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Art of China - Flashcards

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Class:ART 1910 - Art History Survey I
Subject:Art
University:Middle Tennessee State University
Term:Fall Term 2012
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Oracle Bones, Shang Dynasty/ thought to be dragon bones, ground up and used as meds (made of deer and trurtle). archaologists thought were forgeries. Diviner used to predict. Very early form of Chinese writing.
Guang, Shang Dynasty, possibly from Anyang 12-11th cent BC, Tao-Tie mask-mythical monster, "fear of empty space"-lots of layers of deco. Phanges? Dragon
Jade Buffalo, Shang Dynasty, Shang commissioned carving of jade cutting done w/ string saw-chord w/ sticky resin +sand. Only for Elite, Nephrite-soft jade, not usually Jadite, can be many colors.
Cast Bronze Yu, Western Zhou,  12-11th cent BC, (one of Golden ages, 600 yrs). Tao-Tie monster, slightly less busy
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Wine Container or Hu, Spring and Autumn Period, early 5th cent BC, bronze inlaid w/ copper.
Bi disk, Zhou Dynasty, very thin translucent jade, represents Celestial Realm, Dragons-celestial messengers, rivers, underground, sky, Axis Mundi idea-goes through center hole, usually near head/face of dead at funerary.
Yangshao Jug, Yangshao culture, 
"X"s on top may be beginning of Chinese writing, patterns flow,
Kong, Neolithic China, axis mundi represented  by center hole.
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Dui or ritual food container, Warring States Period, 4th Cent BC, bronze inlaid w/ bone black (bunt bone to ash), + lacquer (toxic product from sap of poisonous plants). Doesn't have "phlanges"-use Lost Wax Casting NOW.
Tomb of Marquis yi of Zeng, Suixian, Zhou Dynasty, 433 BC, over 10,000 items, Yong-Chong-bronze musical bell, each have 9 bosses, 9=good luck, 2 tiers.
Great Wall of China, Qin Dynasty, Shihuangdi-conscript laborers

Soldier from tomb of ShiHuangdi, Qin Dynasty

part of massive funerary monument to himself. Ceramic army for defense in next world, more than 6,000 soldiers hand built, Officers 6'2'', soldiers 5'10''. He was hated. Suppressed Confucian +Tao +Buddhism.

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Manor House with Tower, Han Dynasty
Zun or wine warming vessel, Han Dynasty
Lacquer ware bowl and tray, Tomb of Lady Dai, Han Dynasty
Funerary banner of Lady Dai, Han Dynasty
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Gold inlaid incense burner from the tomb of Liu Sheng, Han Dynasty
Jade suit of Prince Liu Sheng, Han Dynasty
Shakyamuni Buddha, Period of Disunity, AD 338, 15 1/2 '' h. Bronze w/ gilding, similar to Gandharan Seated Buddha. Is earliest existing chinese buddhist art. Response to Gandharan. Holes-pegged in some sort scene as in other. Cast Bronze.
Buddha, Cave 20, Yungang, N. Wei Period, "Cloud Ridge Caves", Sandstone, easy to carve, erodes quickly, 'Spalding', arched windows and columns, used to have wood awning, statues eroded, lost legs and details, compare to Gandharan-bigger ears, u pattern in middle, flat hair, has pupils, face is more moon-like. Carved before Bamiyan Buddha in Afghanistan, 6th-7th-blown up by Taliban.
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Gu Kaizhi, Lady Feng and the Bear, Admonitions of the instructress to the court ladies scroll, Period of  Disunity, several scenes are lost, explain role of women to be 'meek and submissive', Confucians believe women cannot rule. Lady Feng selflessly steps into path of an escped black bear that has targeted her husband, Han emperor Yuandi, but is saved by armed guards. Individuals aren't important except Emperor, linear style, everyone is type.
Gu Kaizhi, The Mountain and the Hunter, Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies Scroll, Period of Disunity, w/ cross bow about to shoot tiger. Illustration of the couplet, 'To rise to glory is as hard as to build mountains of dust: To fall into calamity is as easy as the rebound of a tense spring.'
Terracotta figurine of of musicians on a camel, Tang Dynasty, 8th-9th cent, Probably Persian, came along Silk Route, other countries sent tributes,
Neighing Horse, Tang Dynasty, Glazed Terracotta, 8th-9th cent, 20''h, Chinese are starting to get horses like the "barbarians" had, "Horses of Heaven" -sweated blood, probably parasites, controlled glaze drips by grooves,
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Tomb of Prince Zhanhuai, Ministers and foreign emissaries, Tang Dynasty, 684, by prof artists, given proper burial later, 3 court officials Korean, Central Asian +Monk/Frier from Bizantine Empire. Missionaries sent along Silk Route.
Tomb of Princess Yongtai, Palace Ladies, Tang Dynasty, Wu Zetian's Grandaughter-stoned to death for gossiping about Zetian's lover.
Yan Liben (Attrib.) Emperor Xuan and Attendants from Thirteen Emperors Handscroll, Tang Dynasty, Model Emperors, Kingly Virtues, sense of space, further back is higher,
Fengxian Grotto, Longmen, AD 672
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Vairocana Buddha, Fengxian Grotto, Longmen, Tang Dynasty,
main buddha looks like Wu Zetian, who built it, trying to win the public's favor, Cosmic Buddha-2 bodhisattvas, halos carved into rock wall-originally wooden cover, 1st caves 4th-5th cent.
Buddha and bodhisattvas, Dunhuang, Cave 45, Tang  Dynasty, 7th-8th cent, Dunhuang-end of silk route, merchants, clay modeled-straw-covered in stucco+paint, much more human like.
Paradise of  Amitaba, Dunhuang, cave 172, Tang Dynasty, Buddha of the Western Pure land, 2 bodhisattvas-1 is podmoponei-always w/ Amitaba, gardens, dancing, pavillions, recreation of Emperor's class.
Fan Kuan, Travelers among Mountains and Streams, Northern Song Period, early 11th cent, hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk, 6'71/4''x3'41/4''. Suggests that mt cannot be contained-nature is enormous, compared to people. "traveler" is tiny, in trees is a monastery, all trees have different leaves, 
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Xu Daoning, Fishing in a mountain stream, Northern Sung Dynasty, panoramic, handscroll, goes through space and time, sense of huge country during Northern Song Period, lots of detail in front.
Zhang Zeduan, Along the river during Quinming Festival, Northern Sung Dynasty, festival to clean tombs of ancestors and celebrate spring, begins in coutryside and progresses to town and end of festival, multiple vantage points=axiometric perspective=oriental perspective, lines of houses.
Meiping Vase, Cizhou type, Northern Sung Dynasty, 12th cent, stoneware w/ sgraffito deco=scratched. two layers of paint+scratch through one of layres, meant to hold single bud, peony-prosperity, design emphasizes shape. elegant.
Huizong, Finches and Bamboo, Northern Sung Dynasty, was 8th ruler 1101-26 of N. Song, was artist, weakened military, made own calligraphy "slender golden", built 1st museum, 1st catologue of art collections, imperial ceramic kilns, Barbarian "Jurchans" take over.

