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Minerals - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:ADSC 3300 - ANIM NUTR METAB
Subject:Animal and Dairy Sciences
University:University of Georgia
Term:Spring 2013
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Enhanced Feed Quality
  • Antifungals

    -Mold inhibitors (propionic acid)
  • Antioxidants

    -Natural: vitamin E and C
    -Synthetic: ethoxyquin (Satoquin), BHT, BHQ, BHA
  • Pellet Binders

    -Lignin Based Binders/Lignosulfonates
    -Hemi-cellulose Binders
    -Mineral binders (Clays)
Digestion modifiers
  • Enzymes

    -fiber-degrading (beta-glucanase, xylanase)
    -phytase
  • buffers

    -ruminant diets (sodium bicarbonate)
  • Ionophores, cattle, dairy

    -monensin = rumensin (inhibits growth of gram negative bacteria, improves feed efficiency and milk production, decreases methane production)
Other Digestion Modifiers
  • Probiotics & competitive exclusion products
  • Prebiotics
  • Acidifiers
    -organic acids (citric, lactic)
    -may aid in digestion by lowering stomach pH
    -may have bacteriostatic effect in liquid diets
Metabolism Modifiers Hormones
  • Steroid hormones

    -increase lean, decrease fat, improve feed efficiency
  • Beta-adrenergic agonists

    -mimic epinephrine or adrenaline; decrease fat, increase lean
    -Ractopamine (paylean in pigs, optaflexx in cattle)
  • Somatotropin 

    -Posilac for dairy cows
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Growth Promotants (metabolism modifiers)
  • Antibiotics

    -therapeutic vs. sub-therapeutic uses
    -Subtherapeutic: low levels, prevent disease, improve growth rate, feed efficiency, etc. 
  • Chemotherapeutic agents

    -copper sulfate, arsenicals, zinc oxide
  • Chromium

    -improves sow performance
    -repartitioning agent
Macro-Minerals (mg/d - grams/d)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Sodium (Na)
  • Chloride (Cl)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • to a certain extent Sulfur (S)
Micro-Minerals (micrograms/d -mg/d)
Trace
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Iodine (I)
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Selenium (Se)
  • Zinc (Zn)
Ultra-trace: B, Cr, Co, F, Mo, Si
Calcium Function: Bones, teeth, regulation of nerve muscle, blood clotting

Deficiency: Rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, milk fever

Toxicity: rare, seen with high vitamin D

Sources: limestone, dicalcium phosphate, bone meal, fish meal

-most abundant mineral in the body

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Phosphorus Function: bones, teeth, ATP, phosphorylated intermediates, nucleic acids
Deficiency: rickets, osteomalacia
Toxicity: rare, hyperparathyroid, demineralization
Sources: dicalcium phosphate, fish meal, bone meal
-controlled by vitamin D and parathyroid hormone
-plants typically contain P, but in seeds it is in the form of phytic acid
(phytic acid binds divalent metals resulting in reduced digestibility)
Sodium Function: main cation in extracellular fluid, nerve and muscle function

Deficiency: unknown on typical diets, secondary to other issues

Toxicity: unlikely, hypertension in some humans

Sources: salt

Potassium Function: main cation in intracellular fluid, muscle and nerve function

Deficiency: secondary to other issues

Toxicity: unlikely, IV injection causes cardiac arrest

Sources: usually sufficient amounts in grain, KCl sometimes added

Chloride Function: electrolyte balance

Deficiency: secondary to vomiting, renal disease

Toxicity: unlikely 

Sources: Salt

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Magnesium Function: bones, teeth, enzyme cofactor, ATP metabolism

Deficiency: secondary to malabsorption, grass tetany, anorexia, hyperemia of extremities, bone weakening in pigs

