Koofers

Midterm 2 - Flashcards

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Class:ANS 002 - Intro Animal Sci
Subject:Animal Science
University:University of California - Davis
Term:Spring 2013
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Immune system purpose protect from pathogens
bacteria
viruses 
fungus 
parasites 
Immune system How? physical barriers 
skin
mucus
chemical 
enzymes 
complex and targeted cellular mechanisms 
Bone Marrow macrophages
dendritic cell
t-lymphocyte 
b-lymphocyte 

Thymus maturation of some lymphocytes
helps establish self-tolerance
regresses as we age

Generated by Koofers.com
spleen filters blood 
removes old red blood cells
removes bacteria 
storage site for monocytes and lymphocytes 

lymph nodes found throughout the body
filter lymph and remove bacteria, dead cells
house many macrophages and lymphoctes (B and T cells) 

Innate immunity present at birth, provides an initial response against infections 
non-specific defense against a variety of pathogens 

Adaptive Immunity acquired through exposure to pathogens 
recognize and produce antibodies that bind a specific part of a pathogen known as an antigen 

Generated by Koofers.com
Response to Pathogens pro-infammatory response 
secretions of immune hormones 
movement of white blood cells 
targeting and destruction of pathogen

neutrophils innate immunity 
phagocytosis 
first responders 

Macrophages link innate and adaptive immunity 
phagocytosis 

lymphocytes antibodies 
Generated by Koofers.com
Innate immune system non-specific recognition and defense against pathogens
generic pathogen receptors 
innate immune proteins 
inflammatory response : further recruitment of immune cells 

Drawbacks to innate immune response innate immunity is effective 
non targeted 
damage somatic cells
increased inflammation interferes with cellular processes

Adaptive immune system parts antigen: specific and unique part of a pathogen that can be recognized by an antibody 

antibody: protein made by adaptive immune cells that can bind and help destroy a specific pathogen 

Adaptive immune system macrophages gather antigens 
present antigens to lymphocytes 
active adaptive immune response: production of antibodies to specifically target the pathogen 
Generated by Koofers.com
GI Tract immunity your GI tract houses billions of bacteria 
nutrient absorption and barrier 
state of controlled inflammation 
Peyer's Patch lymph nodes specific to GI tract 
Functions of GI tract receiving 
conducting, storing
digestion, absorption 
absorbing water, defecating 

Stomach Microstructure gastric pit and gland 
goblet cells secrete mucus 
parietal cells secrete HCl 
chief cells secrete pepsinogen, rennin, and gastric lipase 

Generated by Koofers.com
gall bladder secretes bile to assist with lipid absorption 
pancreas secretes many digestive enzymes 
Movement of small intestine coordinated contractions of smooth muscle participates in several ways to facilitate digestion and absorption in small intestine 
foodstuffs are mixed with digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile salts from the biliary system 
nutrient molecules in the lumen are constantly dispersed allowing them to contact the epithelium where enzymatic digestion is completed and absorption occurs 
chyme is moved down the digestive tube making way for the next load and also eliminating undigestable perhaps toxic substances 
Transcellular route across the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells

Generated by Koofers.com
paracellular route across tight junction between epithelial cells 
glycocolyx .3 micrometers thick layer of mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins 
provides for absorption and includes enzymes that are essential for the final step of digestion of proteins and sugars 
cushion and protects cel membrane from chemical injury 
enables the immune system to recognize and selectively attack foreign organism 
saliva amylase 
bicarbonate 
gastric juice pepsinogen, HCl, rennin in infants, intrinsic factor 
Generated by Koofers.com
pancreatic juice trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, carboxy and aminopeptidase, lipase, amylase, maltase, nucleases, bicarbonates 

bile fats and fatty acids 
bile salts 
pigments 
cholesterol 
helps emulsify fat and break it down to fatty acids

succus entericus enterokinase, carboxy and aminopeptidases, maltase, lactase, sucrase, lipase, nucleases 
salivary glands saliva 
Generated by Koofers.com
stomach gastric juice 
rumen stomach rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum 

