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EXAM 3 (nervous system) - Flashcards

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Class:ANA 209 - PRIN HUMAN ANATOMY
Subject:Anatomy
University:University of Kentucky
Term:Fall 2011
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Central Nervous System/ Peripheral Nervous System found with the components of the axial skeleton.
2 parts: brain & spinal chord


CNS is connected to the periphery of the body by cranial and spinal nerves (nervous system outside of brain and spinal chord like sensory division and motor division)
Motor Division of PNS Cranial Nerve
   Somatic fibers connecting brain to the skin and skeletal muscle fibers
   Autonomic fibers connecting the brain to viscera

Spinal Nerve
   Somatic fibers connecting spinal cord to skin&skeletal muscle fibers
   autonomic fibers connecting spinal cord to viscera
Autonomic Nervous System part of PNS, controls gland secretion and smooth/cardiac muscle contraction
nerve cell bodies are found in CNS
     sympathetic (thoracolumbar)
     parasympathetic (cranio-sacral)

functions of Nervous System sensory 
    internal and external monitoring of changes in heat, touch, CO2, light
integrative
    perception, memory, thought, intelligence, coordinate and control           body activities

motor -> from CNS ->PNS->effector (ie muscles and glands)
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neuron structural and functional unit of the nervous system

no regeneration (all formed before birth)

forms new and remodels old connections, continuously synthesizing new proteins and other molecules


neuroglial cells supporting cells of the neuron that act as physiological environment controllers as well as the ct

forms scar tissues after injury

secretes nruotrophic factors


neurotransmitters chemicals that allows communication between neuron cells.
they stimulate muscle or other nerve cells
neurotrophic factors molecules that neurons take up from surrounding neurons or supporting cells
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cell body the soma. exhibits nucleus and numerous organelles.
axon carries impulses away from cell body to target organ
single, small diameter process that can extend great distances
contains lots of neurofilaments 
dendrite brings impulses into the cell body
referred to dendritic arborization
studded with small bumps- dendritic spines- sites of axo-dentritic synapses
nissel substance membranous sacs of rER, found on the cell body
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axon hillock entry way into the axon. acts as a tunnel for cytoskeletal elements entering the axon, keeping nissel substance out.

NISSEL SUBSTANCE IS FOUND IN TEH DENDRITES, NOT THE AXOn
golgi apparatus site of membrane recycling
large and well developed
produces synaptic vesicles
cytoskeletal elements neurofibrils, neurofilaments (intermediatefilaments found in neurons), neurotubules (microtubules)

axon collaterals axon branches
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synapses meeting point between a neuron and any other cell
bilpolar neurons found in organs of special sense- olfactory epithelium (nose-smell) and retina of the eye (sight)
each nerve cell body has 2 processes at opposite ends of the cell. one axon and one dendrite 

so one cell body with dentrites and axons on both sides (2 total)
multipolar neurons large star shaped cells, characteristic of motor neurons
one axon branching many dendrites
pseudounipolar neurons originally a bipolar but the processes fused, to form one single process.
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sensory neurons in the PNS (dorsal root/spinal) ganglia. take sensory stimuli from the periphery in to the CNS (brain or spinal chord)
interneurons mulitpolar in morphology and relay the sensory message either up or down the spinal cord for interpretation
motor neuron also multipolar and take the action message from the NCS to the effector organ (muscles/glands)+

myelin electric insulator and increases the velocity of impulse conduction along the axon
involves the wrapping of the supporting cell around the neuronal process
in CNS, myelin is formed by the oligodendrocyte
in PNS, myelin is formed by the Schwann cell
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nodes of ranvier interruption (gaps) of the myelin sheath at intervals along the length of the axon

internode portion of the process, between nodes of ranvier, myelinated by a schwann cell or an oligodendrocyte
schwann cell myelnation in pns 
supporting cell that wraps around the neuronal process (axon)
during the wrapping, the cell cell squeezes the cytoplasm out of the 'wrap' leaving only concentric layers of empty cell membrane, the myelin sheath
oligodendrocyte type of neuroglial cells
responsible of myelination in cns


