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ANIMAL SCIENCE- EXAM 1 - Flashcards

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Class:AGSC 1100 - Principles of Animal Science
Subject:Agricultural Science
University:Southern Utah University
Term:Fall Semester 2012
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List Feed Classifications Give Examples
  • Dry Forage- Hay, Straw, Seed Hulls, Corn Stacks
  • Green Forage- Pasture- Green Chop
  • Silage- Corn, Silage, Haylage
  • Energy Feeds (Concentrates- Corn, Barley, Oats, Wheat
  • Protein Supplements- Soybean, Fish Meal, Urea
  • Mineral Supplements- Salt, Limestone, Dicalcium Phosphate
  • Vitamin Supplements- Vitamin Premixes
  • Additives- Antibiotics, Hormones, Growth Stimulants
MICROBIAL FERMENTATION
  • Volatile Fatty Acids-
      Acetic Acid, Propionic Acid & Butyric Acid
  • Essential Fatty Acids-
       Linoleic & Linoenic Acid
PAPILLAE
  • Found on inner lining of rumen
  • Increases surface area for VFA absorption
REGURGITATION
  • Animal coughs up bolus of feed for further chewing 
  • "Chewing their cud"
Generated by Koofers.com
ERUCTATION
  • Expelling gas from fermentation by belching
RETICULUM
  • Honeycomb or Hardware Stomach
  • Capacity- approx. 2 gal in cattle; 2 qt in sheep
  • Pocket on front of rumen
  • Contacts to form a bolus of feed for regurgitation
  • Contributes microbial digestion
OMASUM
  • "Manyplies" or "Butchers Bible"
  • Capacity- 4 gal in cattle; 1 qt in sheep
  • Specific function is unclear beyond further digestion time
ABOMASUM
  • True Stomach
  • Capacity 4 Gal in cattle; 3 qt in sheep
  • Same function as the monogasteric stomach
Generated by Koofers.com
RETICULAR GROOVE
  • AKA Esophageal Groove
  • Muscular channel that leads directly to the abomasum
  • Facilitates milk consumption in newborns
HORSE DIGESTION
  • Nonruminant herbivore
    Stomach
    Gal Bladder
    Cecum & Colon

HORSE: STOMACH
  • Small capacity- prevent consumption of large quantities of feed in a short time
  • Susceptible to digestive disorder 
  • One of the causes of Colic
HORSE: Gal Bladder
  • No Gal Bladder
  • No bile storage limits ability to digest fat, so high-fat diets should be avoided
Generated by Koofers.com
HORSE: Cecum & Large Colon
  • Microbial fermentation breaks down fiber in forage to provide additional nutrients
  • VAF's for energy
  • Water-soluble
  • Non-utilized protein is excreted in feces
  • Horses can utilize the protein by practicing coprophagy (eating feces) But its not as common as with rabbits
AVIAN DIGESTION 1- Beak
2- Crop
3- Gizzard
4- Small Intestine
5- Ceca (Plural for Cecum)
6- Large Intestine
7- Cloaca
AVIAN BEAK

  • Instead of teeth and lips
AVIAN CROP
  • First organ the food goes to
  • Storage & Moistening of Feed
  • Fermentation in some species
  • Size varies with diet
Generated by Koofers.com
AVIAN GIZZARD
  • AKA Ventriculus
  • Vary muscular
  • Contains Grit (Sand, etc)
  • Grinds Up Feed
AVIAN SMALL INTESTINE
  • Same as other monogastric stomachs
AVIAN CECA
  • Microbial Fermentation
  • Size influenced by amount of fiber in diet
AVIAN Large Intestine
  • Relatively short compared to other species
  • Vitamin K Synthesis
  • Absorption of Water

Generated by Koofers.com
AVIAN Cloaca Common orifice for:
  •  Elimination of feces and urine
  • Copulation
  • Egg laying
Why are genetics important?
  • Determines an animals potential
  • Influences everything they do and produce
  • Genetic code is set at conception and permanent for the lifetime of the animal
  • Changes with each new generation
  • Can be improved through selection