Duodenum succus entericus 
to break sugar to building blocks 

Esophageal grove bipasses first part of stomach for milk  
Generated by Koofers.com
crop stores food 
gizzard digests (breaks apart) hard things 
opening to stomach cardiac sphincter 
closing to stomach pyloric sphincter 
Generated by Koofers.com
enterocyte epithelial cells in GI Tract 
also absorbs food 
separates you from outside world 
Water can be obtained by drinking water or through moisture in food 
moisture in food ranges from 10-80% by weight 
more important than food ie will die from lack of water before lack of feed 
functions: metabolic reactions, transport, temperature, regulation, shape 
Carbohydrates two units of glucose, when combined yield the disaccharide maltose and a molecule of water. Further consolidation in plant growth results in starch formation. During digestion, the opposite process occurs yielding monosaccharides and water 
CHO 
are a ready source of energy: glucose and glycogen can be stored in tissues 
can be simple sugars (glucose), simple polymers( starch) or very complex polymers (cellulose)
 can be hard to digest 
simple sugars glucose 
basically use these 
Generated by Koofers.com
simple polymer starch 
very complex polymer cellulose 
Lipids Fats are normally composed of glycerol and three fatty acid units. The fatty acid units vary in length, size, and other characteristics. All three fatty acid units which are part of a fat need not be identical . 
CHO but less o than carbohydrates 
2.25 times as much as carbohydrates 
saturated: no double bonds, mono and polyunsaturated 
some are essential and must be obtained from diet 
essential nutrients vs nonessential must be obtained from the diet 

nonessential can be synthesized in the animal 

what is essential or non essential can vary between species
 
Generated by Koofers.com
Proteins polymers of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. vary greatly in length and composition include principal structural elements of body as well as enzymes some hormones, receptors. 
Polypeptides composed of amino acids: CHON only nutrient with nitrogen
20 major amino acids, some are essential
several minor aa such as taurine 
simple protein: just aa
complex protein: aa plus other substances such as heme group or carbohydrates 
lysine essential dietary amino acid for non-ruminants. NH2 is an amino acid unit and COOH is an acid unit. The presence of these units on such compounds is the basis of the name amino acid. Approximately 25 found in animals. 
simple protein just amino acid 
complex protein aa plus other substances such as heme group or carbohydrates 
Generated by Koofers.com
Minerals all elements other than CHON 
inorganic as they contain no C
considered macro-nutrient if required in large amounts like calcium 
considered micro-nutrient if required in trace amounts like selenium 
form essential component of many complex protein ie iron in hemaglobine 
Macro Minerals calcium, chlorine, magnesium, 
phosphorous 
potassium
sodium
sulfur 
Micro Mineral chromium
cobalt
copper
fluorine 
iodine
iron
manganese 
selenium 
zinc 
Vitamins organic nutrient required in trace amounts for specific functions 
16 known vitamins 
classified as fat souble ADEK 
or water soluble C thiamin niacin folic acid  
lack of specific vitamins results in disease 
Generated by Koofers.com
fat soluble vitamins A
d
e
essential for all animals 
water soluble vitamins c
thiamin 
niacin 
folic acid
essential for monogastric animals 
synthesized by rumen bacteria and perhaps by bacteria in hind-gut fermenters (horses) 
absorption of nutrients gases, hydrophobic molecules, small polar molecules can pass through membrane 

large polar molecules and charged molecules require help 
Passive diffusion across membrane 
Generated by Koofers.com
active use of transporter proteins or endocytosis 
requires expenditure of energy 
phagocytosis 
pinocytosis 
receptor mediated endocytosis 

likely deficiency in carnivore calcium 
vit e
thiamin 

likely deficiency in herbivore energy 
likely deficiency in omnivore vit a
vit e
lysine 
methionine 
Generated by Koofers.com
generalized view of energy use digested energy---->body maintenance------>reproduction----->lactation----->stoarge 
digestible energy gross energy in feed minus energy in feces 
total digestible nutrients TDN
metabolizable energy DE minus energy in urine and gaseous products of digestion 

Generated by Koofers.com
net energy metabolizable energy minus energy used in consumption, digestion, and metabolism of feed 
maintenance energy used for basal metabolism, voluntary activity, temperature regulation 
minimum energy necessary to sustain animal 
production energy used for reproduction, growth, lactation, fat deposition, etc

omasum pulls out water
not essential to survival 
increases SA to absorb water 
Generated by Koofers.com
abomasum true stomach 
actually begins digestion 
sheep need this to grow wool mythonine 
Goblet cells mucus 
parietal cells HCl
Generated by Koofers.com
chief cells pepsinogen, rennin, gastric lipase, acidic 
fish cold blooded, vertebrates, gill breathing, fins, swim bladder, and depends primarily on water as living medium 
Nutrition integration of knowledge of biochemistry and physiology into a unifying concepts of the relationship between an organism and its nutrient supply
a science dealing with the relationship between food and the organism 
similar essential nutrients for animals including fish

