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Exam 2 - Flashcards

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Class:ANTH 102 - Cultural Anthropology
Subject:Anthropology
University:Boise State University
Term:Spring 2011
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Culture in which all events in life happen as a result of activities of spirits Yanomami tribe.
Abnormal personality Relative concept determined by cultural norms.
Navajo Naming ritual Begins after infant laughs for the first time , sponsored by whoever prompted the laugh, giving ritual.
Tabula Rasa Theory John Locke, 1690 An essay Concerning Human Understanding: Stated that everyone is born with equal potential and limitations as a blank state. Before we were aware of genetic variation.
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Self awareness happens through learned, constructed cultural rules. Beginning of enculturation. the ability to identify oneself as an individual, reflect on oneself, self evaluate, assume roles.The ability to perceive oneself as a unique being in time and space and judge one's own actions.
Children in industrial culture upbringing develop slower development in comparison to smaller farming and foraging communities.
Close human contact In the early stages of child development gives child a stream of emotional stimuli of smells, feelings and memories which make self awareness develop faster.
The ritual of naming does what 2 things Identifies the child as an individual, as well as a member of a group and of society.
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Naming distinguishes (6) Ethnicity, Gender, race, class, religion, political, rank
What is enculturation? process of culture passed down from one generation to the next, individuals become members of their society , beginning with self awareness, spatial, temporal, normative orientationsdetermined by one's behavioral environment specified by ones own culture.
How does enculturation influence personality? distinct childrearing practices specific to culture socialize toward societal norms and standards and impact personality
Are different personalities characteristics of different cultures? different cultures emphasize different traits as good or bad, making a typical persona for that culture, but individuals range in more or less typical, based on uniqueness, own personal experiences and subcultures.
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Modal Personality Concept most satisfactory, frequent, typical personality according that culture's perception of societal norms, considered most representative of culture, recognized in any human society.
Children can biologically survive without culture. Jungle Book phenomenon
naming ceremonies (examples) contrasting in cultures:Laymi Villagers: no name until speak language, not considered human until named "transition of nature to culture"Inuit: named after ancestors during labor to aid in birth and shape character
Name Reversion become more popular since the 1960's in retaliation to government persuasion to forgo cultural identities, individuals take back their inherited names and reject the forced anglo sax, christian names
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Basic orientations that structure psychological fields in which the self acts object orientation, spatial orientation, temporal orientation, normative orientation
How do we perceive the world around us through a cultural lens? physical environment and objects vary by the way each culture perceives, identifies and explains them through language to reduce uncertainty. this is Object orientation
Spatial orientation the ability to get from one object to another. mental mapping, finding your way around familiar environment is cognitive task based on memory of spatial orientation
Temporal Orientation gives people a sense their place in time, sense of self continuity through connecting past actions to present and future.
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Kalendae Latin word derivative of Calendar.
Cultural moral values, ideals and principles in an individual's behavioral environment Normative Orientation: standards indicate a range of acceptable behavior for males, females, and additional gender roles.
Personality derived from persona "masked" . distinctive way a person acts, thinks, and feels. product of enculturation. comfortable to identify one's own personality means they have sucessfully internalized the culture.
Anthropologists assume _____ one learns is more important how, not what.
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Dependence training Childrearing factors that foster compliance in the performance of assigned tasks and dependence on the entire domestic group over reliance on oneself. socialization to think of oneself in terms of the larger whole.
Independence training childrearing practices that foster independence, self-reliance, personal achievement.
Ju/Hoansi Gender and childrearing Definition
Margaret Mead pioneered gender identity and personality development study. distinguished cultural conditions as cause of adolescence stress. Samoa. 1928: Coming of Age. Papua New Guinea: Arapesh: men and women equal, feminine traits. Mundugamor: equal, masculine traits, Tchambuli: Women dominate men... incorrect, neither dominate. basically discovered human condition varied, alternative gender arrangements due to cultural adaptations
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Group personality holistic perspective of comparative childrearing reveals customary practices, personality development, and other aspects of culture are systematically interrelated.
National character basic personality traits shared by the majority of people of modern state societies studied in 1930s and 1940s " culture and personality movement" to find relevance in nationalistic stereotypes.
Core Values Francis Hsu: values especially promoted by a particular culture, and related personality traits
Intersexuals people who are born with genitalia and or sex chromosomes that aren't exclusively male/female. 1 X chromosome: Turner syndrome. female genitals, but not organs. XY= androgen insensitivity syndrom AIS, fully female outside, w/ internal testes. Hermaphrodites
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Transgender person who crosses over or occupies an alternative position in the binary male-female gender construction. Indiginous people of great plains Lakota, accept transgendered males dressed as women who are thought to have both male and female spirits, Winkte, curing powers
Bakla Philippine man with a female heart.
