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Class:ANTH 1306 - INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY
Subject:Anthropology
University:University of Texas - Arlington
Term:Spring 2013
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Anthropology

The study of  Humankind everywhere throughout time; what make people different from one another and what we have in common.

 

  • focusing primarily on Homo spiens=Human species
  • also study our ancestors and close animal relatives for clues to see what it means to be Human.

 

Four Fields of Discipline
  • Physical Anth- systematic study of humans "biological organisms"
  • Cultural Anth- looks at ways groups of humans think,feel,and behave.
  • Archaeology -try to recover info. about human culture fron the past by studying material objects,skeletal remains,and settlements.
  • Linguists Anth-study languages communication systems by which cultures are maintained and passed on to generations.

 

 

Holistic "familys life" - to look at human nature; to view the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnenctions and interdependence. 
Ethnocentrism

(anth-try not to study) the belief that the ways of one's own culture are the only proper ones.

          ex. why they live the way that live; or eat the way they eat

 

 

 

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Culture-Bound (cross-cultural)

the theories of human behavior-looking at the world and reality on the assumptions and values of one's own culture.

  • comparative across cultures,time,space
Paleoanthropology

                      

                                        human evolution

Primatology

 

                         study of living and fossil primates (living and dead)

  • is a vital part of physical anthropology
Primates

                  the group of mammals that include  

  • Lemurs
  • Lorises
  • Tarsiers
  • Monkeys
  • Apes
  • Humans
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Ethnography (ethno/graphy) detailed based description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork (one study data) also known as "participant observation"
Ethnology (ethno/logy)

study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view. (differences and similarities among groups)

  • a part of cultural anthropolgy that involves cross-cultural comparisons
Bioarchaeology

                             study of human remains

       (preservation of cultural and social processes in the skeleton)

  • ex.garbage project -beer consuming lies on report
Cultural Resource Management (CRM)

     tied to government policies for protection of cultural resources

      (involving surveying/excavating remain bt construction or development)

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Evolution (biological)

                genetic change over time through generations

 

  • (four evolutionary forces-mutation,genetic drift,gene flow,and natural selection)
Mammals               class of vertebrate animals distinguished by- body covered with fur, self regulating temperture warm blooded,in females milk producing glades to nurse ,four-chambered heart
Adaptatation (biological)        series of beneficial adjustments to the environment-outcome of natural selection
Allele                 alternate forms of a single gene
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Charles Darwin established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection  (favoring  some indivdual over another to the next generation)
Gene Flow the introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another 
Genetic Drift

chance fluctuations change of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population

  • Genetic drift or allelic drift is the change in the frequency of a gene variant in a population due to random sampling.
Gene Pool

      all the genetic variants possed by member of a population

 

  • The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
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Genotype

                   the alleles possesed for a particular gene
 

  • The genotype is the genetic makeup of a cell, an organism, or an individual usually with reference to a specific character under consideration.
Mutation

Chance alteration of genetic material that produces new variation

 

  • In genetics, a mutation is a change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal genetic element.
Natural Selection the evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over other to produce the next generation ~Charles Darwin
Phenotype

                            characteristic of an organism

 

  • A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
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Population

             a group of individuals that can do interbreed, breeding

 

  • A population is all the organisms of the same group or species who live in the same geographical area and are capable of interbreeding.
Taxonomy

                             the science of classification

 

 

  • Taxonomy is the academic discipline of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.
Binocular Vision vision with increased depth perception from two eyes set next to each other allowing their visual fields to overlap.
Foramen Magnum a large opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes and connects to the brain.
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Macroevolution

                       evolution above the species level

 

Speciation                     the process of forming new species  
Cladogenesis speciation through a branching mechanism whereby an ancestral populations an ancestral population gives rise to two or more descendeant populations.
Anagenesis

a subtained  directional shift in a populatons average characteristics.  

  • Anagenesis, also known as "phyletic change", is the evolution of species involving an entire population rather than a branching event, as in cladogenesis.
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Convergent Evolution

biol evolution process by which unrelated populations develop similarities to one another due to similar function rather than shared ancestry.