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astrocytes neuroglial cell type
structural support between capillaries and neurons
forms blood-brain barrier
monitors and controls extracellular environment in the CNS

microglia type of neuroglial cell
phagocytose pathogens and cellulra debris
protective cells doing the job of macropahages in the PNS

ependymal cells type of neuroglial cells
columnar like cells that line the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord
associated with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Dura Mater (CNS1) outermost and toughest CT membrane
double layered
1)periosteal: attached to bone of skull (trauma may cause bleeding between bone and dura)
2)meningeal layer: separates to form the walls of the dural sinus and rejoin to form a dural fold.
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epidural hemotoma associates with middle artery, most severe
middle meningeal artery supplies blood to the meninges and calvaria
arachnoid mater (CN2) delicate, non-vascular layer between the dura mater and pia mater.
SUBARACHNOID SPACE: filled with CSF
ARACHNOID GRANULATIONS: arachnoid into a dural sinus. they are commonly found inserting into the superior sagittal sinus

subdural hematoma bridging vein 
pia mater (CN3) very delicate, highly vascularized layer that is intimately applied right on the surface of the brain and spinal cord. it moves in the groves.

connected to arachnoid by the web-like trabeculae
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ventricular system filled with CSF

has the choroid plexus (responsible for secreting CSF)

CSF is constantly screted within the ventricles, escapes into the surrounding subarachnoid space and central canal of the spinal cord, and then leaks into the dual venous sinuses (arachnoid granulations)

flow of CSF front to back.
lateral (1st and 2nd), interventricular foramen, 3rd,cerebral aqueduct, 4th (like a triangle)

after 4th, it goes into the left, right, and median apertures and CSF continues into the central canal of the spinal cord
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
secreted by the choroid plexus (specialized tufts of pia mater)
the  majority of choroid plexus is located in the lateral ventricles, but smaller amounts are found in the 3rd and 4th

(csf that enters the subarchnoid space must also escape from this region via arachnoid granulationswhich alloows it to enter the venous dural sinus system ofthe skaull and be eventually filtered from the body in the urine)
functions of CSF supports structures and prevents brain from curshing spinal cord
fluid buffer (shock absorber)
pathway for wastes
diffusion medium for nutrients/drugs

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venous sinus formed by periosteal layer of the dural on top, and two meningeal dural coming together forming a dural fold. 

(dural folds are designed to separate and support eh various lobes of the brain)
dural folds FALX CEREBRI- separates right and left of brain hemi
TENTORIUM INCISURE- opening, not fold
TENTORIUM CEREBILLI- tents cerebellum
FALX CEREBELLI- separates right and left cerebellum hemis
venous sinuses in the brain superior sagittal sinus- CSF&Blood found, only place where he CFS gets deposited. located in the superior border of falx cerebri (between periosteal and mningeal dura)
interior sagittal sinus- formed by menigeal layers only
straight sinus- formed by meningeal layers only (at the junction of the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli)
confluens of sinuses(located on the internal occipital protuberance)
transverse sinus- (between periosteal and meningeal dura)
sigmoid sinus- S shape right/lft
internal jugular vein- recieves blood from sigmoid sinus
cavernous sinuses located on either side of the body of the sphenoid bone
blood drains from the c.s back to either the end of the sigmoid sinus OR to the end of the transverse sinus
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blood supply to the brain vertebral arteries
internal carotid artieries
arterial circle of Willis circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain

anterior cerbral,  (anterior communicating)
Middle cerebral.  Internal carotid
(posterior communicating) 
posterior cerbral
basilar
cerebrum sensory and motor functions
higher memory, reasoning
largest part of brain
initiation of volunatary movemens
personality

divided into lobes
brain stem visceral activities, internal connections

Midbrain- visual/audio reflex
Pon-communications between cerebrum and cerebellum
medulla-cardiac and respitory centers, crossing of the pyramids
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cerebellum coordination of vuluntary movements

under tentorium cerebelli (keeps derebrum from crushing cerebellum)

3 main functions:
maintains posture and balance
maintinas muscle tone
coordinates voluntary muscle actirivy
gyrus bumps on the brain; surface area is increased (like when flattened out) on cerbral
sulcus grooves on brain;  surface area is increased (like when flattened out) on cerbral 
gray matter/ white matter
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nuclei collections of neuronal cell bodies within the CNS
ganglia collections of neuronal cell bodies outside the CNS
corpus callosum thick band of fiber tracts that connect the righ and left cerebral hemis


fiber tracts 3 types:
1. association tracts: connets neurons in the same area
2. commissural tracts: connects neurons in one cerebral hemis with neurons in the contralateral (opposite) hemis
3. projections: transmits impulses from cerebrum to other areas of the brain and spinal chord
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lobes of the cerbrum frontal lobe : voluntary motor control
parietal lobe: primary somatosensory cortex
temporal lobe: primary auditory cortex
occipital lobe: primary visual cortex
insular lobe: recieves sensory input/involved with emotions relating to sensory input INSIDE
frontal lobe voluntary control of skeletal muscle
personality
higher intellectual processes
parietal lobe cutaneous and muscular sensations
understanding speech
forming words to express
temporal lobe interpretations of auditory
storing memory auditory and visual experieces
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occipital lobe integrates movement in focusing eye
conscious perception of vision
thalmus 3rd ventricle
recieves almost all incoming sensory info
hypothalmus hypo=below