Define: DNA
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid
  • Double-stranded molecules of genetic material
  • Locate in the nucleus
  • Cannot pass through nuclear membrane
4 Bases of DNA
  • A- Adenine
  • T- Thymine
  • C- Cytosine
  • G- Guanine
Generated by Koofers.com
CHROMOSOME
  • Structure formed from one section of DNA
GENE
  • Segment of DNA on a chromosome with the code for a specific function
  • Base unit of inheritance
SOMATIC CELL
  • Contain a copy of the same DNA
SEX CELLS
  • Gametes
    Contain half of the DNA
Generated by Koofers.com
Define- RNA
  • Ribonucleic Acid
  • Single-Stranded Molecule
  • Synthesized in the nucleus
  • Contains Uracil instead of Thymine
3 Different Forms of RNA
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
mRNA
  • Provides the code for protein synthesis
tRNA
  • Collects and delivers amino acids for protein synthesis
Generated by Koofers.com
rRNA
  • Part of the structure of ribosomes that carry out protein synthesis
2 Forms of Protein Synthesis
  1. Transcription
  2. Translation
Transcription
  • Synthesis of RNA based on the DNA code
  • Occurs in the nucleus
Translation
  • Synthesis of protein based on the mRNA code
  • Occurs in the cytoplasm
Generated by Koofers.com
What do cells use to perform their specific function?
  • Genes
CHROMOSOMES
  • Present in homologous pairs
  • One from each parent
  • Both contain the same set of genes
SEX CHROMOSOMES
  • X & Y
MAMMALS Sex Chromosomes
  • XX= Female
  • XY= Male

    Males determine sex of offspring
Generated by Koofers.com
AVIAN Sex Chromosomes
  • XX= Male
  • XY= Female
ALLELES
  • Possible forms of a gene
  • Each individual has 2 alleles for each gene
HOMOZYGOUS
  • Two of the same allele for a gene
HETEROZYGOUS
  • Two different allele for the gene
Generated by Koofers.com
MITOSIS
  • Somatic Cell Division
  • One Diploid parent cell divides to form 2 diploid daughter cells
  • Daughter cells are identical to the parent cell
DIPLOID
  • Full number of chromosome pairs
MEIOSIS
  • Formation of gametes (Sperm & Ova)
  • One diploid parent cell divides twice to form 4 haploid gametes
How many chromosomes of the parent cell do gametes contain during Meiosis?
  • 1/2

    One of each chromosome pair
    One allele for each gene
Generated by Koofers.com
ZYGOTE
  • Formed from the union of the sperm and ovum
What determines Phenotype?
  • Genotype and Environment
PHENOTYPE
  • Ovserved or measured characteristics or performance of an animal
GENOTYPE
  • Genetic makeup
Generated by Koofers.com
PHENOTYPE ENVIRONMENT
  • All non-genetic influences
  • Includes-
      Nutrition
      Management
      Climate
      Weather
      Health
GENE EXPRESSION AA=
  • Homozygous Dominant
GENE EXPRESSION Aa=
  • Heterozygous
GENE EXPRESSION aa=
  • Homozygous Recessive
Generated by Koofers.com
DOMINANT ALLELE
  • Overpowers expression of recessive allele
RECESSIVE ALLELE
  • Expresses only when homozygous
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

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 List Feed Classifications Give Examples
  • Dry Forage- Hay, Straw, Seed Hulls, Corn Stacks
  • Green Forage- Pasture- Green Chop
  • Silage- Corn, Silage, Haylage
  • Energy Feeds (Concentrates- Corn, Barley, Oats, Wheat
  • Protein Supplements- Soybean, Fish Meal, Urea
  • Mineral Supplements- Salt, Limestone, Dicalcium Phosphate
  • Vitamin Supplements- Vitamin Premixes
  • Additives- Antibiotics, Hormones, Growth Stimulants
 MICROBIAL FERMENTATION
  • Volatile Fatty Acids-
      Acetic Acid, Propionic Acid & Butyric Acid
  • Essential Fatty Acids-
       Linoleic & Linoenic Acid
 PAPILLAE
  • Found on inner lining of rumen
  • Increases surface area for VFA absorption
 REGURGITATION
  • Animal coughs up bolus of feed for further chewing 
  • "Chewing their cud"
 ERUCTATION
  • Expelling gas from fermentation by belching
 RETICULUM
  • Honeycomb or Hardware Stomach
  • Capacity- approx. 2 gal in cattle; 2 qt in sheep
  • Pocket on front of rumen
  • Contacts to form a bolus of feed for regurgitation
  • Contributes microbial digestion
 OMASUM
  • "Manyplies" or "Butchers Bible"
  • Capacity- 4 gal in cattle; 1 qt in sheep
  • Specific function is unclear beyond further digestion time
 ABOMASUM
  • True Stomach
  • Capacity 4 Gal in cattle; 3 qt in sheep
  • Same function as the monogasteric stomach
 RETICULAR GROOVE
  • AKA Esophageal Groove
  • Muscular channel that leads directly to the abomasum
  • Facilitates milk consumption in newborns
 HORSE DIGESTION
  • Nonruminant herbivore
    Stomach
    Gal Bladder
    Cecum & Colon

