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Exam 1 - Flashcards

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Class:ANTH 121 - Intro Physical Anthropology
Subject:Anthropology
University:Ferris State University
Term:Fall 2010
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Anthropology is: The study of humankind everywhere, throughout time.
In human evolutionary studies, physical anthropologists known as _______ look back to the earliest primates to reconstruct the complex path of human evolultion. Paleoanthropologists
How does the perception of organ transplantation differ between the U.S and Japan? It is rarely performed in Japan because they do not incorporate a mind-body separation.
Anthropology is different from other disciplines that study humans because _______. It synthesizes data from many fields in an effort to edscribe human behavior as a whole.
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Which of the following is NOT a traditional field or discipline of anthropology? Molecular anthropology
________ specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes. Forensic anthropology
Which of the following statements about cultural anthropology is/are correct? Cultural anthropologist study _________. 1. the rules or standards of behavior by which societies operate. 2. learned behavior rather than those acquired through biological inheritance.
Which of the following are broad research interests of physical anthropologists? Biological variation in human populations and evolution of human characteristics.
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An archaeologist studies material remains to understand _______. Culture
The Garbage Project in Tucson demonstrated that what people say and what they do can differ dramatically. For instance, investigators found that _______. the amount of beer consumed, according to empty cans in the trash, was far higher than the people claimed.
Clyde Snow is an anthropologist who __________. used forensic evidence to investigate "disappearances" in Argentina.
Besides interest in descriptions of particular cultures, the ethnologist is also interested in ___________. cross-cultural comparisons.
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Which of the following is NOT the goal of science? to eliminate the need to use the imagination.
Which of the following exemplifies the concept of a "hypothesis"? The light bulb failed to light because _________. 1. the filament was broken 2. the power to the building was off 3. it was not screwed in tightly 4.it was poorly made
A(n) _______ is a closely examined and critically checked out explanation of observed reality. theory
Ideally, theories in anthropology are generated from _______. ethnographies from all over the world so that statements made about culture will be universally accepted.
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The anthropologists who focus on humans as biological organisms, tracing their evolutionary development and looking at biological variations within the species, past and present are known as ______. physical anthropologists
Anthropology studies the language of a culture, its philosophy, and its forms of art; and in the process of doing research, ethnographers involve themselves intensively in the lives of those they study, trying to experience culture from their informants' points of view. In this sense, anthropology is ______. humanistic
Anthropology has been called the most human of the sciences because __________. 1. it has developed a systematic, cross-cultureal approach to understanding human behavior 2.it takes human beings as its subject matter. 3.it develops hypotheses and theories about the organization of language, values, and art in culture. 4. it tackles culture as a human experience or system of meaning in which the anthropologists must involve himself/herself in order to develop adequate explanations of what is being observed.
The anthropologist has to consider obligations to three sets of people: the profession of anthropology, the people who funded the study, and the people studied
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Cross-cultureal studies show that in many non-Western cultures "co-sleeping" is the rule. Which of the following are benefits of mother and infant co-sleeping? 1. infants nurse more often 2. infants receive more stimuli 3. infants are less susceptible to infant death syndrome. 4. mother gets at least as much sleep as mothers who do not sleep with infants
In order to frame objective hypotheses that are as free of culture bias as possible, anthropologists typically develop them through _______. fieldwork
The raw material for evolution is the unit of heredity called the ________. gene
What is the relationship between the "gene" and DNA? A gene is part of the complex molecule called DNA; it is a particular section that contains the code responsible for a particular trait.
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The cells of your body wear out on a regular basis and must be replaced (skin, hair, and fingernail cells). The process of cell division by which new body cells are produced is called _________. mitosis
Which of the following statements best expresses the major DIFFERENCES between mitosis and meiosis? Mitosis is the process by which a single cell with X number chromosomes divides into 2 cells, each with the same number of chromosomes; meiosis is the process by which a single cell with X number of chromosomes goes through 2 stages of division, producing 4 new cells each with X/2 of chromosomes.
If you have a chromosome pair on which the alleles for a single gene are identical (for example, if you have the genotype AA for blood in the ABO system), this pair is described as _______. homozygous
A person receives a gene for Type A blood from his mother, and a gene for Type O blood from his father. His phenotype is Type A blood. The gene for Type A blood can be described as __________. a dominant allele
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Inherited skin color in humans is caused by _______. at least 3 separate genes (called polygenes)
A person with a phenotype characterized by mostly normal red blood cells but with a few abnormal sickling cells ______. 1. has a heterozygous genotype 2. illustrates the phenomenon of incomplete dominance of the allele for normal hemoglobin
The study of the inheritance in individuals tells us about how genes can be combined and recombined through sexual reproduction, but also see how species change over time as natural selection favors some combinations over others, we need to look at ________. populations
A chemical alteration of a gene the produces a new allele is called a __________. mutation
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Changes in the frequency of genes in a gene pool caused by accidental, random, chance events are ______. 1. called genetic drift 2.more likely to occur in small populations
The introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another is called _______. gene flow
Natural Selection _______. occurs when individuals possess certain genetically based traits that helps them have more offspring, and thus contribute a larger share of genes to futuregene pools
The process by which a population becomes better adapted to its biological and social environment is ______. adaptation
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Which of the following represents an example of natural selection? In a population of fish, some have a very unusual mutation that enables the to get oxygen directly from the air as well as water that runs over their gills. During a time of drought, these were the only fish able to survive, and their descendants possessed the same gene.
The case of sickle-cell anemia illustrates that a trait may bring misery to an individual is adaptive from the point of view of the ________. population
As described in your textbook, a ____________ is a portion of the DNA molecule containing several base pairs that directs the production of a particular protein. gene
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 Anthropology is:The study of humankind everywhere, throughout time.