Toxicity: decreased feed intake, diarrhea

Sources: usually sufficient amounts in grain
-absorbed from ileum
Milk Fever
  • Symptoms: listless, staggers or weaves when walks, lies down in a characteristic pose, decreased plasma Ca, no actual fever
  • Treatment: IV Ca solution
  • Prevention: feed low Ca diet in dry period
Ca Toxicity
  • High dietary [Ca] results in decreased absorption (self-regulation)

  • High dietary Ca may create deficiency of other divalent metals (Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn) or I

  • Vitamin D toxicity may cause calcification of soft tissues
Animal agriculture and the Environment Nitrogen and Phosphorus
-ammonia
-Eutrophication (excess nutrients into water causes excess algae growth)
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Bone Composition
  • Wet Bone (most to least)

    -Water
    -Ash
    -Protein
    -Fat
  • Dry, fat-free bone

    -Inorganic, organic
  • Ash: PO4, Ca, P, other
Macro-minerals supplementation for livestock
  • Ca (common) = limestone
  • P (common) = dicalcium phosphate [expensive]
  • Mg (almost never) = MgSO4
  • K (almost never) = KCl
  • Na (common) = salt
  • Cl (common) = salt
Iron
  • Ferric (+3) -- enzymes
  • Ferrous (+2) -- oxygen transport
  • Function: mostly hemoglobin and myoglobin; other storage forms in liver and spleen; or bound to other enzymes
  • Deficiency: anemia (microcytic or hypochromic)
  • Toxicity: Chronic = diarrhea, reduced growth rate
    Acute = acidosis, death
Cobalt
  • only known function of cobalt is as part of vitamin B12
  • deficiency results in B12 deficiency symptoms
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Chromium
  • related to insulin action and glucose metabolism (glucose tolerance factor)
  • extremely low levels needed to meet requirement
  • Organic forms shown to: increase lean and decrease fat; improve reproductive efficiency in sows; chromax product
Iodine
  • Only known function is as part of thyroid hormones
  • Deficiency: decreased metabolic rate; reproductive problems; dry skin; enlarged thyroid gland (goiter); prevent with iodized salt
  • Toxicity: rare, water soluble and cleared
Zinc
  • Highest levels in liver, kidney, bone
  • Primary function as a cofactor for enzymes

    -alkaline phosphatase
    -digestive enzymes (carboxypeptidase)
    -synthesis of skin keratin and collagen
  • Deficiency: decreased growth and intake; decreased bone growth; decreased wound healing; abnormal epithelial cells
  • Toxicity: chronic high levels may reduce growth, result in bone problems; used as topical wound ointments
Copper
  • Function: associated with enzymes of iron metabolism

    -elastin and collagen formation; melanin formation; CNS function; RBC formation
  • Deficiency: decreased RBC formation (anemia)

    -hypochromic microcytic (rats, rabbits, pigs)
    -hypochromic macrocytic (cattle, sheep)
    -monochromic (dogs, chickens)
  • Toxicity: sheep most sensitive
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Manganese (Mn)
  • Function: essential for chondrotin sulfate formation (BONE)

    -cofactor in enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, arginase, cholesterol synthesis
  • Deficiency: ataxia and poor equilibrium in young

    -needed for formation of cartilage in inner ear and sense of balance
    -delayed estrus, poor conception rates
  • Toxicity: relatively low

    -high levels can cause Ca, P, and Fe deficiencies
Selenium
  • Function: component of glutathione peroxidase (protects cell membranes from oxidative damage) = antioxidant

    -works with vitamin E
  • Deficiency 

    -nutritional muscular dystrophy or white muscle disease
    - In poultry only: liver necrosis; eudative diathesis, pancreatic degeneration
  • Toxicity: FDA regulated; causes blind staggers, alkali disease, emaciation, hair loss, lameness, excess salivation, heart atrophy, blindness, paralysis, death
Other Trace Elements
  • Molybdenum (Mo)

    -component of xanthine oxidase (purine metabolism), toxic
  • Fluorine (F)

    -prevents cavities, bone formation, toxic
  • Silicon (Si)

