coriolis EffectWinds are deflected to the right in teh northern hemisphere and to the left in the south due to teh rotationo of the earth
 Hadley CirculationThe Hadley cell is a circulation pattern that dominates the tropical atmosphere, with rising motion near the equator, poleward flow 10-15 kilometers above the surface, descending motion in the subtropics, and equatorward flow near the surface.
 Trade WindsThe trade winds (also called trades) are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics near the Earth's equator.
 DoldrumsThe Doldrums, also called the "equatorial calms", is a nautical term for the inter-tropical convergence zone, with special reference to the light and variable nature of the winds.
 Prevailing WesterliesThe Westerlies, anti-trades, or Prevailing Westerlies, are the prevailing winds in the middle latitudes between 35 and 65 degrees latitude, blowing from the high pressure area in the horse latitudes towards the poles.
 Sea Surface TemperaturesSea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the surface. Mean annual=63F. Colder water is denser.
 Sea Surface SalinitySaltier=Denser
 Surface ZoneMixed layer. High temps low salinity and low density.
 Pycnocline ZoneA pycnocline is a cline caused by a strong, vertical density gradient within a body of water.
 Deep OceanThe deep sea, or deep layer, is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1828 m) or more.
 Thermohaline circulationThe term thermohaline circulation (THC) refers to the part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.
 Antarctic bottom waterThe Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is a type of water mass in the seas surrounding Antarctica with temperatures ranging from 0 to -0.8 C, salinities from 34.6 to 34.7 psu, and a density near 27.88. Causes global conveyor belt.
 North Atlantic Deep WaterNorth Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is a water mass that forms in the North Atlantic Ocean. Causes global conveyor belt.
 GlacierA glacier is a perennial mass of ice which moves over land.
 Continental GlaciersGlaciers that move over continents
 FirnA type of snow that has been left over from past seasons and has been recrystallized
 Plastic Flowsmall movements of ice crystals that accumulate into larger ones. slow movement.
 Basal SlipBasal Sliding is the act of a glacier sliding over the bed before it due to meltwater under the ice acting as a lubricant.
 Zone of Ablationthe area in which annual loss of snow through melting, evaporation, iceberg calving and sublimation exceeds annual gain of snow and ice on the surface.
 Zone of AccumulationSnowfall accumulates on a glacier
 PluckingGlacial plucking exploits pre-existing fractures in the bedrock.
 AbrasionAbrasion is the mechanical scraping of a rock surface by friction between rocks and moving particles during their transport by wind, glacier, waves, gravity, running water or erosion.
 Glacial StriationsGlacial striations or glacial grooves are scratches or gouges cut into bedrock by process of glacial abrasion.
 CirqueA cirque (French for "circus") is an amphitheater-like valley, or valley head, formed at the head of a glacier by erosion.
 AreteSharp ridge of rock between two glaciers
 HornPyramid-like peak
 Hanging ValleysIn geology, a valley or dale is a depression with predominant extent in one direction.
 FjordGeologically, a fjord ( or ) is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides, created in a valley carved by glacial activity and filled in by rising sea levels
 driftAll material of glacial origin
 TillTill is unsorted glacial sediment.
 Stratified Driftsediment deposited by drift water
 ground moraineA moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (soil and rock) which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions, such as those areas acted upon by a past ice age.
 end moraineA terminal moraine, also called end moraine, is a moraine that forms at the end of the glacier called the snout.
 lateral morainedeposited in a valley after glacial melt
 EskersAn esker is a long winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel, examples of which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America.
 Continental ShelfThe continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, and was part of the continent during the glacial periods, but is undersea during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs.
 Coastal PlainA coastal plain is an area of flat, low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast and separated from the interior by other features.
 Epicontinental SeaAn epeiric sea (also known as an epicontinental sea) is a shallow sea that extends over part of a continent.
 Continental Shelf BreakThe continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, and was part of the continent during the glacial periods, but is undersea during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs.
 Continental SlopeThe continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, and was part of the continent during the glacial periods, but is undersea during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs.
 Submarine CanyonsA submarine canyon is a steep-sided valley on the sea floor of the continental slope.
 Turbidity CurrentsDirty currents flowing under clean water layer
 TurbiditeTurbidite geological formations have their origins in turbidity current deposits, which are deposits from a form of underwater avalanche that are responsible for distributing vast amounts of clastic sediment into the deep ocean.
 Continental RiseThe continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, and was part of the continent during the glacial periods, but is undersea during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs.
 Abyssal PlainAbyssal plains are flat or very gently sloping areas of the deep ocean basin floor.
 LithogenicLithogenic silica (LSi) comes from the Greek words lithos, which means rock, and genesis, which means coming from.
 Hydrogenicderived from water manganese molecules
 BiogenicA biogenic substance is a substance produced by life processes.
 Hydrologic Cyclerain--streams--run-off--groundwater
 ReservoirsA reservoir is an artificial lake used to store water.
 GroundwaterGroundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations.
 InfiltrationInfiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.
 Water TableThe water table is the level at which the groundwater pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure.
 Aerationopen spaces filled with air
 Saturationopen spaces filled with water
 PorosityPorosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material
 Permeabilitya measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or unconsolidated material) to transmit fluids.
 Confining BedsRestricts flow of water. example: clay
 AquiferAn underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well.
 Perched Water BodiesWater trapped on a confining bed. above water table
 Artesian WellAn artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing groundwater that will flow upward through a well, called an artesian well, without the need for pumping.
 Salt Water IntrusionSaltwater intrusion is the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers.
 Karst TopographyKarst topography is a landscape shaped by the dissolution of a layer or layers of soluble bedrock, usually carbonate rock such as limestone or dolomite.
 Stalactiteshangs from the ceiling of limestone caves.
 Stalagmitesrises from the floor of a limestone cave due to the dripping of mineralized solutions and the deposition of calcium carbonate.
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