Koofers

Midterm 1 - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:ANS 002 - Intro Animal Sci
Subject:Animal Science
University:University of California - Davis
Term:Spring 2013
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
Livestock provide Livestock provide route out of poverty trap, milk, eggs, hides, meat, high-quality nutrition, fuel, power, fertilizer, economic vitality in rural communities. 
Tinberger's 4 Questions Proximate: WHY? 
What causes the behavior? 
How does the behavior develop within the lifespan? 
Ultimate: HOW? 
What is the function of the behavior? 
How does the behavior develop over generations
Hormones pathway male Reproduction GnRH--> LH/FSH--->testis-----> produce testosterone and sperm 
Continuous Sampling count behavior per unit of time 
number of vocalizations/ 10 sec
Generated by Koofers.com
Instantaneous Sampling Take a snap shot to estimate the percent  time spent engaged in behavior
hoof off ground

Animal Welfare Components Biological Function, feelings, naturalness 
Tail Docking Results No difference in cleanliness
No difference in mastitis 
Pain Relief also did not affect: 
other aspects of tail movement, resting or feeding behavior, milk production indicating that the procedure is not very painful
More flies on back legs
Still try to remove flies with stump

Naturalness and Feelings in Regards to Chickens Cages restrict behaviors that hens are highly motivated to preform such as dust bathing, nesting, and perching 

Health: ectoparasites, feather cover, feather pecking, osteoporosis
Osteoporosis because of utilization of calcium for eggshell
Generated by Koofers.com
Male Anatomy Penis 
Penile Urethra 
Testis 
Epididymis 
Ampullary Gland 
Vesicular Gland 
Prostate
Bulbourethral Gland 

Bull Anatomy Rectum                         Ureter 
Seminal Vesicle           Urinary Bladder 
Cowper's Gland              Pelvic Bone 
Prostate Gland                Sigmoid Flexure 
Ishio Cavernous Muscle    Penis 
Retractor Penis Muscle     Testes
Vas Deferens                      Scrotum Ma
Epididymis 
Boar Anatomy Vesicular Gland                   Scrotum 
Glandular part of Vas Deferens    Penis 
Prostate Gland     Ureter
Rectum                   Urinary Bladder
Bulbourethral Gland    Vas Deferenes 
Bulbospongiosus       Sigmoid Flexure
Ischiocavernousus Muscle   Prepuital Diverticulum 
Retractor Penis Muscle 
Epididymis 
Testis 
Cock Anatomy testicles
kidneys 
vas deferens 
ureters 
cloaca 
Generated by Koofers.com
Testicular Anatomy Spermatic Cord 
Testicular veins 
testicular artery 
epididymis 
seminiferous tubules 

Male Hormonal Pathway Hypothalmus stimulates GnRH secretion. GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary stimulates FSH and LH secretion. FSH stimulates sertoli cells which stimulates spermatogenesis. LH stimulates Leydig cells which in turn stimulate testosterone secretion. Testosterone has various target tissues and is responsible for sex drive, protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, bone growth in adolescents. It also maintains accessory reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics. 
GnRH gonadotropin releasing hormone: a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. 
FSH Follicle stimulating hormone; induces growth of follicles in ovary in females and stimulates sertoli cells in testis 
Generated by Koofers.com
LH luteinizing hormone: in females stimulates estrogen production in ovary and ovulation; in males stimulates testosterone production by leydig cells or interstitial cells in the testis 
Spermatogenesis -the process of differentiation from a diploid spermatogonium (stem cell) to a haploid spermatogonium (germ cell)
-the hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis is a process tightly regulated in a negative feedback system where the end product down regulates the original stimulus
-takes place in the seminiferous tubules 
involves mitotic and meiotic divisions and morphological transformations 
-spermatozoa move on to the epididymis a large maturation and storage structure. It is a continuous process. 
Male Reproduction Affects growth, body composition, behavior 
Testicles testosterone production (interstitial cells)
Spermatozoa Production 
Generated by Koofers.com
Epididymis concentration, storage, maturation, and transportation of sperm
Scrotum support of testicles and temperature control 
Vas Deferens Sperm Transport
Accessory Glands Addition of fluid, nutrients and buffers to semen