    -growth response in chicks, rats
  • Al, As, B, Cd, Ni, Sn

    -ppb range
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 Enhanced Feed Quality
  • Antifungals

    -Mold inhibitors (propionic acid)
  • Antioxidants

    -Natural: vitamin E and C
    -Synthetic: ethoxyquin (Satoquin), BHT, BHQ, BHA
  • Pellet Binders

    -Lignin Based Binders/Lignosulfonates
    -Hemi-cellulose Binders
    -Mineral binders (Clays)
 Digestion modifiers
  • Enzymes

    -fiber-degrading (beta-glucanase, xylanase)
    -phytase
  • buffers

    -ruminant diets (sodium bicarbonate)
  • Ionophores, cattle, dairy

    -monensin = rumensin (inhibits growth of gram negative bacteria, improves feed efficiency and milk production, decreases methane production)
 Other Digestion Modifiers
  • Probiotics & competitive exclusion products
  • Prebiotics
  • Acidifiers
    -organic acids (citric, lactic)
    -may aid in digestion by lowering stomach pH
    -may have bacteriostatic effect in liquid diets
 Metabolism ModifiersHormones
  • Steroid hormones

    -increase lean, decrease fat, improve feed efficiency
  • Beta-adrenergic agonists

    -mimic epinephrine or adrenaline; decrease fat, increase lean
    -Ractopamine (paylean in pigs, optaflexx in cattle)
  • Somatotropin 

    -Posilac for dairy cows
 Growth Promotants (metabolism modifiers)
  • Antibiotics

    -therapeutic vs. sub-therapeutic uses
    -Subtherapeutic: low levels, prevent disease, improve growth rate, feed efficiency, etc. 
  • Chemotherapeutic agents

    -copper sulfate, arsenicals, zinc oxide
  • Chromium

    -improves sow performance
    -repartitioning agent
 Macro-Minerals(mg/d - grams/d)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Sodium (Na)
  • Chloride (Cl)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • to a certain extent Sulfur (S)
 Micro-Minerals(micrograms/d -mg/d)
Trace
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Iodine (I)
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Selenium (Se)
  • Zinc (Zn)
Ultra-trace: B, Cr, Co, F, Mo, Si
 CalciumFunction: Bones, teeth, regulation of nerve muscle, blood clotting

Deficiency: Rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, milk fever

Toxicity: rare, seen with high vitamin D

Sources: limestone, dicalcium phosphate, bone meal, fish meal

-most abundant mineral in the body

 PhosphorusFunction: bones, teeth, ATP, phosphorylated intermediates, nucleic acids
Deficiency: rickets, osteomalacia
Toxicity: rare, hyperparathyroid, demineralization
Sources: dicalcium phosphate, fish meal, bone meal
-controlled by vitamin D and parathyroid hormone
-plants typically contain P, but in seeds it is in the form of phytic acid
(phytic acid binds divalent metals resulting in reduced digestibility)
 SodiumFunction: main cation in extracellular fluid, nerve and muscle function

Deficiency: unknown on typical diets, secondary to other issues

Toxicity: unlikely, hypertension in some humans

Sources: salt

 PotassiumFunction: main cation in intracellular fluid, muscle and nerve function

Deficiency: secondary to other issues

Toxicity: unlikely, IV injection causes cardiac arrest

Sources: usually sufficient amounts in grain, KCl sometimes added

 ChlorideFunction: electrolyte balance

Deficiency: secondary to vomiting, renal disease

Toxicity: unlikely 

Sources: Salt

 MagnesiumFunction: bones, teeth, enzyme cofactor, ATP metabolism

Deficiency: secondary to malabsorption, grass tetany, anorexia, hyperemia of extremities, bone weakening in pigs

Toxicity: decreased feed intake, diarrhea

Sources: usually sufficient amounts in grain
-absorbed from ileum
 Milk Fever
  • Symptoms: listless, staggers or weaves when walks, lies down in a characteristic pose, decreased plasma Ca, no actual fever
  • Treatment: IV Ca solution
  • Prevention: feed low Ca diet in dry period
 Ca Toxicity
  • High dietary [Ca] results in decreased absorption (self-regulation)