 HORSE: STOMACH
  • Small capacity- prevent consumption of large quantities of feed in a short time
  • Susceptible to digestive disorder 
  • One of the causes of Colic
 HORSE: Gal Bladder
  • No Gal Bladder
  • No bile storage limits ability to digest fat, so high-fat diets should be avoided
 HORSE: Cecum & Large Colon
  • Microbial fermentation breaks down fiber in forage to provide additional nutrients
  • VAF's for energy
  • Water-soluble
  • Non-utilized protein is excreted in feces
  • Horses can utilize the protein by practicing coprophagy (eating feces) But its not as common as with rabbits
 AVIAN DIGESTION1- Beak
2- Crop
3- Gizzard
4- Small Intestine
5- Ceca (Plural for Cecum)
6- Large Intestine
7- Cloaca
 AVIAN BEAK

  • Instead of teeth and lips
 AVIAN CROP
  • First organ the food goes to
  • Storage & Moistening of Feed
  • Fermentation in some species
  • Size varies with diet
 AVIAN GIZZARD
  • AKA Ventriculus
  • Vary muscular
  • Contains Grit (Sand, etc)
  • Grinds Up Feed
 AVIAN SMALL INTESTINE
  • Same as other monogastric stomachs
 AVIAN CECA
  • Microbial Fermentation
  • Size influenced by amount of fiber in diet
 AVIAN Large Intestine
  • Relatively short compared to other species
  • Vitamin K Synthesis
  • Absorption of Water

 AVIAN CloacaCommon orifice for:
  •  Elimination of feces and urine
  • Copulation
  • Egg laying
 Why are genetics important?
  • Determines an animals potential
  • Influences everything they do and produce
  • Genetic code is set at conception and permanent for the lifetime of the animal
  • Changes with each new generation
  • Can be improved through selection

 Define: DNA
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid
  • Double-stranded molecules of genetic material
  • Locate in the nucleus
  • Cannot pass through nuclear membrane
 4 Bases of DNA
  • A- Adenine
  • T- Thymine
  • C- Cytosine
  • G- Guanine
 CHROMOSOME
  • Structure formed from one section of DNA
 GENE
  • Segment of DNA on a chromosome with the code for a specific function
  • Base unit of inheritance
 SOMATIC CELL
  • Contain a copy of the same DNA
 SEX CELLS
  • Gametes
    Contain half of the DNA
 Define- RNA
  • Ribonucleic Acid
  • Single-Stranded Molecule
  • Synthesized in the nucleus
  • Contains Uracil instead of Thymine
 3 Different Forms of RNA
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
 mRNA
  • Provides the code for protein synthesis
 tRNA
  • Collects and delivers amino acids for protein synthesis
 rRNA
  • Part of the structure of ribosomes that carry out protein synthesis
 2 Forms of Protein Synthesis
  1. Transcription
  2. Translation
 Transcription
  • Synthesis of RNA based on the DNA code
  • Occurs in the nucleus
 Translation
  • Synthesis of protein based on the mRNA code
  • Occurs in the cytoplasm
 What do cells use to perform their specific function?
  • Genes
 CHROMOSOMES
  • Present in homologous pairs
  • One from each parent
  • Both contain the same set of genes
 SEX CHROMOSOMES
  • X & Y
 MAMMALS Sex Chromosomes
  • XX= Female
  • XY= Male

    Males determine sex of offspring
 AVIAN Sex Chromosomes
  • XX= Male
  • XY= Female
 ALLELES
  • Possible forms of a gene
  • Each individual has 2 alleles for each gene
 HOMOZYGOUS
  • Two of the same allele for a gene
 HETEROZYGOUS
  • Two different allele for the gene
 MITOSIS
  • Somatic Cell Division
  • One Diploid parent cell divides to form 2 diploid daughter cells
  • Daughter cells are identical to the parent cell
 DIPLOID
  • Full number of chromosome pairs
 MEIOSIS
  • Formation of gametes (Sperm & Ova)
  • One diploid parent cell divides twice to form 4 haploid gametes
 How many chromosomes of the parent cell do gametes contain during Meiosis?
  • 1/2

    One of each chromosome pair
    One allele for each gene
 ZYGOTE
  • Formed from the union of the sperm and ovum
 What determines Phenotype?
  • Genotype and Environment
 PHENOTYPE
  • Ovserved or measured characteristics or performance of an animal
 GENOTYPE
  • Genetic makeup
 PHENOTYPE ENVIRONMENT
  • All non-genetic influences
  • Includes-
      Nutrition
      Management
      Climate
      Weather
      Health
 GENE EXPRESSION AA=
  • Homozygous Dominant
 GENE EXPRESSION Aa=
  • Heterozygous
 GENE EXPRESSION aa=
  • Homozygous Recessive
 DOMINANT ALLELE
  • Overpowers expression of recessive allele
 RECESSIVE ALLELE
  • Expresses only when homozygous
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