2 male finches eyeing eachother, very lifelike, drop of lacquer for eyes, 
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Huizong, Auspicious Cranes, Northern Sung Period, handscroll section, Northern Song 1112, ink and colors on silk, white birds=good omen, emphasis on birds not palace.
Ma Yuan, On a Mountain Path in Spring, Southern Song Period, early 13th cent, album leaf, ink and colors on silk. "one corner Ma" - he puts most of focus into lower left corner. Mist in distance shrouding mts. Scholar+servant, quick, few lines, straight robe-album leaf.
Xia Gui, Streams and Rivers with a Clear Distant View, Southern  Sung Dynasty, hand scroll textured brush stroke, not too clear "axe chop" -short straight lines for texture, shading-dry brush technique,
Liang Kai, Sixth Chan Patriarch Chopping Bamboo, Southern Song Period, early 13th cent, hanging scroll, ink on paper, resurgence of Buddhism-Chan doesn't portray images of deities. all people have potential for enlightenment, gradual or sudden, sudden during menial tasks, simple quick style "no illusians", sparse, not popular in China, but Japan-known as Zen Buddhism.
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Rashid al-Din, Khuriltai of 1206
Temple Vase, Yuan Dynasty, 1351, white porcelain w/ cobalt blue under glaze, awkward clunky rings, designs don't mesh w/ shape, elephant handles, dragon and pheonix, haven't seen vases w/ handles til now, beginning of blue and white porcelain. 
zhao mengfu, Twin Pines, Level Distance, Yuan Dynasty, thought he could persuade Mongols to give better jobs to Chinese, more like Southern Song, 
Zhao Mengfu, Autumn colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains, Yuan Dynasty, 1296, painted from memory for friend, Southern Song style, 
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Zhao Mengfu, Groom and Horse, Yuan Dynasty, 1296
his attempt to create art that the Mongols better understood, since they were a nomadic culture. tried foreshortening, 
Guan Daosheng, Bamboo Groves in Mist and Rain, Yuan Dynasty,1308,She was bamboo painting expert. section of handscroll, ink on paper, married to Mengfu, did paintings of bamboo landscapes, not Mongol styles,wrote "bamboo in monochrome", Southern Song style, lots of mist and clouds, directs eye through scene but not far in distance.
Wu Zhen, Stalks of Bamboo by a Rock, Yuan Dynasty, 1347, typical chinese bamboo paintings, bamboo is metaphor for Chinese gentlemen-bend but not break, leaves look like Chinese calligraphy, master of "mossy rock", uses dry brush technique for dimension, places inscription above rock to balance bamboo, instead of just on top. Literati painter, liked austerity in nature, at its simplest
Ni Zan, Rongxi Studio, Yuan Dynasty, 1372, avoided Mongel court, came from wealthy family, painted it for friend Bu Shwan? who gave to dr. Changran and asked him to sign it. he was living on the property in pic. Literati used monochrome because saw color as distraction.
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Huang Gongwang, Dwelling in the Fu Chun Mountains, Yuan Dynasty, came from poor family, child prodigy, Huang Li (90) adopted him as son, new name meant "old man Huang's longing", gov job-accused of tax poblems, makes living as fortune teller-prison-lived in country and devoted life to painting, fame in 80s, began this at 78, sketched entire scene in 1 sitting, details over 3yr period, saved from funerary burning by wealthy owner's niece, 2 sections now, Southern Song Style, interested in Daoism, dry brush, long hemp strokes for texture.
Ai Weiwei, Dropping a Han Dynasty Urn, Photo Triptych, 1996
Wang Meng, Forest Chamber Grotto at Ju'ou, Yuan Dynasty, was grandson of Menfu, minor official in Yuan, spent end of life in prison for false accusation, not literati, wanted to be original, color, detail, no mist, similar to detail of Fan Kuan and N Sung but less focused.