  • High dietary Ca may create deficiency of other divalent metals (Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn) or I

  • Vitamin D toxicity may cause calcification of soft tissues
 Animal agriculture and the EnvironmentNitrogen and Phosphorus
-ammonia
-Eutrophication (excess nutrients into water causes excess algae growth)
 Bone Composition
  • Wet Bone (most to least)

    -Water
    -Ash
    -Protein
    -Fat
  • Dry, fat-free bone

    -Inorganic, organic
  • Ash: PO4, Ca, P, other
 Macro-minerals supplementation for livestock
  • Ca (common) = limestone
  • P (common) = dicalcium phosphate [expensive]
  • Mg (almost never) = MgSO4
  • K (almost never) = KCl
  • Na (common) = salt
  • Cl (common) = salt
 Iron
  • Ferric (+3) -- enzymes
  • Ferrous (+2) -- oxygen transport
  • Function: mostly hemoglobin and myoglobin; other storage forms in liver and spleen; or bound to other enzymes
  • Deficiency: anemia (microcytic or hypochromic)
  • Toxicity: Chronic = diarrhea, reduced growth rate
    Acute = acidosis, death
 Cobalt
  • only known function of cobalt is as part of vitamin B12
  • deficiency results in B12 deficiency symptoms
 Chromium
  • related to insulin action and glucose metabolism (glucose tolerance factor)
  • extremely low levels needed to meet requirement
  • Organic forms shown to: increase lean and decrease fat; improve reproductive efficiency in sows; chromax product
 Iodine
  • Only known function is as part of thyroid hormones
  • Deficiency: decreased metabolic rate; reproductive problems; dry skin; enlarged thyroid gland (goiter); prevent with iodized salt
  • Toxicity: rare, water soluble and cleared
 Zinc
  • Highest levels in liver, kidney, bone
  • Primary function as a cofactor for enzymes

    -alkaline phosphatase
    -digestive enzymes (carboxypeptidase)
    -synthesis of skin keratin and collagen
  • Deficiency: decreased growth and intake; decreased bone growth; decreased wound healing; abnormal epithelial cells
  • Toxicity: chronic high levels may reduce growth, result in bone problems; used as topical wound ointments
 Copper
  • Function: associated with enzymes of iron metabolism

    -elastin and collagen formation; melanin formation; CNS function; RBC formation
  • Deficiency: decreased RBC formation (anemia)

    -hypochromic microcytic (rats, rabbits, pigs)
    -hypochromic macrocytic (cattle, sheep)
    -monochromic (dogs, chickens)
  • Toxicity: sheep most sensitive
 Manganese (Mn)
  • Function: essential for chondrotin sulfate formation (BONE)

    -cofactor in enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, arginase, cholesterol synthesis
  • Deficiency: ataxia and poor equilibrium in young

    -needed for formation of cartilage in inner ear and sense of balance
    -delayed estrus, poor conception rates
  • Toxicity: relatively low

    -high levels can cause Ca, P, and Fe deficiencies
 Selenium
  • Function: component of glutathione peroxidase (protects cell membranes from oxidative damage) = antioxidant

    -works with vitamin E
  • Deficiency 

    -nutritional muscular dystrophy or white muscle disease
    - In poultry only: liver necrosis; eudative diathesis, pancreatic degeneration
  • Toxicity: FDA regulated; causes blind staggers, alkali disease, emaciation, hair loss, lameness, excess salivation, heart atrophy, blindness, paralysis, death
 Other Trace Elements
  • Molybdenum (Mo)

    -component of xanthine oxidase (purine metabolism), toxic
  • Fluorine (F)

    -prevents cavities, bone formation, toxic
  • Silicon (Si)

    -growth response in chicks, rats
  • Al, As, B, Cd, Ni, Sn

    -ppb range
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