toxicology the study of the relationship between dose and its effects on the exposed organism 
the dose makes the poison 
Generated by Koofers.com
reasons fishes are cold blooded because of their aquatic environment: 
water has: 
high thermal conductivity 
high specific heat capacity 

animal scientist production orientated 
aquaculture/fish farming: over 50% of production cost is feed 
growth and feed efficiency (maximum growth with less feed at the shortest time) 
fish biologist ecologically oriented 
concerning the survival and well being of the population of a species of fish in the wild 
optimal forage to achieve fastest growth with minimal energy, to produce maximal viable progeny for the survival of the species 

levels of aggregation herd of animals 
animal 
tissue or organ
cells 
molecular 

Generated by Koofers.com
Two types of carbohydrate intolerance lactose intolerance

diabetics like 

reasons of poor utilization of lactose by white sturgeon low lactase in the bush boarder membrane in GI tract
resulted in high water content in the distal intestine (spiral valve) 
Diabetic like carbohydrate intolerance able to absorb glucose but unable to metabolize it, resulted in persistent hyperglycemia 
usually it can be determined by an oral challenge test using getlatin capsule 
Oral Challenge tests dorsal aorta cannulation 
stomach intubation 
urinary catheterization 
handling stress increased plasma cortisol levels which increase plasma glucose which confounded with our plasma glucose  measurement  
Generated by Koofers.com
Selenium study requirement: .25-.70 mg/kg diet essential 
selenocysteine (>13 proteins) 

toxicity levesl 
prolong exposure to 3 mg/kg diet can be toxic to some fish 
mouth shapes of fish superior:  overbite like, tubby 
inferior: underbite, bottom feeding 
terminal: nicely aligned, shark or tuna 

Sturgeon facts evolved 250 million years ago 
have gizzard to grind shellfish 

dose response concept dose and response is the growth. what dose turns on the enzyme and what tissue it hits. essentially understanding the mechanism of it 
how much is excreted 
examine the tolerance 

Generated by Koofers.com
skeletal muscle cells bound together by connective tissue sheaths that are independent of individual cell membranes 
striated muscle capable of rapid contractions 
red: sustained, continued work; more resistant to fatigue, aerobic 
white: quick movement, fatigues rapidly, anaerobic 

red muscle sustained, continued work; more resistant to fatigue, aerobic 

white muscle quick movement, fatigues rapidly, anaerobic 
Generated by Koofers.com
smooth muscle controlled by the autonomic nerve system 
does not contract very rapidly 
lines the hollow organs 
can be excited by stretching as well as nerve impulses 
types of connective tissues epimysium
perimysium 
endomysium

bundles of myocytes fasciculi 
mycocyte fiber 
muscle cell
individual muscle fibers= cells 
multinucleate 
individual muscle fibers=cells 
enclosed by a cell membrane called the sarcolemma 

Generated by Koofers.com
epimysium connective tissue surrounding the entire muscle 
perimysium surrounds bundles of 10-20 myocytes 
these bundles are called fasciculi 
holds bundles together 
endomysium connective tissue surrounding individual myocytes 
sarcolemma each myocyte is enclosed by a cell membrane 
attaches the muscle fiber to connective tissues endomysium and thereby to tendons  
plays a key role in the generation and propagation of electric potentials that are responsible for cell contraction 
functional unit within a muscle cell 
Generated by Koofers.com
sarcoplasm cytoplasm of muscle cell 
myofibrils they are the basic units of contraction inside skeletal muscle cells (the myocyte) and are composed of two types of fibrous proteins 
these proteins run along the length of the muscle fiber and have a microstructure that allows contraction 
when the myofibrils contract, the muscle cell contracts 
when parallel muscle fibers contract, the entire muscle contracts 
sarcomere makes up microfibril 
grow longer by adding these

z-line is point of contraction between two sarcomeres 
Generated by Koofers.com
most important sectors in ag meat, milk, eggs, and fiber 
prenatal factors affecting growth litter size 
size and nutritional status of the mother
genetics of the offspring 
postnatal factors (preweaning) affecting growth nutritional status of mother
litter size
initial size and aggressiveness
exposure to disease/ parasites
postnatal post weaning factors that affect growth gender 
genetics
nutrition 
disease/ parasites
social stress
environmental conditions 