Generated by Koofers.com
Penis Copulatory organ 
Polyestrous Cow
Seasonally Polyestrous Goat, sheep 
Monoestrous Dog
Generated by Koofers.com
Reflex Ovulator cat
Ovulation Process A follicle develops to full size and then ruptures allowing the egg to escape. The follicle then becomes a corpus luteum. The CL degenerates in time and disappears. Many follicles cease development, stop growing, and disappear without ever reaching the mature stage. When the follicle ruptures the egg will move to the oviduct by anatomical action of the infiundibulum. 
Theca Cells respond to LH and produce androgens
Granulosa Cells respond to FSH and produce Estradiol 

after ovulation form CL and produce Progesterone 
Generated by Koofers.com
Parturition pathway triggered by release of cortisol by the fetus 
results in increased release of estrogen by placenta
estrogen causes uterus to begin contracting 
uterus releases PGF-2a (prostaglandins) which causes regression of the CL and a drop in progesterone levels 
progesterone inhibits contraction of the uterine muscles the drop stimulates contractions 
Exocrine Gland Secretes to outside of body 
Mammary glands are developmentally related to salivary glands and sudoferous glands
First Stage of Mammary Gland Development Puberty 
ductal elongation prompted by estrogen and IGF-I 
minimal alveolar development (progesterone) 

Second Stage of Mammary Gland Development lactogenesis- during pregnancy 
ductal and alveolar growth (progesterone) 
late pregnancy lactogenesis or milk production and secretion initiated  

Generated by Koofers.com
Third Stage of Mammary Gland Development Galactopoiesis meaning lactation 
Fourth Stage of Mammary Gland Development involution at end of lactation 
regression of mammary gland to pre pregnancy state 
Milk Composition Variables Breed 
Stage of lactation: colostrum vs milk, early vs mid vs late lactation
parity of dam
type of feed 
age of young: newborn vs young at foot in kangaroos

Colostrum First milk after parturition 
high protein content 
high maternal antibody content 
important for passive immunity 
neonatal gastrointestinal tract epithelium porous to large molecules immediately after birth 
not true for all mammals ie rabbit 
Generated by Koofers.com
Mammary Gland Anatomy development true secretory alveoli only develop under hormonal control during pregnancy 


Increasing Estrogen affects mammary glands by duct and cistern development 
Increasing progesterone affects mammary glands by alveoli growth 
Mammogenesis Mammary gland development 
Generated by Koofers.com
Lactogenesis induction of lactation 
galactopoiesis maintenance of lactation 
Regulation of parturition in sheep Fetal ACTH increase---->fetal cortisol increases----> estradiol increases and progesterone decreases----> promotes uterine contractility-----> increase in PGF2alpha----->lysis of CL and release of oxytocin 
Hormones in Reproduction Facts tightly controlled by feedback systems
various mechanisms involved: stimulation of hormone secretion, effects on receptors 
Generated by Koofers.com
Negative and Positive Feedback systems Positive is much more rare( eg blood coagulation) 
Negative Feedback uses the product of a process to regulate the initial trigger that set the production process in motion
reason is to have the system operate on controlled levels and not boil over 
Homunculus idea that man is the seed woman is the incubator 
a 1694 depiction by Nicolaus Hartsoeker of what sperm might look like 
Fertilization physical union of male and female gametes, of sperm and ova in animal 
Generated by Koofers.com
Embryonic Stage from fertilization until essential organs are formed 
Fetal stage End of embryonic stage until parturition 
Compaction Gives the embryo an outside and an inside resulting in the accumulation of fluid inside the embryo which signals formation of the blastocyst 
Blastocyst Stage first time two distinctive tissues are present. A hollow sphere of trophoblast cells inside of which is a small cluster of cells called inner cell mass 
Generated by Koofers.com
Hatching the blastocyst escapes the zona pellucida resulting in a zona free or ___ blastocyst lying in the lumen of the uterus 
Blastocyst A hallow sphere of cells composed of two layers the trophoblast with a clump of cells inside (the ICM or inner cell mass) 
Blastocoele Fluid filled interior of the blastocyst 
ICM contains the cells that will become the individual 
Generated by Koofers.com
Trophoblast cells form the extraembryonic membranes
Extra Embryonic Membranes
Detecting pregnancy in primates blastocysts of primates secrete large quantities of chronic gonadotropin CG which is very similar to LH. CG binds to LH receptors in the CL and stimulates continued secretion of progesterone 
Detecting Pregnancy in Ruminants  CL regresses at the end of the nonpregnant cycle as a result of secretion by the endometrium of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF). The day 16 bovine embryo secretes copious quantities of a protein called interferon tau which dampens the secretion of PGF thereby blocking the signal for luteolysis. Sheep conceptuses secrete ovine trophoblast protein between days 10 and 21 of gestation that inhibits uterine production of prostaglandin (PG) and (PGF)
Generated by Koofers.com
Detecting Pregnancy in Pigs the release of estradiol between days 11 and 12 that blocks PGF. It requires a minimum of 3 or 4 embryos to secrete sufficient estradiol to allow establishment of pregnancy 
Detecting Pregnancy in dogs following ovulation the pattern of progesterone secretion whether the female is pregnant or not thus they do not need a mechanism for recognition of pregnancy. 
Gestation Length Cow 285 Days
Gestation Length Ewe 147 Days
Generated by Koofers.com
Gestation Length Mare 336 Days 
Gestation Length Sow 114 Days 
Gestation Length Doe 150 Days 
Gestation Length Bitch 65 Days 
Generated by Koofers.com
Gestation Length Rabbit 31 days 
Gestation Length Mouse 21 Days 
Reproductive Tools AI 
Embryo Transplant 
Estrus Synchronization 
Cytopreservation
In Vitro Fertilization 
IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection 