regulates hormonal secretions
thermoregulation
autonomic effects (fight or flight_
food and water intake
primary motor cortex (MOTOR) frontal lobe contains large pyramidal neruons
controls skilled, voluntary movenets of the limb and trunk
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premotor cortex (MOTOR)frontal lobe preplanning for movenents
broca's area (MOTOR)frontal lobe coordinates tongue, lips, larynx
involuved in ability to preplan all movements then send them back to primary and premotor cortex

prefrontal cortex (MOTOR)frontal lobe front of cerebrum
controls voluntary movements of eye
damage causes loss of avility to look towards an object
primary somatosensory cortex (SENSORY)parietal lobe located along postcentral gyrus  of parietal 
awareness of general somatic senses. pain, touch

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somatosensory association area (SENSORY)parietal lobe located in the parietal lobe
different sensory inputs into a comprehensive evaluatino of what is being felt

primary visual cortex (VISUAL)occipital damage here reults in functional blindness
visual association area (VISUAL)occipital damage here results in the iabilty to understand what you are seeing
primary auditory cortex (AUDITORY)temporal auditory info interpreted here like loudness, rhythm, pitch
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auditory association area (AUDITORY)temporal interpretatin of sounds like bang, thunder, scream
wernick's area responsible for recognizing spoken words
gustatory cortex (taste) conscious awareness of taste stimuli
olfactory cortex primary olfactory cortex recieves olfactory stiumli from CN1
resposible for the conscious awareness of smell
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spinal cord beings at the medulla, ends between 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae.
has 3 meninges as the brain (dura, pia, arachoid)
31 segments (8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal)

conus medullaris spinal cord terminates at tapering end at l1/l2


filum terminale extension of pia mater coming off the end of the spinal cord and anchoring the cord to the coccyx
cauda equina below l2, down through the dural shealth (horse's tail)
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 Central Nervous System/ Peripheral Nervous Systemfound with the components of the axial skeleton.
2 parts: brain & spinal chord


CNS is connected to the periphery of the body by cranial and spinal nerves (nervous system outside of brain and spinal chord like sensory division and motor division)
 Motor Division of PNSCranial Nerve
   Somatic fibers connecting brain to the skin and skeletal muscle fibers
   Autonomic fibers connecting the brain to viscera

Spinal Nerve
   Somatic fibers connecting spinal cord to skin&skeletal muscle fibers
   autonomic fibers connecting spinal cord to viscera
 Autonomic Nervous Systempart of PNS, controls gland secretion and smooth/cardiac muscle contraction
nerve cell bodies are found in CNS
     sympathetic (thoracolumbar)
     parasympathetic (cranio-sacral)

 functions of Nervous Systemsensory 
    internal and external monitoring of changes in heat, touch, CO2, light
integrative
    perception, memory, thought, intelligence, coordinate and control           body activities

motor -> from CNS ->PNS->effector (ie muscles and glands)
 neuronstructural and functional unit of the nervous system

no regeneration (all formed before birth)

forms new and remodels old connections, continuously synthesizing new proteins and other molecules


 neuroglial cellssupporting cells of the neuron that act as physiological environment controllers as well as the ct

forms scar tissues after injury

secretes nruotrophic factors


 neurotransmitterschemicals that allows communication between neuron cells.
they stimulate muscle or other nerve cells
 neurotrophic factorsmolecules that neurons take up from surrounding neurons or supporting cells
 cell bodythe soma. exhibits nucleus and numerous organelles.
 axoncarries impulses away from cell body to target organ
single, small diameter process that can extend great distances
contains lots of neurofilaments 
 dendritebrings impulses into the cell body
referred to dendritic arborization
studded with small bumps- dendritic spines- sites of axo-dentritic synapses
 nissel substancemembranous sacs of rER, found on the cell body
 axon hillockentry way into the axon. acts as a tunnel for cytoskeletal elements entering the axon, keeping nissel substance out.