Generated by Koofers.com
growth increase in weight until mature size is reached 
includes everything from conception to maturity 
often measured as increased weight but also includes increase in cell number
challenges involved in growth what to measure in terms of growth 
how genotype, feeding, and management interact in determining growth and composition of growth 

to predict growth responses to specific diet-breed-management combinations 
development coordination of all diverse processes until maturity is reached 

involves growth, differentiation, and changes in body shape, form and function 
growth biology pre-natal growth
post-natal growth
growth regulation 
growth and nutrition 
growth and reproduction 
Generated by Koofers.com
prenatal growth and development includes gametes, embryos and fetus 
embryonic period is from conception until major organogenesis is complete 
fetal period is from end of embryonic period until parturition 
stages of early embryo development 1 cell
2 cell 
8 cell
16cell 
morula 
compacted morula 
early blastocyst 
blastocyst 
expanding blastocyst 
hatching blastocyst 
hatched blastocyst partially collapsed 
hatched blastocyst re-expanding 
primary embryonic germ-cell layers tripotent embryo cells initially differentiate into three cell layers from which specific cell types develop
endoderm 
mesoderm
ectoderm

endoderm innermost of the three germ layers 
gut, liver, lungs 
epithelial lining of digestive tract 
epithelial lining of respiratory system 
lining of urethra, urinary bladder and reproductive system
liver 
pancreas 
thymus 
thyroid and parathyroid glands 
Generated by Koofers.com
mesoderm middle of the three germ layers 
skeleton, muscle, kidney, heart, blood 
notochord 
skeletal system 
muscular system 
muscular layer of stomach and intestine 
excretory system 
circulatory and lymphatic system 
reproductive system (except germ cells) 
dermis of skin 
lining of body cavity 
adrenal complex 
ectoderm the outermost of the three germ layers 
skin, nervous system, cuticle 
epidermis of skin and its derivatives including sweat glands, hair follicles
epithelial lining of mouth and anus 
cornea of lens of eye
nervous system 
sensory receptors in epidermis 
adrenal medulla
tooth enamel 
epithelium of pineal and pituitary glands 
organization of the body cells 
tissues 
organs 
systems

hyperplasia multiplication of cells

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hypertrophy increase in cell size 
muscle and fat tissue growth grow with age by hypertrophy- some addition of new adipose cells occurs, but growth is mostly by the addition of lipids
muscle has limited regenerative capacity 

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 Immune system purposeprotect from pathogens
bacteria
viruses 
fungus 
parasites 
 Immune system How?physical barriers 
skin
mucus
chemical 
enzymes 
complex and targeted cellular mechanisms 
 Bone Marrowmacrophages
dendritic cell
t-lymphocyte 
b-lymphocyte 

 Thymusmaturation of some lymphocytes
helps establish self-tolerance
regresses as we age

 spleenfilters blood 
removes old red blood cells
removes bacteria 
storage site for monocytes and lymphocytes 

 lymph nodesfound throughout the body
filter lymph and remove bacteria, dead cells
house many macrophages and lymphoctes (B and T cells) 

 Innate immunitypresent at birth, provides an initial response against infections 
non-specific defense against a variety of pathogens 

 Adaptive Immunityacquired through exposure to pathogens 
recognize and produce antibodies that bind a specific part of a pathogen known as an antigen 

 Response to Pathogenspro-infammatory response 
secretions of immune hormones 
movement of white blood cells 
targeting and destruction of pathogen

 neutrophilsinnate immunity 
phagocytosis 
first responders 

 Macrophageslink innate and adaptive immunity 
phagocytosis 

 lymphocytesantibodies 
 Innate immune systemnon-specific recognition and defense against pathogens
generic pathogen receptors 
innate immune proteins 
inflammatory response : further recruitment of immune cells 

 Drawbacks to innate immune responseinnate immunity is effective 
non targeted 
damage somatic cells
increased inflammation interferes with cellular processes

 Adaptive immune system partsantigen: specific and unique part of a pathogen that can be recognized by an antibody 

antibody: protein made by adaptive immune cells that can bind and help destroy a specific pathogen 

 Adaptive immune systemmacrophages gather antigens 
present antigens to lymphocytes 
active adaptive immune response: production of antibodies to specifically target the pathogen 
 GI Tract immunityyour GI tract houses billions of bacteria 
nutrient absorption and barrier 
state of controlled inflammation 
 Peyer's Patchlymph nodes specific to GI tract 
 Functions of GI tractreceiving 
conducting, storing
digestion, absorption 
absorbing water, defecating 