 

  • Convergent evolution describes the acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages.
Continental drift

(200 million years ago) the  theory of plate tectonics, the movement of continents embedded in underlying plates on the earth's surface in relation to one another over the history of life on earth.

 

 

  • Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other by appearing to drift across the ocean bed.
K-selected

reproduction involving the production of relatively few offspring with high parental investment in each.

 

 

  • In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring.
R-selected

reproduction involving the production of large number of offspring with with relatively low parental investment in each

 

 

  • In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring.
Generated by Koofers.com
Absolute dating (chronometric)

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, dating recovered material based on solar years,centuries, or other units of absolute time. (numbers- actual dates calculated in years "before and present")

 

 

 

  • Absolute dating is the process of determining an approximate computed age in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating, as use of the word "absolute" implies an unwarranted certainty and precision.
Relative dating

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, designating an event, object, or fossil as being older or younger than another.

(the deeper the layer the older the object)

Stratigraphy

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, the most reliable method of relative dating by means of strata.

 

 

  • Stratigraphy is a branch of geology which studies rock layers and layering. It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks.
Radiocarbon dating

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, a technique of chronometric dating based on measuring the amount of radioactive cabon (C) left in organic materials found in archaeological sites.

 

 

  • Radiocarbon dating is a technique that uses the decay of Carbon-14 () to estimate the age of organic materials, such as wood and leather, up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years.
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Dendrochronology

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, a technique of chronometic dating  based on the number of rings of growth found in a tree truck.

 

 

  • Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the scientific method of dating based on the analysis of patterns of tree rings, also known as growth rings.
bipedalism

mode of locomotion in which an organism walks upright on its two hind legs, characteristic of humans and their ancestors; also call bipedality.  

 

  • Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs, or legs.
abduction movement away from the midline of the body or from the center of the hand or foot.
adduction

moverment toward the midline of the body or to the center of the hand or foot.  

 

 

 

  • Adduction is a movement which brings a part of the anatomy closer to the middle sagittal plane of the body.
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Ardipitecus

the earlist bipeds : it is divided into two species the ramidus and the older kadabba(4.4 million years old) skeleton -specimen -"Ardi"

5.2 to 5.8mya show that some of the earliest biped inhabited a forested environment.

  •  ex. chimpanzee,bonobos, and gorillas remains found in fossil rich deposits along ethiopia's river
  • Ardi means "floor" and Ramid means "root"

 

 

Australopithecus

several species of early bipeds from east,south,and central africa living between 1.1 and 4.3 mya was direclty ancestral to humans.

 

 

  • Australopithecus is an extinct genus of hominids.
Law of Competitive Exclusion when two closely related species compete for the same niche, one will out compete the other, bringing about the laters extinction.
Artifact

 

 

                any object fashioned or altered by humans.

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material culture

 

     the durable aspects of culture, such as tools, structures, and art.

 

 

  • In the social sciences, material culture is a term, developed in the late 19th and early 20th century, that refers to the relationship between artifacts and social relations.
Fossil

any mineralized trace or impression of an organism that has been preserved inthe earth's crust from past geologic time. 

 

 

 

  • Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals (also known as zoolites), plants, and other organisms from the remote past.
Midden
Oldowan tool tradition       the first stone tool industry, beginning between 2.5 -2.6 mya
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tertiary scavenger         in a food chain, the third animal group
(second to scavenge) to obtain meat from a kill made by a predator.
Acheulean tradition

the tool making tradition of Homo erectus in Africa,Europe, and southwestern Asia in which hand- axes were developed from the earlier Oldowan chopper.

 

 

  • Acheulean (from French acheulen, a term based on the name Saint-Acheul, a suburb of Amiens, the capital of the Somme department in Picardy, where hand-axes of this period were found in 1859), is the name given to an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture associated with early humans during the Lower Palaeolithic era across Africa and much of West Asia, South Asia, and Europe.
Mousterian tradition          tool industry of the Neandertals
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 Anthropology

The study of  Humankind everywhere throughout time; what make people different from one another and what we have in common.

