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Midterm 2 - Flashcards

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Class:ANS 002 - Intro Animal Sci
Subject:Animal Science
University:University of California - Davis
Term:Spring 2010
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6 Classes of Nutrients Carbohydrates (energy) Fats (energy and structure) Protein (energy and structure) Minerals (structure and regulatory) Water (Regulatory) Vitamins (Regulatory)
Functions of the GI tract 1. receiving 2 conducting, storing 3. Digestion absorption 4. Absorbing water, defecating
Headgut Food Reception -Tongue is used to assist mechanical digestion and swallowing -Tongue is also involved in chemoreception (taste buds)
Foregut Storage and Digestion - consists of stomach and esophagus - Some animal species also possess a sac like structure, called crop, which serves as a storage site for food before digestion (e.g., leeches)
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Esophagus transports the bolus (chewed food portion mixed with saliva) into the stomach
Foregut: Stomach -Stomach is the storage site for food and in many species one of the initial stages for digestion •In most vertebrates, the stomach is mainly responsible for protein digestion • It secretes the enzyme pepsinogen (which is converted into pepsin) and HCl • The acidic environment (HCl) is needed to activate pepsinogen to form pepsin • The stomach also contracts and thereby mixes food
Carnivores and Omnivores stomach Monogastric animals which means they have one-chambered stomach (digastric means two-chambered stomach)
Digastric stomach (ruminants) - First division of the stomach carries out microbial fermentation - After bolus is swallowed it is subject to fermentation in the first division - this partially digested food gets regurgitated for re-mastication then it is swallowed again
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First Stomach Division receives the grazed vegetation, stores it and acts as a fermentation vat Cellulose is broken down into VFA's Protein and sugars are fermented ph: basic
Second Stomach Division food enters and is hydrolyzed and where digestive enzymes help chemical digestion • The abomasum (4) of the second division is the only compartment in the ruminant’s stomach which secretes digestive enzymes (similar to monogastric stomach (3) water and minerals absorbed pH: acedic
Liver and Pancreas • Liver salts produce bile salts, which are released in fluid form (bile fluid) into the duodenum • Bile fluid emulsifies fats and helps to neutralize acidity introduced into the duodenum from the stomach • Pancreas produces pancreatic juice, which contains digestive enzymes like proteases, lipases, and carboxydases • Pancreatic juice is similarly to bile fluid involved in neutralizing gastric acid in the duodenum
Midgut Main site for digestion and absorption Also referred to as the small intestine receives secretory products from pancreas, liver (via gallbladder)
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Small Intestine • As soon as the food is released from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter (pylorus), it enters the small intestines (SI) • The first part of the SI is the duodenum, which secretes enzymes and receives liver and pancreas digestive enzymes • Jejunum and ileum are the second and third sections of the SI and their function is to digest and absorb nutrients
Hindgut (large intestine) the principal role of the large intestine is re-absorption of remaining water Another main function of the LI is the consolidation of waste
Anabolism Requires energy Synthesis of 1. Specific chemicals and structural components (proteins) 2. Secretory products (mucus or enzymes) Storage forms of substrates (glycogen)
Catabolism releases energy breakdown of specific chemicals, provision of usable form of energy, and structural repair
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Post- absorptive period - Glycogenolysis: glycogen broken into glucose - Lipolysis: triglyceride is broken down in FAs – Proteolysis: proteins are broken down into AAs – Glyconeogenesis: “new” glucose is made from AAs
Carbohydrates -Main source of energy -glycogen is main part of energy reserves -mammals do not make enzymes for carbohydrates such as cellulose -Mammals use enzymes which digest carbs (sugars and starches) -Ruminants have microbes that digest carbs such as cellulose -end product of cellulose digestion in ruminants is VFA's
Lipids -highest energy yielding source in rations -Hydrophobic: can't dissolve in water -
fatty acid catabolism Fatty acids are broken down into acetyl coenzyme molecules (mitochondria) and split off fatty acid chain -Repeated many times This then transfers two pairs of hydrogen coenzymes becoming coenzyme-2H -Repeated many times and shortens the FA chain by 2 carbons until all carbons are transfered to coenzyme
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Oxidative deamination Amino group gives rise to ammonia and is replaced by oxogen to form a keto acid *keto acids formed are intermediates of krebs cycle or glycolysis Ammonia released enters the blood and carried to liver where formed to urea -Urea transported from liver to kidneys then leaves as urine
Transamination Amino group transferred from an AA to a keto acid *keto acids formed are intermediates of krebs cycle or glycolysis
Keto Acids Can be used to produce CO2 and ATP or intermediates leading to glucose formation Can also synthesize FA's after conversion to acetyl coenzyme by way of pyruvic acid
Water
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Fish cold blooded b/c water has high thermal conductivity and high specific heat capacity
Main concern of Animal scientist/ nutritionist on fish Growth and Feed Efficiency (maximum growth with less feed at the shortest time).
Fish ecologist main concern Growth and Reproduction: optimal forage to achieve fastest growth with minimal energy, to produce maximal viable progeny for the survival of the species
Lactose intolerance in sturgeon Low lactase and sucrase in the bush boarder membrane in GIT • Resulted in high water content in the distal intestine (spiral valve)
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Skeletal muscle cells bound together by connective tissue sheaths that are independent of individual cell membranes
Striated muscle capable of rapid contractions –Red: sustained, continued work; more resistant to fatigue, aerobic –White: quick movement, fatigues rapidly, anaerobic
Smooth muscle –Controlled by the autonomic nerve system –Does not contract very rapidly –Lines the hollow organs –Can be excited by stretching as well as nerve impulse
Myocytes Myocytes are individual muscle fibers = cells Each myocyte is enclosed by a cell membrane –the sarcolemma The sarcolemma attaches the muscle fiber to connective tissues (endomysium) and thereby to tendons The sarcolemma plays a key role in the generation and propagation of electric potentials that are responsible for cell contraction The cytoplasm of muscle cells is called sarcoplasm
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Myofibrils –They are the basic units of contraction inside skeletal muscle cells composed of two types of fibrous proteins –These proteins run along the length of the muscle fiber and have a microstructure that allows contraction –When the myofibrils contract, the muscle cell contracts –When parallel muscle fibers contract, the entire muscle contracts
Prenatal Growth and Development • Includes gametes, embryos, and fetus • Embryonic period is from conception until major organogenesis is complete • Fetal period is from end of embryonic period until partuition
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 6 Classes of NutrientsCarbohydrates (energy)
Fats (energy and structure)
Protein (energy and structure)