 Stomach Microstructuregastric pit and gland 
goblet cells secrete mucus 
parietal cells secrete HCl 
chief cells secrete pepsinogen, rennin, and gastric lipase 

 gall bladdersecretes bile to assist with lipid absorption 
 pancreassecretes many digestive enzymes 
 Movement of small intestinecoordinated contractions of smooth muscle participates in several ways to facilitate digestion and absorption in small intestine 
foodstuffs are mixed with digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile salts from the biliary system 
nutrient molecules in the lumen are constantly dispersed allowing them to contact the epithelium where enzymatic digestion is completed and absorption occurs 
chyme is moved down the digestive tube making way for the next load and also eliminating undigestable perhaps toxic substances 
 Transcellular routeacross the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells

 paracellular routeacross tight junction between epithelial cells 
 glycocolyx.3 micrometers thick layer of mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins 
provides for absorption and includes enzymes that are essential for the final step of digestion of proteins and sugars 
cushion and protects cel membrane from chemical injury 
enables the immune system to recognize and selectively attack foreign organism 
 salivaamylase 
bicarbonate 
 gastric juicepepsinogen, HCl, rennin in infants, intrinsic factor 
 pancreatic juicetrypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, carboxy and aminopeptidase, lipase, amylase, maltase, nucleases, bicarbonates 

 bilefats and fatty acids 
bile salts 
pigments 
cholesterol 
helps emulsify fat and break it down to fatty acids

 succus entericusenterokinase, carboxy and aminopeptidases, maltase, lactase, sucrase, lipase, nucleases 
 salivary glandssaliva 
 stomachgastric juice 
 rumen stomachrumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum 

 Duodenumsuccus entericus 
to break sugar to building blocks 

 Esophageal grovebipasses first part of stomach for milk  
 cropstores food 
 gizzarddigests (breaks apart) hard things 
 opening to stomachcardiac sphincter 
 closing to stomachpyloric sphincter 
 enterocyteepithelial cells in GI Tract 
also absorbs food 
separates you from outside world 
 Watercan be obtained by drinking water or through moisture in food 
moisture in food ranges from 10-80% by weight 
more important than food ie will die from lack of water before lack of feed 
functions: metabolic reactions, transport, temperature, regulation, shape 
 Carbohydratestwo units of glucose, when combined yield the disaccharide maltose and a molecule of water. Further consolidation in plant growth results in starch formation. During digestion, the opposite process occurs yielding monosaccharides and water 
CHO 
are a ready source of energy: glucose and glycogen can be stored in tissues 
can be simple sugars (glucose), simple polymers( starch) or very complex polymers (cellulose)
 can be hard to digest 
 simple sugarsglucose 
basically use these 
 simple polymerstarch 
 very complex polymercellulose 
 LipidsFats are normally composed of glycerol and three fatty acid units. The fatty acid units vary in length, size, and other characteristics. All three fatty acid units which are part of a fat need not be identical . 
CHO but less o than carbohydrates 
2.25 times as much as carbohydrates 
saturated: no double bonds, mono and polyunsaturated 
some are essential and must be obtained from diet 
 essential nutrients vs nonessentialmust be obtained from the diet 

nonessential can be synthesized in the animal 

what is essential or non essential can vary between species
 
 Proteinspolymers of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. vary greatly in length and composition include principal structural elements of body as well as enzymes some hormones, receptors. 
Polypeptides composed of amino acids: CHON only nutrient with nitrogen
20 major amino acids, some are essential
several minor aa such as taurine 
simple protein: just aa
complex protein: aa plus other substances such as heme group or carbohydrates 
 lysineessential dietary amino acid for non-ruminants. NH2 is an amino acid unit and COOH is an acid unit. The presence of these units on such compounds is the basis of the name amino acid. Approximately 25 found in animals. 
 simple proteinjust amino acid 
 complex proteinaa plus other substances such as heme group or carbohydrates 
 Mineralsall elements other than CHON 
inorganic as they contain no C
considered macro-nutrient if required in large amounts like calcium 
considered micro-nutrient if required in trace amounts like selenium 
form essential component of many complex protein ie iron in hemaglobine 
 Macro Mineralscalcium, chlorine, magnesium, 
phosphorous 
potassium
sodium
sulfur 
 Micro Mineralchromium
cobalt
copper
fluorine 
iodine
iron
manganese 
selenium 
zinc 
 Vitaminsorganic nutrient required in trace amounts for specific functions 
16 known vitamins 
classified as fat souble ADEK 
or water soluble C thiamin niacin folic acid  
lack of specific vitamins results in disease 
 fat soluble vitaminsA
d
e
essential for all animals 
 water soluble vitaminsc
thiamin 
niacin 
folic acid
essential for monogastric animals 
synthesized by rumen bacteria and perhaps by bacteria in hind-gut fermenters (horses) 
 absorption of nutrientsgases, hydrophobic molecules, small polar molecules can pass through membrane 