NISSEL SUBSTANCE IS FOUND IN TEH DENDRITES, NOT THE AXOn
 golgi apparatussite of membrane recycling
large and well developed
produces synaptic vesicles
 cytoskeletal elementsneurofibrils, neurofilaments (intermediatefilaments found in neurons), neurotubules (microtubules)

 axon collateralsaxon branches
 synapsesmeeting point between a neuron and any other cell
 bilpolar neuronsfound in organs of special sense- olfactory epithelium (nose-smell) and retina of the eye (sight)
each nerve cell body has 2 processes at opposite ends of the cell. one axon and one dendrite 

so one cell body with dentrites and axons on both sides (2 total)
 multipolar neuronslarge star shaped cells, characteristic of motor neurons
one axon branching many dendrites
 pseudounipolar neuronsoriginally a bipolar but the processes fused, to form one single process.
 sensory neuronsin the PNS (dorsal root/spinal) ganglia. take sensory stimuli from the periphery in to the CNS (brain or spinal chord)
 interneuronsmulitpolar in morphology and relay the sensory message either up or down the spinal cord for interpretation
 motor neuronalso multipolar and take the action message from the NCS to the effector organ (muscles/glands)+

 myelinelectric insulator and increases the velocity of impulse conduction along the axon
involves the wrapping of the supporting cell around the neuronal process
in CNS, myelin is formed by the oligodendrocyte
in PNS, myelin is formed by the Schwann cell
 nodes of ranvierinterruption (gaps) of the myelin sheath at intervals along the length of the axon

 internodeportion of the process, between nodes of ranvier, myelinated by a schwann cell or an oligodendrocyte
 schwann cellmyelnation in pns 
supporting cell that wraps around the neuronal process (axon)
during the wrapping, the cell cell squeezes the cytoplasm out of the 'wrap' leaving only concentric layers of empty cell membrane, the myelin sheath
 oligodendrocytetype of neuroglial cells
responsible of myelination in cns


 astrocytesneuroglial cell type
structural support between capillaries and neurons
forms blood-brain barrier
monitors and controls extracellular environment in the CNS

 microgliatype of neuroglial cell
phagocytose pathogens and cellulra debris
protective cells doing the job of macropahages in the PNS

 ependymal cellstype of neuroglial cells
columnar like cells that line the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord
associated with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
 Dura Mater (CNS1)outermost and toughest CT membrane
double layered
1)periosteal: attached to bone of skull (trauma may cause bleeding between bone and dura)
2)meningeal layer: separates to form the walls of the dural sinus and rejoin to form a dural fold.
 epidural hemotomaassociates with middle artery, most severe
middle meningeal artery supplies blood to the meninges and calvaria
 arachnoid mater (CN2)delicate, non-vascular layer between the dura mater and pia mater.
SUBARACHNOID SPACE: filled with CSF
ARACHNOID GRANULATIONS: arachnoid into a dural sinus. they are commonly found inserting into the superior sagittal sinus

 subdural hematomabridging vein 
 pia mater (CN3)very delicate, highly vascularized layer that is intimately applied right on the surface of the brain and spinal cord. it moves in the groves.

connected to arachnoid by the web-like trabeculae
 ventricular systemfilled with CSF

has the choroid plexus (responsible for secreting CSF)

CSF is constantly screted within the ventricles, escapes into the surrounding subarachnoid space and central canal of the spinal cord, and then leaks into the dual venous sinuses (arachnoid granulations)

 flow of CSFfront to back.
lateral (1st and 2nd), interventricular foramen, 3rd,cerebral aqueduct, 4th (like a triangle)

after 4th, it goes into the left, right, and median apertures and CSF continues into the central canal of the spinal cord
 CSFcerebrospinal fluid
secreted by the choroid plexus (specialized tufts of pia mater)
the  majority of choroid plexus is located in the lateral ventricles, but smaller amounts are found in the 3rd and 4th

(csf that enters the subarchnoid space must also escape from this region via arachnoid granulationswhich alloows it to enter the venous dural sinus system ofthe skaull and be eventually filtered from the body in the urine)
 functions of CSFsupports structures and prevents brain from curshing spinal cord
fluid buffer (shock absorber)
pathway for wastes
diffusion medium for nutrients/drugs

 venous sinusformed by periosteal layer of the dural on top, and two meningeal dural coming together forming a dural fold. 