 In human evolutionary studies, physical anthropologists known as _______ look back to the earliest primates to reconstruct the complex path of human evolultion.Paleoanthropologists
 How does the perception of organ transplantation differ between the U.S and Japan?It is rarely performed in Japan because they do not incorporate a mind-body separation.
 Anthropology is different from other disciplines that study humans because _______.It synthesizes data from many fields in an effort to edscribe human behavior as a whole.
 Which of the following is NOT a traditional field or discipline of anthropology?Molecular anthropology
 ________ specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes.Forensic anthropology
 Which of the following statements about cultural anthropology is/are correct? Cultural anthropologist study _________.1. the rules or standards of behavior by which societies operate.
2. learned behavior rather than those acquired through biological inheritance.
 Which of the following are broad research interests of physical anthropologists?Biological variation in human populations and evolution of human characteristics.
 An archaeologist studies material remains to understand _______.Culture
 The Garbage Project in Tucson demonstrated that what people say and what they do can differ dramatically. For instance, investigators found that _______.the amount of beer consumed, according to empty cans in the trash, was far higher than the people claimed.
 Clyde Snow is an anthropologist who __________.used forensic evidence to investigate "disappearances" in Argentina.
 Besides interest in descriptions of particular cultures, the ethnologist is also interested in ___________.cross-cultural comparisons.
 Which of the following is NOT the goal of science?to eliminate the need to use the imagination.
 Which of the following exemplifies the concept of a "hypothesis"? The light bulb failed to light because _________.1. the filament was broken
2. the power to the building was off
3. it was not screwed in tightly
4.it was poorly made
 A(n) _______ is a closely examined and critically checked out explanation of observed reality.theory
 Ideally, theories in anthropology are generated from _______.ethnographies from all over the world so that statements made about culture will be universally accepted.
 The anthropologists who focus on humans as biological organisms, tracing their evolutionary development and looking at biological variations within the species, past and present are known as ______.physical anthropologists
 Anthropology studies the language of a culture, its philosophy, and its forms of art; and in the process of doing research, ethnographers involve themselves intensively in the lives of those they study, trying to experience culture from their informants' points of view. In this sense, anthropology is ______.humanistic
 Anthropology has been called the most human of the sciences because __________.1. it has developed a systematic, cross-cultureal approach to understanding human behavior
2.it takes human beings as its subject matter.
3.it develops hypotheses and theories about the organization of language, values, and art in culture.
4. it tackles culture as a human experience or system of meaning in which the anthropologists must involve himself/herself in order to develop adequate explanations of what is being observed.
 The anthropologist has to consider obligations to three sets of people:the profession of anthropology, the people who funded the study, and the people studied
 Cross-cultureal studies show that in many non-Western cultures "co-sleeping" is the rule. Which of the following are benefits of mother and infant co-sleeping?1. infants nurse more often
2. infants receive more stimuli
3. infants are less susceptible to infant death syndrome.
4. mother gets at least as much sleep as mothers who do not sleep with infants
 In order to frame objective hypotheses that are as free of culture bias as possible, anthropologists typically develop them through _______.fieldwork
 The raw material for evolution is the unit of heredity called the ________.gene
 What is the relationship between the "gene" and DNA?A gene is part of the complex molecule called DNA; it is a particular section that contains the code responsible for a particular trait.
 The cells of your body wear out on a regular basis and must be replaced (skin, hair, and fingernail cells). The process of cell division by which new body cells are produced is called _________.mitosis
 Which of the following statements best expresses the major DIFFERENCES between mitosis and meiosis?Mitosis is the process by which a single cell with X number chromosomes divides into 2 cells, each with the same number of chromosomes; meiosis is the process by which a single cell with X number of chromosomes goes through 2 stages of division, producing 4 new cells each with X/2 of chromosomes.
 If you have a chromosome pair on which the alleles for a single gene are identical (for example, if you have the genotype AA for blood in the ABO system), this pair is described as _______.homozygous
 A person receives a gene for Type A blood from his mother, and a gene for Type O blood from his father. His phenotype is Type A blood. The gene for Type A blood can be described as __________.a dominant allele
 Inherited skin color in humans is caused by _______.at least 3 separate genes (called polygenes)
 A person with a phenotype characterized by mostly normal red blood cells but with a few abnormal sickling cells ______.1. has a heterozygous genotype
2. illustrates the phenomenon of incomplete dominance of the allele for normal hemoglobin
 The study of the inheritance in individuals tells us about how genes can be combined and recombined through sexual reproduction, but also see how species change over time as natural selection favors some combinations over others, we need to look at ________.populations
 A chemical alteration of a gene the produces a new allele is called a __________.mutation
 Changes in the frequency of genes in a gene pool caused by accidental, random, chance events are ______.1. called genetic drift
2.more likely to occur in small populations
 The introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another is called _______.gene flow
 Natural Selection _______.occurs when individuals possess certain genetically based traits that helps them have more offspring, and thus contribute a larger share of genes to futuregene pools
 The process by which a population becomes better adapted to its biological and social environment is ______.adaptation
 Which of the following represents an example of natural selection?In a population of fish, some have a very unusual mutation that enables the to get oxygen directly from the air as well as water that runs over their gills. During a time of drought, these were the only fish able to survive, and their descendants possessed the same gene.
 The case of sickle-cell anemia illustrates that a trait may bring misery to an individual is adaptive from the point of view of the ________.population
 As described in your textbook, a ____________ is a portion of the DNA molecule containing several base pairs that directs the production of a particular protein.gene
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