large polar molecules and charged molecules require help 
 Passivediffusion across membrane 
 activeuse of transporter proteins or endocytosis 
requires expenditure of energy 
phagocytosis 
pinocytosis 
receptor mediated endocytosis 

 likely deficiency in carnivorecalcium 
vit e
thiamin 

 likely deficiency in herbivoreenergy 
 likely deficiency in omnivorevit a
vit e
lysine 
methionine 
 generalized view of energy usedigested energy---->body maintenance------>reproduction----->lactation----->stoarge 
 digestible energygross energy in feed minus energy in feces 
 total digestible nutrientsTDN
 metabolizable energyDE minus energy in urine and gaseous products of digestion 

 net energymetabolizable energy minus energy used in consumption, digestion, and metabolism of feed 
 maintenanceenergy used for basal metabolism, voluntary activity, temperature regulation 
minimum energy necessary to sustain animal 
 productionenergy used for reproduction, growth, lactation, fat deposition, etc

 omasumpulls out water
not essential to survival 
increases SA to absorb water 
 abomasumtrue stomach 
actually begins digestion 
 sheep need this to grow woolmythonine 
 Goblet cellsmucus 
 parietal cellsHCl
 chief cellspepsinogen, rennin, gastric lipase, acidic 
 fishcold blooded, vertebrates, gill breathing, fins, swim bladder, and depends primarily on water as living medium 
 Nutritionintegration of knowledge of biochemistry and physiology into a unifying concepts of the relationship between an organism and its nutrient supply
a science dealing with the relationship between food and the organism 
similar essential nutrients for animals including fish

 toxicologythe study of the relationship between dose and its effects on the exposed organism 
the dose makes the poison 
 reasons fishes are cold bloodedbecause of their aquatic environment: 
water has: 
high thermal conductivity 
high specific heat capacity 

 animal scientistproduction orientated 
aquaculture/fish farming: over 50% of production cost is feed 
growth and feed efficiency (maximum growth with less feed at the shortest time) 
 fish biologistecologically oriented 
concerning the survival and well being of the population of a species of fish in the wild 
optimal forage to achieve fastest growth with minimal energy, to produce maximal viable progeny for the survival of the species 

 levels of aggregationherd of animals 
animal 
tissue or organ
cells 
molecular 

 Two types of carbohydrate intolerancelactose intolerance

diabetics like 

 reasons of poor utilization of lactose by white sturgeonlow lactase in the bush boarder membrane in GI tract
resulted in high water content in the distal intestine (spiral valve) 
 Diabetic like carbohydrate intoleranceable to absorb glucose but unable to metabolize it, resulted in persistent hyperglycemia 
usually it can be determined by an oral challenge test using getlatin capsule 
 Oral Challenge testsdorsal aorta cannulation 
stomach intubation 
urinary catheterization 
handling stress increased plasma cortisol levels which increase plasma glucose which confounded with our plasma glucose  measurement  
 Selenium studyrequirement: .25-.70 mg/kg diet essential 
selenocysteine (>13 proteins) 

toxicity levesl 
prolong exposure to 3 mg/kg diet can be toxic to some fish 
 mouth shapes of fishsuperior:  overbite like, tubby 
inferior: underbite, bottom feeding 
terminal: nicely aligned, shark or tuna 