Sadhu Hindu man in India who become a monk, gives up any earthly positions, holly men, different, but not abnormal, social status.
what is an example of a culture bound syndrome? Bulimia, Anorexia, Windigo Psychosis: canabalism in Northern Algonquian groups. ethnic psychosis. ADHD, Bipolar
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Social Stratification division of a society into 2 or more social classes who don't equally share basic resources, status or power. hierarchical social power w/ political control.
What is age grading? formation of groups on age basis, generations (age set) move through series of age grade categories together. N America, Europe
Principles to organize societies , gender, age, common interest, social rank to deal with problems not handled by marriage and kinship.
Holistic entire culture
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Comparative cross culture
Evolutionary adaptation, sexual selection, fitness
Foragers vs Collectors take what you need as you need vs. store food process carry
Common Interest associations joining based on sharing particular activities, objectives, values, or beliefs, sometimes rooted in common ethnic, religious, or regional background. through the rise of urban, industrialized societies. not limited to cities, or modernized societies.
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voluntary association not based on sex, marriage, or territory. Boy Scouts of Americ. Mardi Gras conventions "Black Indians", Crips etc.
Egalitarian Societies everyone has about equal rank, access to and power over the basic resources that support survival influence and prestige. contrast to stratified societies. foraging societies usually.
social class a category of individuals in a stratified society who enjoy equal or nearly equal prestige according tot he system of evaluation.
Caste closed social class in stratified societies where placement is determined by birth and fixed for life
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Hindu caste system Following the ritual path of duty the "dharma", avoid anything taboo, traditionally justified by Karma. organized into 4 ranked orders "varnas" : Top= Brahman : Preists and teachers, twice born group. Kshatriya: rulers and warriors, Vaisya: farmers, merchants, artisansSudra: laborers. bottom, outcastes= polluted laborers,"untouchables"
Indicators of social status 1. verbal evaluation: what people say about you. 2. patterns of association: who interacts with who and in what context 3. symbolic indicators: factors of lifestyle..kind of car, occupation, dress, residential location differentiates white collar vs blue collar
Social mobility upward or downward movement in one's social positioning... person from the slums gets into medical school, gets a good job, transitions to higher class. common in independent nuclear families, neolocal residence is the norm, and kids leave the house once they become adults.
when a society permits a great deal of upward and downward movement.. it is an open class society, less in practice than like to believe, exemplified in US society, but people normal only move up or down a notch, generations strung together of change may make a dramatic difference. Caste societies highly contrast, are closed class societies.
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The Dalits are an example of what caste of what society. The untouchables, outcasts in India have been economically exploited, discriminated againstgrowing in number 200 million and political activism the Gulabi Gang is a large part of it, women demanding justice and a shift in hierarchical rule.
Best known example of a pluralistic country with social stratification based on race South Africa, from 1948 to 1994, European minority of 4 million people imposed a apartheid regime on 25 million indigenous people. resulting in white superiority, segregation, relegation of natives to lower ranking class in a closed class society.
How do humans adapt culturally? develop ways of doing things that are compatible with the resources they have available, within limitations of various habitats they live in. enables us to live in variety of environments, borrow customs from one another that work well, can be stable for long periods of time.
Cultural adaptations humans have achieved are: Food foraging, horticulture, permanent settlements, pastoralism (herding), city development, manual labor shift to industrial revolution.
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ecosystem wholly functioning system composed of natural environment and the organisms living within it.
cultural evolution vs. progress cultural change over time as adaptation occurs Vs. the notion that humans are moving forward to a better more advanced stage in cultural development toward perfection.
when societies independently developed societies find similar solutions to similar problems... it is called convergent evolution like the Comanche Great Plains Indian adapted lifestyle in 18th and 19th century that the Cheyenne Indians also adapted. the peoples have different ancestral backgrounds, but similar environmental conditions
parallel evolution related to convergent evolution, part of cultural evolution, development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by peoples whose ancestral background if also similar.
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A region where a number of societies follow similar patterns of life cultural area: MesoAmerica, Great Basin, Eurasia,
cultural core cultural features fundamental to society's way of living
modes of subsistence within developed cultural infrastructures (core) involve (3) natural resources available, technology needed to utilize resources, the work arrangements developed to best suit the society's needs.
Definition
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 Culture in which all events in life happen as a result of activities of spiritsYanomami tribe.