(dural folds are designed to separate and support eh various lobes of the brain)
 dural foldsFALX CEREBRI- separates right and left of brain hemi
TENTORIUM INCISURE- opening, not fold
TENTORIUM CEREBILLI- tents cerebellum
FALX CEREBELLI- separates right and left cerebellum hemis
 venous sinuses in the brainsuperior sagittal sinus- CSF&Blood found, only place where he CFS gets deposited. located in the superior border of falx cerebri (between periosteal and mningeal dura)
interior sagittal sinus- formed by menigeal layers only
straight sinus- formed by meningeal layers only (at the junction of the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli)
confluens of sinuses(located on the internal occipital protuberance)
transverse sinus- (between periosteal and meningeal dura)
sigmoid sinus- S shape right/lft
internal jugular vein- recieves blood from sigmoid sinus
 cavernous sinuseslocated on either side of the body of the sphenoid bone
blood drains from the c.s back to either the end of the sigmoid sinus OR to the end of the transverse sinus
 blood supply to the brainvertebral arteries
internal carotid artieries
 arterial circle of Williscircle of arteries that supply blood to the brain

anterior cerbral,  (anterior communicating)
Middle cerebral.  Internal carotid
(posterior communicating) 
posterior cerbral
basilar
 cerebrumsensory and motor functions
higher memory, reasoning
largest part of brain
initiation of volunatary movemens
personality

divided into lobes
 brain stemvisceral activities, internal connections

Midbrain- visual/audio reflex
Pon-communications between cerebrum and cerebellum
medulla-cardiac and respitory centers, crossing of the pyramids
 cerebellumcoordination of vuluntary movements

under tentorium cerebelli (keeps derebrum from crushing cerebellum)

3 main functions:
maintains posture and balance
maintinas muscle tone
coordinates voluntary muscle actirivy
 gyrusbumps on the brain; surface area is increased (like when flattened out) on cerbral
 sulcusgrooves on brain;  surface area is increased (like when flattened out) on cerbral 
 gray matter/ white matter
 nucleicollections of neuronal cell bodies within the CNS
 gangliacollections of neuronal cell bodies outside the CNS
 corpus callosumthick band of fiber tracts that connect the righ and left cerebral hemis


 fiber tracts3 types:
1. association tracts: connets neurons in the same area
2. commissural tracts: connects neurons in one cerebral hemis with neurons in the contralateral (opposite) hemis
3. projections: transmits impulses from cerebrum to other areas of the brain and spinal chord
 lobes of the cerbrumfrontal lobe : voluntary motor control
parietal lobe: primary somatosensory cortex
temporal lobe: primary auditory cortex
occipital lobe: primary visual cortex
insular lobe: recieves sensory input/involved with emotions relating to sensory input INSIDE
 frontal lobevoluntary control of skeletal muscle
personality
higher intellectual processes
 parietal lobecutaneous and muscular sensations
understanding speech
forming words to express
 temporal lobeinterpretations of auditory
storing memory auditory and visual experieces
 occipital lobeintegrates movement in focusing eye
conscious perception of vision
 thalmus3rd ventricle
recieves almost all incoming sensory info
 hypothalmushypo=below

regulates hormonal secretions
thermoregulation
autonomic effects (fight or flight_
food and water intake
 primary motor cortex (MOTOR) frontal lobecontains large pyramidal neruons
controls skilled, voluntary movenets of the limb and trunk
 premotor cortex (MOTOR)frontal lobepreplanning for movenents
 broca's area (MOTOR)frontal lobecoordinates tongue, lips, larynx
involuved in ability to preplan all movements then send them back to primary and premotor cortex

 prefrontal cortex (MOTOR)frontal lobefront of cerebrum
controls voluntary movements of eye
damage causes loss of avility to look towards an object
 primary somatosensory cortex (SENSORY)parietal lobelocated along postcentral gyrus  of parietal 
awareness of general somatic senses. pain, touch

 somatosensory association area (SENSORY)parietal lobelocated in the parietal lobe
different sensory inputs into a comprehensive evaluatino of what is being felt

 primary visual cortex (VISUAL)occipitaldamage here reults in functional blindness
 visual association area (VISUAL)occipitaldamage here results in the iabilty to understand what you are seeing
 primary auditory cortex (AUDITORY)temporalauditory info interpreted here like loudness, rhythm, pitch
 auditory association area (AUDITORY)temporalinterpretatin of sounds like bang, thunder, scream
 wernick's arearesponsible for recognizing spoken words
 gustatory cortex (taste)conscious awareness of taste stimuli
 olfactory cortexprimary olfactory cortex recieves olfactory stiumli from CN1
resposible for the conscious awareness of smell
 spinal cordbeings at the medulla, ends between 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae.
has 3 meninges as the brain (dura, pia, arachoid)
31 segments (8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal)

 conus medullarisspinal cord terminates at tapering end at l1/l2


 filum terminaleextension of pia mater coming off the end of the spinal cord and anchoring the cord to the coccyx
 cauda equinabelow l2, down through the dural shealth (horse's tail)
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