 Sturgeon factsevolved 250 million years ago 
have gizzard to grind shellfish 

 dose response conceptdose and response is the growth. what dose turns on the enzyme and what tissue it hits. essentially understanding the mechanism of it 
how much is excreted 
examine the tolerance 

 skeletal musclecells bound together by connective tissue sheaths that are independent of individual cell membranes 
 striated musclecapable of rapid contractions 
red: sustained, continued work; more resistant to fatigue, aerobic 
white: quick movement, fatigues rapidly, anaerobic 

 red musclesustained, continued work; more resistant to fatigue, aerobic 

 white musclequick movement, fatigues rapidly, anaerobic 
 smooth musclecontrolled by the autonomic nerve system 
does not contract very rapidly 
lines the hollow organs 
can be excited by stretching as well as nerve impulses 
 types of connective tissuesepimysium
perimysium 
endomysium

 bundles of myocytesfasciculi 
 mycocytefiber 
muscle cell
individual muscle fibers= cells 
multinucleate 
individual muscle fibers=cells 
enclosed by a cell membrane called the sarcolemma 

 epimysiumconnective tissue surrounding the entire muscle 
 perimysiumsurrounds bundles of 10-20 myocytes 
these bundles are called fasciculi 
holds bundles together 
 endomysiumconnective tissue surrounding individual myocytes 
 sarcolemmaeach myocyte is enclosed by a cell membrane 
attaches the muscle fiber to connective tissues endomysium and thereby to tendons  
plays a key role in the generation and propagation of electric potentials that are responsible for cell contraction 
functional unit within a muscle cell 
 sarcoplasmcytoplasm of muscle cell 
 myofibrilsthey are the basic units of contraction inside skeletal muscle cells (the myocyte) and are composed of two types of fibrous proteins 
these proteins run along the length of the muscle fiber and have a microstructure that allows contraction 
when the myofibrils contract, the muscle cell contracts 
when parallel muscle fibers contract, the entire muscle contracts 
 sarcomeremakes up microfibril 
grow longer by adding these

 z-lineis point of contraction between two sarcomeres 
 most important sectors in agmeat, milk, eggs, and fiber 
 prenatal factors affecting growthlitter size 
size and nutritional status of the mother
genetics of the offspring 
 postnatal factors (preweaning) affecting growthnutritional status of mother
litter size
initial size and aggressiveness
exposure to disease/ parasites
 postnatal post weaning factors that affect growthgender 
genetics
nutrition 
disease/ parasites
social stress
environmental conditions 

 growthincrease in weight until mature size is reached 
includes everything from conception to maturity 
often measured as increased weight but also includes increase in cell number
 challenges involved in growthwhat to measure in terms of growth 
how genotype, feeding, and management interact in determining growth and composition of growth 

to predict growth responses to specific diet-breed-management combinations 
 developmentcoordination of all diverse processes until maturity is reached 

involves growth, differentiation, and changes in body shape, form and function 
 growth biologypre-natal growth
post-natal growth
growth regulation 
growth and nutrition 
growth and reproduction 
 prenatal growth and developmentincludes gametes, embryos and fetus 
embryonic period is from conception until major organogenesis is complete 
fetal period is from end of embryonic period until parturition 
 stages of early embryo development1 cell
2 cell 
8 cell
16cell 
morula 
compacted morula 
early blastocyst 
blastocyst 
expanding blastocyst 
hatching blastocyst 
hatched blastocyst partially collapsed 
hatched blastocyst re-expanding 
 primary embryonic germ-cell layerstripotent embryo cells initially differentiate into three cell layers from which specific cell types develop
endoderm 
mesoderm
ectoderm

 endoderminnermost of the three germ layers 
gut, liver, lungs 
epithelial lining of digestive tract 
epithelial lining of respiratory system 
lining of urethra, urinary bladder and reproductive system
liver 
pancreas 
thymus 
thyroid and parathyroid glands 
 mesodermmiddle of the three germ layers 
skeleton, muscle, kidney, heart, blood 
notochord 
skeletal system 
muscular system 
muscular layer of stomach and intestine 
excretory system 
circulatory and lymphatic system 
reproductive system (except germ cells) 
dermis of skin 
lining of body cavity 
adrenal complex 
 ectodermthe outermost of the three germ layers 
skin, nervous system, cuticle 
epidermis of skin and its derivatives including sweat glands, hair follicles
epithelial lining of mouth and anus 
cornea of lens of eye
nervous system 
sensory receptors in epidermis 
adrenal medulla
tooth enamel 
epithelium of pineal and pituitary glands 
 organization of the bodycells 
tissues 
organs 
systems

 hyperplasiamultiplication of cells

 hypertrophyincrease in cell size 
 muscle and fat tissue growthgrow with age by hypertrophy- some addition of new adipose cells occurs, but growth is mostly by the addition of lipids
muscle has limited regenerative capacity 

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