Minerals (structure and regulatory)
Water (Regulatory)
Vitamins (Regulatory)
 Functions of the GI tract1. receiving
2 conducting, storing
3. Digestion absorption
4. Absorbing water, defecating
 HeadgutFood Reception
-Tongue is used to assist mechanical digestion and swallowing
-Tongue is also involved in chemoreception (taste buds)
 ForegutStorage and Digestion
- consists of stomach and esophagus
- Some animal species also possess a
sac like structure, called crop, which
serves as a storage site for food before
digestion (e.g., leeches)
 Esophagustransports the bolus
(chewed food portion mixed with saliva)
into the stomach
 Foregut: Stomach-Stomach is the storage site for food and in many species one of the initial stages for digestion
•In most vertebrates, the stomach is mainly
responsible for protein digestion
• It secretes the enzyme pepsinogen (which
is converted into pepsin) and HCl
• The acidic environment (HCl) is needed to
activate pepsinogen to form pepsin
• The stomach also contracts and thereby
mixes food
 Carnivores and Omnivores stomachMonogastric animals which means they have one-chambered stomach

(digastric means two-chambered stomach)
 Digastric stomach (ruminants)- First division of the stomach carries out microbial fermentation
- After bolus is swallowed it is subject to fermentation in the first division
- this partially digested food gets regurgitated for re-mastication then it is swallowed again
 First Stomach Divisionreceives the grazed vegetation, stores it and acts as a fermentation vat

Cellulose is broken down into VFA's

Protein and sugars are fermented

ph: basic
 Second Stomach Divisionfood enters and is hydrolyzed and where digestive enzymes help chemical digestion

• The abomasum (4) of the second division is the only
compartment in the ruminant’s stomach which
secretes digestive enzymes (similar to
monogastric stomach (3)
water and minerals absorbed pH: acedic
 Liver and Pancreas
• Liver salts produce bile salts, which are released
in fluid form (bile fluid) into the duodenum
• Bile fluid emulsifies fats and helps to neutralize
acidity introduced into the duodenum from the stomach
• Pancreas produces pancreatic juice, which
contains digestive enzymes like proteases, lipases, and carboxydases
• Pancreatic juice is similarly to bile fluid involved
in neutralizing gastric acid in the duodenum
 MidgutMain site for digestion and absorption