 Abnormal personalityRelative concept determined by cultural norms.
 Navajo Naming ritualBegins after infant laughs for the first time , sponsored by whoever prompted the laugh, giving ritual.
 Tabula Rasa TheoryJohn Locke, 1690 An essay Concerning Human Understanding: Stated that everyone is born with equal potential and limitations as a blank state. Before we were aware of genetic variation.
 Self awareness happens through learned, constructed cultural rules. Beginning of enculturation. the ability to identify oneself as an individual, reflect on oneself, self evaluate, assume roles.The ability to perceive oneself as a unique being in time and space and judge one's own actions.
 Children in industrial culture upbringing developslower development in comparison to smaller farming and foraging communities.
 Close human contactIn the early stages of child development gives child a stream of emotional stimuli of smells, feelings and memories which make self awareness develop faster.
 The ritual of naming does what 2 thingsIdentifies the child as an individual, as well as a member of a group and of society.
 Naming distinguishes (6)Ethnicity, Gender, race, class, religion, political, rank
 What is enculturation?process of culture passed down from one generation to the next, individuals become members of their society , beginning with self awareness, spatial, temporal, normative orientationsdetermined by one's behavioral environment specified by ones own culture.
 How does enculturation influence personality?distinct childrearing practices specific to culture socialize toward societal norms and standards and impact personality
 Are different personalities characteristics of different cultures? different cultures emphasize different traits as good or bad, making a typical persona for that culture, but individuals range in more or less typical, based on uniqueness, own personal experiences and subcultures.
 Modal Personality Conceptmost satisfactory, frequent, typical personality according that culture's perception of societal norms, considered most representative of culture, recognized in any human society.
 Children can biologically survive without culture. Jungle Book phenomenon
 naming ceremonies (examples)contrasting in cultures:Laymi Villagers: no name until speak language, not considered human until named "transition of nature to culture"Inuit: named after ancestors during labor to aid in birth and shape character
 Name Reversionbecome more popular since the 1960's in retaliation to government persuasion to forgo cultural identities, individuals take back their inherited names and reject the forced anglo sax, christian names
 Basic orientations that structure psychological fields in which the self actsobject orientation, spatial orientation, temporal orientation, normative orientation
 How do we perceive the world around us through a cultural lens? physical environment and objects vary by the way each culture perceives, identifies and explains them through language to reduce uncertainty. this is Object orientation
 Spatial orientationthe ability to get from one object to another. mental mapping, finding your way around familiar environment is cognitive task based on memory of spatial orientation
 Temporal Orientationgives people a sense their place in time, sense of self continuity through connecting past actions to present and future.
 KalendaeLatin word derivative of Calendar.
 Cultural moral values, ideals and principles in an individual's behavioral environmentNormative Orientation: standards indicate a range of acceptable behavior for males, females, and additional gender roles.
 Personalityderived from persona "masked" . distinctive way a person acts, thinks, and feels. product of enculturation. comfortable to identify one's own personality means they have sucessfully internalized the culture.
 Anthropologists assume _____ one learns is more important how, not what.
 Dependence trainingChildrearing factors that foster compliance in the performance of assigned tasks and dependence on the entire domestic group over reliance on oneself. socialization to think of oneself in terms of the larger whole.
 Independence trainingchildrearing practices that foster independence, self-reliance, personal achievement.
 Ju/Hoansi Gender and childrearingDefinition
 Margaret Meadpioneered gender identity and personality development study. distinguished cultural conditions as cause of adolescence stress. Samoa. 1928: Coming of Age. Papua New Guinea: Arapesh: men and women equal, feminine traits. Mundugamor: equal, masculine traits, Tchambuli: Women dominate men... incorrect, neither dominate. basically discovered human condition varied, alternative gender arrangements due to cultural adaptations
 Group personalityholistic perspective of comparative childrearing reveals customary practices, personality development, and other aspects of culture are systematically interrelated.
 National characterbasic personality traits shared by the majority of people of modern state societies studied in 1930s and 1940s " culture and personality movement" to find relevance in nationalistic stereotypes.
 Core ValuesFrancis Hsu: values especially promoted by a particular culture, and related personality traits
 Intersexualspeople who are born with genitalia and or sex chromosomes that aren't exclusively male/female. 1 X chromosome: Turner syndrome. female genitals, but not organs. XY= androgen insensitivity syndrom AIS, fully female outside, w/ internal testes. Hermaphrodites
 Transgenderperson who crosses over or occupies an alternative position in the binary male-female gender construction. Indiginous people of great plains Lakota, accept transgendered males dressed as women who are thought to have both male and female spirits, Winkte, curing powers
 BaklaPhilippine man with a female heart.