Reproductive Tools for Males AI  which depends on semen collection and cytoperservation 

Generated by Koofers.com
Common animals to AI broad-breasted turkeys, dairy cattle, pigs, horses 
sometimes used in sheep, goats, dogs, beef cattle 
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection In Vitro Fertilization 
for infertility 
preservation of genetics 

Controversy with Intracytoplasmic sperm injection embryonic stem cells 
papal condemnation by benedict XVI 
Scientific ethics 
Reproductive Tools Females Estrous Synchronization 
Super ovulation 
Embryo Transfer
Induced Abortion 
Contraception 
Generated by Koofers.com
Estrous Synchronization- Ruminants Melengestrol Acetate-MGA progesterone like chemical orally administered 
CIDRs-controlled internal drug release 
10% progesterone by weight intravaginal release 
PGF2a 
GnRH+ PGF2a
Estrus Synchronization-Pigs PG600-pregnant mare serum gonadotropin( PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin HCG 
induces a fertile heat in gilts and sows 
Superovulation- Ruminants artifically induced ovulation of more oocytes than is normal for the species 
cow normally 1 
super ov 4-12
Superovulation-Ruminants Methods 1. IM injection of PMSG followed by a luteolytic dose of PGF2a IM two to three days later. A second prostaglandin injection is often given 12-2 hours after the first and improves embryo production

2.8-10 injections of FSH IM at half day intervals. PGF2a is given 48-72 hours after initiation of treatment with the 5/6/7 FSH injection.  The most common FSH regimen is 6644222 and 2 mg and half day intervals with PGF2a given with the 6th or 7th FSH injection. 
Generated by Koofers.com
Induced Abortion PGF2a causes CL breakdown 

Dopamine agonists cause decline of prolactin in dogs which maintains pregnancy 
Seasonal Control of Reproduction in Birds may be controlled by photoperiodism employing: 
an extra-pineal center fo melatonin production 
possibly involves regulation of GnRH 
other factors-food, temp, mate, nest box availability
Ovulation in Birds Avascular area is stigma 
ovulation results from LH induced enzymatic ovulase digestion of stigma
smooth muscles in theca externa contract 
granulosa cells remain metabolically active for 24-48 hours producing progesterone and prostaglandins (nest seeking, oviposition)
Maturation of follicle signaled by progesterone output of F1 Follicle 
Generated by Koofers.com
Affects of Daylight increasing on Chickens male testes mass increases 
spike in FSH 
LH stays constant 
negative feedback on FSH by inhibition 
Ultimate The expression of physiological traits 
offspring survival, maternal fitness, number of offspring 
proximate the physiological trait 
hormones, oxytocin, estrogen 
Gratian Follicle most mature tertiary follicle 
Generated by Koofers.com
Parenchyma vs Ductal Tissue Glandular 

develop under progesterone 

Lactalbumin increases milk production. if you knock it out you end lacktation 
Antrum What makes a secondary follicle 
fluid filled cavity 
Granulosa Cells FSH and produce estradiol 
after ovulation form CL and produce progesterone 
Generated by Koofers.com
Cortical Granuales Release proteins that react and prevent other sperm from getting through 
Isthmus Puts on layers in eggs 
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 98 Print
 