Also referred to as the small intestine receives secretory
products from pancreas, liver (via gallbladder)
 Small Intestine • As soon as the food is released from the
stomach through the pyloric sphincter
(pylorus), it enters the small intestines (SI)
• The first part of the SI is the duodenum,
which secretes enzymes and receives liver
and pancreas digestive enzymes
• Jejunum and ileum are the second and
third sections of the SI and their function is
to digest and absorb nutrients
 Hindgut (large intestine) the principal role of the large
intestine is re-absorption of remaining water

Another main function of the LI is the
consolidation of waste
 Anabolism Requires energy

Synthesis of
1. Specific chemicals and structural components (proteins)
2. Secretory products (mucus or enzymes)

Storage forms of substrates (glycogen)
 Catabolismreleases energy

breakdown of specific chemicals, provision of usable form of energy, and structural repair
 Post- absorptive period- Glycogenolysis: glycogen broken into glucose
- Lipolysis: triglyceride is broken down in FAs
– Proteolysis: proteins are broken down into AAs
– Glyconeogenesis: “new” glucose is made from AAs
 Carbohydrates-Main source of energy
-glycogen is main part of energy reserves
-mammals do not make enzymes for carbohydrates such as cellulose
-Mammals use enzymes which digest carbs (sugars and starches)
-Ruminants have microbes that digest carbs such as cellulose
-end product of cellulose digestion in ruminants is VFA's
 Lipids-highest energy yielding source in rations
-Hydrophobic: can't dissolve in water
-
 fatty acid catabolismFatty acids are broken down into acetyl coenzyme molecules (mitochondria) and split off fatty acid chain

-Repeated many times

This then transfers two pairs of hydrogen coenzymes becoming coenzyme-2H
-Repeated many times and shortens the FA chain by 2 carbons until all carbons are transfered to coenzyme
 Oxidative deaminationAmino group gives rise to ammonia and is replaced by oxogen to form a keto acid

*keto acids formed are intermediates of krebs cycle or glycolysis

Ammonia released enters the blood and carried to liver where formed to urea
-Urea transported from liver to kidneys then leaves as urine
 TransaminationAmino group transferred from an AA to a keto acid

*keto acids formed are intermediates of krebs cycle or glycolysis
 Keto AcidsCan be used to produce CO2 and ATP or intermediates leading to glucose formation

Can also synthesize FA's after conversion to acetyl coenzyme by way of pyruvic acid
 Water 
 Fish cold blooded b/cwater has high thermal conductivity

and high specific heat capacity
 Main concern of Animal scientist/ nutritionist on fishGrowth and Feed Efficiency (maximum
growth with less feed at the shortest time).
 Fish ecologist main concern Growth and Reproduction: optimal forage
to achieve fastest growth with minimal
energy, to produce maximal viable progeny
for the survival of the species
 Lactose intolerance in sturgeonLow lactase and sucrase in the bush boarder
membrane in GIT
• Resulted in high water content in the distal
intestine (spiral valve)
 Skeletal muscle cells bound
together by connective tissue
sheaths that are independent of
individual cell membranes
 Striated musclecapable of rapid contractions
–Red: sustained, continued work; more
resistant to fatigue, aerobic
–White: quick movement, fatigues rapidly,
anaerobic
 Smooth muscle–Controlled by the autonomic nerve system
–Does not contract very rapidly
–Lines the hollow organs
–Can be excited by stretching as well as nerve
impulse
 MyocytesMyocytes are individual muscle fibers = cells
Each myocyte is enclosed by a cell membrane –the sarcolemma
The sarcolemma attaches the muscle fiber to connective tissues
(endomysium) and thereby to tendons
The sarcolemma plays a key role in the generation and
propagation of electric potentials that are responsible for cell
contraction
The cytoplasm of muscle cells is called sarcoplasm
 Myofibrils–They are the basic units of contraction inside skeletal muscle
cells composed of two types of fibrous proteins
–These proteins run along the length of the muscle fiber and
have a microstructure that allows contraction
–When the myofibrils contract, the muscle cell contracts
–When parallel muscle fibers contract, the entire muscle
contracts
 Prenatal Growth and Development• Includes gametes, embryos, and fetus
• Embryonic period is from conception until
major organogenesis is complete
• Fetal period is from end of embryonic
period until partuition
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