 SadhuHindu man in India who become a monk, gives up any earthly positions, holly men, different, but not abnormal, social status.
 what is an example of a culture bound syndrome? Bulimia, Anorexia, Windigo Psychosis: canabalism in Northern Algonquian groups. ethnic psychosis. ADHD, Bipolar
 Social Stratificationdivision of a society into 2 or more social classes who don't equally share basic resources, status or power. hierarchical social power w/ political control.
 What is age grading?formation of groups on age basis, generations (age set) move through series of age grade categories together. N America, Europe
 Principles to organize societies, gender, age, common interest, social rank to deal with problems not handled by marriage and kinship.
 Holisticentire culture
 Comparativecross culture
 Evolutionaryadaptation, sexual selection, fitness
 Foragers vs Collectorstake what you need as you need vs. store food process carry
 Common Interest associations joining based on sharing particular activities, objectives, values, or beliefs, sometimes rooted in common ethnic, religious, or regional background. through the rise of urban, industrialized societies. not limited to cities, or modernized societies.
 voluntary associationnot based on sex, marriage, or territory. Boy Scouts of Americ. Mardi Gras conventions "Black Indians", Crips etc.
 Egalitarian Societieseveryone has about equal rank, access to and power over the basic resources that support survival influence and prestige. contrast to stratified societies. foraging societies usually.
 social classa category of individuals in a stratified society who enjoy equal or nearly equal prestige according tot he system of evaluation.
 Casteclosed social class in stratified societies where placement is determined by birth and fixed for life
 Hindu caste systemFollowing the ritual path of duty the "dharma", avoid anything taboo, traditionally justified by Karma. organized into 4 ranked orders "varnas" : Top= Brahman : Preists and teachers, twice born group. Kshatriya: rulers and warriors, Vaisya: farmers, merchants, artisansSudra: laborers. bottom, outcastes= polluted laborers,"untouchables"
 Indicators of social status1. verbal evaluation: what people say about you. 2. patterns of association: who interacts with who and in what context 3. symbolic indicators: factors of lifestyle..kind of car, occupation, dress, residential location differentiates white collar vs blue collar
 Social mobilityupward or downward movement in one's social positioning... person from the slums gets into medical school, gets a good job, transitions to higher class. common in independent nuclear families, neolocal residence is the norm, and kids leave the house once they become adults.
 when a society permits a great deal of upward and downward movement..it is an open class society, less in practice than like to believe, exemplified in US society, but people normal only move up or down a notch, generations strung together of change may make a dramatic difference. Caste societies highly contrast, are closed class societies.
 The Dalits are an example of what caste of what society.The untouchables, outcasts in India have been economically exploited, discriminated againstgrowing in number 200 million and political activism the Gulabi Gang is a large part of it, women demanding justice and a shift in hierarchical rule.
 Best known example of a pluralistic country with social stratification based on raceSouth Africa, from 1948 to 1994, European minority of 4 million people imposed a apartheid regime on 25 million indigenous people. resulting in white superiority, segregation, relegation of natives to lower ranking class in a closed class society.
 How do humans adapt culturally?develop ways of doing things that are compatible with the resources they have available, within limitations of various habitats they live in. enables us to live in variety of environments, borrow customs from one another that work well, can be stable for long periods of time.
 Cultural adaptations humans have achieved are:Food foraging, horticulture, permanent settlements, pastoralism (herding), city development, manual labor shift to industrial revolution.
 ecosystem wholly functioning system composed of natural environment and the organisms living within it.
 cultural evolution vs. progresscultural change over time as adaptation occurs Vs. the notion that humans are moving forward to a better more advanced stage in cultural development toward perfection.
 when societies independently developed societies find similar solutions to similar problems...it is called convergent evolution like the Comanche Great Plains Indian adapted lifestyle in 18th and 19th century that the Cheyenne Indians also adapted. the peoples have different ancestral backgrounds, but similar environmental conditions
 parallel evolutionrelated to convergent evolution, part of cultural evolution, development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by peoples whose ancestral background if also similar.
 A region where a number of societies follow similar patterns of lifecultural area: MesoAmerica, Great Basin, Eurasia,
 cultural corecultural features fundamental to society's way of living
 modes of subsistence within developed cultural infrastructures (core) involve (3)natural resources available, technology needed to utilize resources, the work arrangements developed to best suit the society's needs.
  Definition
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