Front
Back
 Livestock provideLivestock provide route out of poverty trap, milk, eggs, hides, meat, high-quality nutrition, fuel, power, fertilizer, economic vitality in rural communities. 
 Tinberger's 4 QuestionsProximate: WHY? 
What causes the behavior? 
How does the behavior develop within the lifespan? 
Ultimate: HOW? 
What is the function of the behavior? 
How does the behavior develop over generations
 Hormones pathway male ReproductionGnRH--> LH/FSH--->testis-----> produce testosterone and sperm 
 Continuous Samplingcount behavior per unit of time 
number of vocalizations/ 10 sec
 Instantaneous SamplingTake a snap shot to estimate the percent  time spent engaged in behavior
hoof off ground

 Animal Welfare ComponentsBiological Function, feelings, naturalness 
 Tail Docking ResultsNo difference in cleanliness
No difference in mastitis 
Pain Relief also did not affect: 
other aspects of tail movement, resting or feeding behavior, milk production indicating that the procedure is not very painful
More flies on back legs
Still try to remove flies with stump

 Naturalness and Feelings in Regards to ChickensCages restrict behaviors that hens are highly motivated to preform such as dust bathing, nesting, and perching 

Health: ectoparasites, feather cover, feather pecking, osteoporosis
Osteoporosis because of utilization of calcium for eggshell
 Male AnatomyPenis 
Penile Urethra 
Testis 
Epididymis 
Ampullary Gland 
Vesicular Gland 
Prostate
Bulbourethral Gland 

 Bull AnatomyRectum                         Ureter 
Seminal Vesicle           Urinary Bladder 
Cowper's Gland              Pelvic Bone 
Prostate Gland                Sigmoid Flexure 
Ishio Cavernous Muscle    Penis 
Retractor Penis Muscle     Testes
Vas Deferens                      Scrotum Ma
Epididymis 
 Boar AnatomyVesicular Gland                   Scrotum 
Glandular part of Vas Deferens    Penis 
Prostate Gland     Ureter
Rectum                   Urinary Bladder
Bulbourethral Gland    Vas Deferenes 
Bulbospongiosus       Sigmoid Flexure
Ischiocavernousus Muscle   Prepuital Diverticulum 
Retractor Penis Muscle 
Epididymis 
Testis 
 Cock Anatomytesticles
kidneys 
vas deferens 
ureters 
cloaca 
 Testicular AnatomySpermatic Cord 
Testicular veins 
testicular artery 
epididymis 
seminiferous tubules 

 Male Hormonal PathwayHypothalmus stimulates GnRH secretion. GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary stimulates FSH and LH secretion. FSH stimulates sertoli cells which stimulates spermatogenesis. LH stimulates Leydig cells which in turn stimulate testosterone secretion. Testosterone has various target tissues and is responsible for sex drive, protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, bone growth in adolescents. It also maintains accessory reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics. 
 GnRHgonadotropin releasing hormone: a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. 
 FSHFollicle stimulating hormone; induces growth of follicles in ovary in females and stimulates sertoli cells in testis 
 LHluteinizing hormone: in females stimulates estrogen production in ovary and ovulation; in males stimulates testosterone production by leydig cells or interstitial cells in the testis 
 Spermatogenesis-the process of differentiation from a diploid spermatogonium (stem cell) to a haploid spermatogonium (germ cell)
-the hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis is a process tightly regulated in a negative feedback system where the end product down regulates the original stimulus
-takes place in the seminiferous tubules 
involves mitotic and meiotic divisions and morphological transformations 
-spermatozoa move on to the epididymis a large maturation and storage structure. It is a continuous process. 
 Male Reproduction Affectsgrowth, body composition, behavior 
 Testiclestestosterone production (interstitial cells)
Spermatozoa Production 
 Epididymisconcentration, storage, maturation, and transportation of sperm
 Scrotumsupport of testicles and temperature control 
 Vas DeferensSperm Transport
 Accessory GlandsAddition of fluid, nutrients and buffers to semen