 

  • focusing primarily on Homo spiens=Human species
  • also study our ancestors and close animal relatives for clues to see what it means to be Human.

 

 Four Fields of Discipline
  • Physical Anth- systematic study of humans "biological organisms"
  • Cultural Anth- looks at ways groups of humans think,feel,and behave.
  • Archaeology -try to recover info. about human culture fron the past by studying material objects,skeletal remains,and settlements.
  • Linguists Anth-study languages communication systems by which cultures are maintained and passed on to generations.

 

 

 Holistic"familys life" - to look at human nature; to view the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnenctions and interdependence. 
 Ethnocentrism

(anth-try not to study) the belief that the ways of one's own culture are the only proper ones.

          ex. why they live the way that live; or eat the way they eat

 

 

 

 Culture-Bound (cross-cultural)

the theories of human behavior-looking at the world and reality on the assumptions and values of one's own culture.

  • comparative across cultures,time,space
 Paleoanthropology

                      

                                        human evolution

 Primatology

 

                         study of living and fossil primates (living and dead)

  • is a vital part of physical anthropology
 Primates

                  the group of mammals that include  

  • Lemurs
  • Lorises
  • Tarsiers
  • Monkeys
  • Apes
  • Humans
 Ethnography (ethno/graphy)detailed based description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork (one study data) also known as "participant observation"
 Ethnology (ethno/logy)

study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view. (differences and similarities among groups)

  • a part of cultural anthropolgy that involves cross-cultural comparisons
 Bioarchaeology

                             study of human remains

       (preservation of cultural and social processes in the skeleton)

  • ex.garbage project -beer consuming lies on report
 Cultural Resource Management (CRM)

     tied to government policies for protection of cultural resources

      (involving surveying/excavating remain bt construction or development)

 Evolution (biological)

                genetic change over time through generations

 

  • (four evolutionary forces-mutation,genetic drift,gene flow,and natural selection)
 Mammals              class of vertebrate animals distinguished by- body covered with fur, self regulating temperture warm blooded,in females milk producing glades to nurse ,four-chambered heart
 Adaptatation (biological)       series of beneficial adjustments to the environment-outcome of natural selection
 Allele                alternate forms of a single gene
 Charles Darwinestablished that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection  (favoring  some indivdual over another to the next generation)
 Gene Flowthe introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another 
 Genetic Drift

chance fluctuations change of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population

  • Genetic drift or allelic drift is the change in the frequency of a gene variant in a population due to random sampling.
 Gene Pool

      all the genetic variants possed by member of a population

 

  • The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
 Genotype

                   the alleles possesed for a particular gene
 

  • The genotype is the genetic makeup of a cell, an organism, or an individual usually with reference to a specific character under consideration.
 Mutation

Chance alteration of genetic material that produces new variation

 

  • In genetics, a mutation is a change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal genetic element.
 Natural Selectionthe evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over other to produce the next generation ~Charles Darwin
 Phenotype

                            characteristic of an organism

 

  • A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
 Population

             a group of individuals that can do interbreed, breeding

 

  • A population is all the organisms of the same group or species who live in the same geographical area and are capable of interbreeding.
 Taxonomy

                             the science of classification

 

 

  • Taxonomy is the academic discipline of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.
 Binocular Visionvision with increased depth perception from two eyes set next to each other allowing their visual fields to overlap.
 Foramen Magnuma large opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes and connects to the brain.
 Macroevolution

                       evolution above the species level

 

 Speciation                    the process of forming new species  
 Cladogenesisspeciation through a branching mechanism whereby an ancestral populations an ancestral population gives rise to two or more descendeant populations.
 Anagenesis

a subtained  directional shift in a populatons average characteristics.  

  • Anagenesis, also known as "phyletic change", is the evolution of species involving an entire population rather than a branching event, as in cladogenesis.
 Convergent Evolution

biol evolution process by which unrelated populations develop similarities to one another due to similar function rather than shared ancestry.