 PenisCopulatory organ 
 PolyestrousCow
 Seasonally PolyestrousGoat, sheep 
 MonoestrousDog
 Reflex Ovulatorcat
 Ovulation ProcessA follicle develops to full size and then ruptures allowing the egg to escape. The follicle then becomes a corpus luteum. The CL degenerates in time and disappears. Many follicles cease development, stop growing, and disappear without ever reaching the mature stage. When the follicle ruptures the egg will move to the oviduct by anatomical action of the infiundibulum. 
 Theca Cellsrespond to LH and produce androgens
 Granulosa Cellsrespond to FSH and produce Estradiol 

after ovulation form CL and produce Progesterone 
 Parturition pathwaytriggered by release of cortisol by the fetus 
results in increased release of estrogen by placenta
estrogen causes uterus to begin contracting 
uterus releases PGF-2a (prostaglandins) which causes regression of the CL and a drop in progesterone levels 
progesterone inhibits contraction of the uterine muscles the drop stimulates contractions 
 Exocrine GlandSecretes to outside of body 
Mammary glands are developmentally related to salivary glands and sudoferous glands
 First Stage of Mammary Gland DevelopmentPuberty 
ductal elongation prompted by estrogen and IGF-I 
minimal alveolar development (progesterone) 

 Second Stage of Mammary Gland Developmentlactogenesis- during pregnancy 
ductal and alveolar growth (progesterone) 
late pregnancy lactogenesis or milk production and secretion initiated  

 Third Stage of Mammary Gland DevelopmentGalactopoiesis meaning lactation 
 Fourth Stage of Mammary Gland Developmentinvolution at end of lactation 
regression of mammary gland to pre pregnancy state 
 Milk Composition VariablesBreed 
Stage of lactation: colostrum vs milk, early vs mid vs late lactation
parity of dam
type of feed 
age of young: newborn vs young at foot in kangaroos

 ColostrumFirst milk after parturition 
high protein content 
high maternal antibody content 
important for passive immunity 
neonatal gastrointestinal tract epithelium porous to large molecules immediately after birth 
not true for all mammals ie rabbit 
 Mammary Gland Anatomy developmenttrue secretory alveoli only develop under hormonal control during pregnancy 


 Increasing Estrogen affects mammary glands byduct and cistern development 
 Increasing progesterone affects mammary glands byalveoli growth 
 MammogenesisMammary gland development 
 Lactogenesisinduction of lactation 
 galactopoiesismaintenance of lactation 
 Regulation of parturition in sheepFetal ACTH increase---->fetal cortisol increases----> estradiol increases and progesterone decreases----> promotes uterine contractility-----> increase in PGF2alpha----->lysis of CL and release of oxytocin 
 Hormones in Reproduction Factstightly controlled by feedback systems
various mechanisms involved: stimulation of hormone secretion, effects on receptors 
 Negative and Positive Feedback systemsPositive is much more rare( eg blood coagulation) 
 Negative Feedbackuses the product of a process to regulate the initial trigger that set the production process in motion
reason is to have the system operate on controlled levels and not boil over 
 Homunculusidea that man is the seed woman is the incubator 
a 1694 depiction by Nicolaus Hartsoeker of what sperm might look like 
 Fertilizationphysical union of male and female gametes, of sperm and ova in animal 
 Embryonic Stagefrom fertilization until essential organs are formed 
 Fetal stageEnd of embryonic stage until parturition 
 CompactionGives the embryo an outside and an inside resulting in the accumulation of fluid inside the embryo which signals formation of the blastocyst 
 Blastocyst Stagefirst time two distinctive tissues are present. A hollow sphere of trophoblast cells inside of which is a small cluster of cells called inner cell mass 
 Hatchingthe blastocyst escapes the zona pellucida resulting in a zona free or ___ blastocyst lying in the lumen of the uterus 
 BlastocystA hallow sphere of cells composed of two layers the trophoblast with a clump of cells inside (the ICM or inner cell mass) 
 BlastocoeleFluid filled interior of the blastocyst 
 ICMcontains the cells that will become the individual 
 Trophoblast cellsform the extraembryonic membranes
 Extra Embryonic Membranes 
 Detecting pregnancy in primatesblastocysts of primates secrete large quantities of chronic gonadotropin CG which is very similar to LH. CG binds to LH receptors in the CL and stimulates continued secretion of progesterone 
 Detecting Pregnancy in Ruminants CL regresses at the end of the nonpregnant cycle as a result of secretion by the endometrium of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF). The day 16 bovine embryo secretes copious quantities of a protein called interferon tau which dampens the secretion of PGF thereby blocking the signal for luteolysis. Sheep conceptuses secrete ovine trophoblast protein between days 10 and 21 of gestation that inhibits uterine production of prostaglandin (PG) and (PGF)
 Detecting Pregnancy in Pigsthe release of estradiol between days 11 and 12 that blocks PGF. It requires a minimum of 3 or 4 embryos to secrete sufficient estradiol to allow establishment of pregnancy 
 Detecting Pregnancy in dogsfollowing ovulation the pattern of progesterone secretion whether the female is pregnant or not thus they do not need a mechanism for recognition of pregnancy. 
 Gestation Length Cow285 Days
 Gestation Length Ewe147 Days
 Gestation Length Mare336 Days 
 Gestation Length Sow114 Days 
 Gestation Length Doe150 Days 
 Gestation Length Bitch65 Days 
 Gestation Length Rabbit31 days 
 Gestation Length Mouse21 Days 
 Reproductive ToolsAI 
Embryo Transplant 
Estrus Synchronization 
Cytopreservation
In Vitro Fertilization 
IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection 