 

  • Convergent evolution describes the acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages.
 Continental drift

(200 million years ago) the  theory of plate tectonics, the movement of continents embedded in underlying plates on the earth's surface in relation to one another over the history of life on earth.

 

 

  • Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other by appearing to drift across the ocean bed.
 K-selected

reproduction involving the production of relatively few offspring with high parental investment in each.

 

 

  • In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring.
 R-selected

reproduction involving the production of large number of offspring with with relatively low parental investment in each

 

 

  • In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring.
 Absolute dating (chronometric)

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, dating recovered material based on solar years,centuries, or other units of absolute time. (numbers- actual dates calculated in years "before and present")

 

 

 

  • Absolute dating is the process of determining an approximate computed age in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating, as use of the word "absolute" implies an unwarranted certainty and precision.
 Relative dating

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, designating an event, object, or fossil as being older or younger than another.

(the deeper the layer the older the object)

 Stratigraphy

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, the most reliable method of relative dating by means of strata.

 

 

  • Stratigraphy is a branch of geology which studies rock layers and layering. It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks.
 Radiocarbon dating

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, a technique of chronometric dating based on measuring the amount of radioactive cabon (C) left in organic materials found in archaeological sites.

 

 

  • Radiocarbon dating is a technique that uses the decay of Carbon-14 () to estimate the age of organic materials, such as wood and leather, up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years.
 Dendrochronology

in archaeology and paleoanthropology, a technique of chronometic dating  based on the number of rings of growth found in a tree truck.

 

 

  • Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the scientific method of dating based on the analysis of patterns of tree rings, also known as growth rings.
 bipedalism

mode of locomotion in which an organism walks upright on its two hind legs, characteristic of humans and their ancestors; also call bipedality.  

 

  • Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs, or legs.
 abductionmovement away from the midline of the body or from the center of the hand or foot.
 adduction

moverment toward the midline of the body or to the center of the hand or foot.  

 

 

 

  • Adduction is a movement which brings a part of the anatomy closer to the middle sagittal plane of the body.
 Ardipitecus

the earlist bipeds : it is divided into two species the ramidus and the older kadabba(4.4 million years old) skeleton -specimen -"Ardi"

5.2 to 5.8mya show that some of the earliest biped inhabited a forested environment.

  •  ex. chimpanzee,bonobos, and gorillas remains found in fossil rich deposits along ethiopia's river
  • Ardi means "floor" and Ramid means "root"

 

 

 Australopithecus

several species of early bipeds from east,south,and central africa living between 1.1 and 4.3 mya was direclty ancestral to humans.

 

 

  • Australopithecus is an extinct genus of hominids.
 Law of Competitive Exclusionwhen two closely related species compete for the same niche, one will out compete the other, bringing about the laters extinction.
 Artifact

 

 

                any object fashioned or altered by humans.

 material culture

 

     the durable aspects of culture, such as tools, structures, and art.

 

 

  • In the social sciences, material culture is a term, developed in the late 19th and early 20th century, that refers to the relationship between artifacts and social relations.
 Fossil

any mineralized trace or impression of an organism that has been preserved inthe earth's crust from past geologic time. 

 

 

 

  • Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals (also known as zoolites), plants, and other organisms from the remote past.
 Midden 
 Oldowan tool tradition      the first stone tool industry, beginning between 2.5 -2.6 mya
 tertiary scavenger        in a food chain, the third animal group
(second to scavenge) to obtain meat from a kill made by a predator.
 Acheulean tradition

the tool making tradition of Homo erectus in Africa,Europe, and southwestern Asia in which hand- axes were developed from the earlier Oldowan chopper.

 

 

  • Acheulean (from French acheulen, a term based on the name Saint-Acheul, a suburb of Amiens, the capital of the Somme department in Picardy, where hand-axes of this period were found in 1859), is the name given to an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture associated with early humans during the Lower Palaeolithic era across Africa and much of West Asia, South Asia, and Europe.
 Mousterian tradition         tool industry of the Neandertals
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