 Reproductive Tools for MalesAI  which depends on semen collection and cytoperservation 

 Common animals to AIbroad-breasted turkeys, dairy cattle, pigs, horses 
sometimes used in sheep, goats, dogs, beef cattle 
 Intracytoplasmic Sperm InjectionIn Vitro Fertilization 
for infertility 
preservation of genetics 

 Controversy with Intracytoplasmic sperm injectionembryonic stem cells 
papal condemnation by benedict XVI 
Scientific ethics 
 Reproductive Tools FemalesEstrous Synchronization 
Super ovulation 
Embryo Transfer
Induced Abortion 
Contraception 
 Estrous Synchronization- RuminantsMelengestrol Acetate-MGA progesterone like chemical orally administered 
CIDRs-controlled internal drug release 
10% progesterone by weight intravaginal release 
PGF2a 
GnRH+ PGF2a
 Estrus Synchronization-PigsPG600-pregnant mare serum gonadotropin( PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin HCG 
induces a fertile heat in gilts and sows 
 Superovulation- Ruminantsartifically induced ovulation of more oocytes than is normal for the species 
cow normally 1 
super ov 4-12
 Superovulation-Ruminants Methods1. IM injection of PMSG followed by a luteolytic dose of PGF2a IM two to three days later. A second prostaglandin injection is often given 12-2 hours after the first and improves embryo production

2.8-10 injections of FSH IM at half day intervals. PGF2a is given 48-72 hours after initiation of treatment with the 5/6/7 FSH injection.  The most common FSH regimen is 6644222 and 2 mg and half day intervals with PGF2a given with the 6th or 7th FSH injection. 
 Induced AbortionPGF2a causes CL breakdown 

Dopamine agonists cause decline of prolactin in dogs which maintains pregnancy 
 Seasonal Control of Reproduction in Birdsmay be controlled by photoperiodism employing: 
an extra-pineal center fo melatonin production 
possibly involves regulation of GnRH 
other factors-food, temp, mate, nest box availability
 Ovulation in BirdsAvascular area is stigma 
ovulation results from LH induced enzymatic ovulase digestion of stigma
smooth muscles in theca externa contract 
granulosa cells remain metabolically active for 24-48 hours producing progesterone and prostaglandins (nest seeking, oviposition)
 Maturation of folliclesignaled by progesterone output of F1 Follicle 
 Affects of Daylight increasing on Chickensmale testes mass increases 
spike in FSH 
LH stays constant 
negative feedback on FSH by inhibition 
 UltimateThe expression of physiological traits 
offspring survival, maternal fitness, number of offspring 
 proximatethe physiological trait 
hormones, oxytocin, estrogen 
 Gratian Folliclemost mature tertiary follicle 
 Parenchyma vs Ductal TissueGlandular 

develop under progesterone 

 Lactalbuminincreases milk production. if you knock it out you end lacktation 
 AntrumWhat makes a secondary follicle 
fluid filled cavity 
 Granulosa CellsFSH and produce estradiol 
after ovulation form CL and produce progesterone 
 Cortical GranualesRelease proteins that react and prevent other sperm from getting through 
 IsthmusPuts on layers in eggs 
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"