The Forbidden City, Beijing, Ming Dynasty, 15th cent and later, purple-pole star above city, fixed revolving center, polar city, star has purplish tint, analogy that he is the revolving point., entrance ramps according to rank, Similar structure to Angkor Wat +Thom (centered), Throne room similar to Emerald Buddha,  15th cent and later, carved and lacquer painted, 9999 rooms, over 2mil sq ft.
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Table with Drawers, Ming Dynasty, 1426-1435, 
Carved red Lacquer on wood core, 3'11'' long, for imperial palace, dragon + pheonix. 
Also, carved lacquer folding chair=first folding chair.
Dai Jin, Tall Pines and Five Deer, Ming Dynasty, souther school-literati painters-painted for own enjoyment+reason, deer are white, started in Imperial painting Academy-dismissed, Dai +followers wanted to elaborate on Southern Song, similar to Wang Meng, Fan Kuan, Wu Zhen, Ni Zan, gets boring, Wu school forms around Shen Zhou-family was wealthy-filial piety respect for parents, took care of mom+make art instead of working, felt Yuan literati painters were innovative(Wang Meng).
Shen Zhou, Poet on a Mountain Top, Ming Dynasty, Radical Changes in Style, bolder, poet read inscription in sky, believe words to be as important as at
Dong Qichang, Dwelling in the Qinbian Mountains, Ming Dynasty, poor but scholarly family, hanging scroll, ink on paper, placed 2nd on test 'cause of calligraphy-no job, spent next 5 yrs becoming master calligrapher -35 yr old-gov job-turmoil-resigned multiple times, controversial-mob burned down his house, N+S school based on Chan Enlightenment, focuses on art as calligraphy-contrast. Innovation was important to him, doesn't do much people in art.
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Shen Zhou, Lofty Mount Lu, Ming Dynasty, very similar to Wang Meng's, b day present for teacher on 70th, never seen mt lu, analogy between greatness of mt + teacher, small figure by water for scale between student + master
W angshi Yuan (Garden of the Master of the Fishing Nets), Ming Dynasty, development of private gardens, this was made in Sung era-elaborate series of pavilions w/ different purposes, series of vistas, Suzhou China, Gold fish in ponds.
Blue and White Porcelain Flask, Ming Dynasty, what Ming is best known for, wash effects and subtle texture, Dragon in rough sea.
Wen Shu, Carnations and Garden Rock, Ming Dynasty, 1627, husband died, worked doing album leaf art, credited w/ fan art-popular with collectors 
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Meiping Blue and White Porcelain Vase, Ming Dynasty, 
Giuseppe Castiglione (Lang Shining), Auspicious Objects, Qing Dynasty, for Emperor on Birthday, Southern Song cloud banks in sky. 
Castiglione, Emperor Qinglong, Qing Dynasty, typical pose, perspective, seated, didn't make much impact because Chinese did not view W art as real art.
Giuseppe Castiglione, Spring's Peaceful Message, Qing Dynasty, 1736, court artist, Western perspective of table, robe folds, Hair-Que-pigtail shaved around-required, asserting dominance over Chinese
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Shitao, Man in a House Beneath a Cliff, Qing Dynasty, 17th Cent, album leaf, ink and color on paper, entered Chan Buddhist monastery for safety, converted to Daoism, Yuan era literati inspired his work. "Pre mortial line" -countour line- crisp, most Chan painters don't use colors, Sun shining through fog shows light being refracted through moisture-what impressionists do in 19th cent.
Xu Beihong Two Horses, artists more able to go West, 1 of first to travel abroad before Communists take over, bold lines, modeling Western foreshortening
Fu Baoshi, Yun'an, 1964, master of modern landscapes, mist, atmospheric perspective-usually a cool color, he uses red, like Shitao atmosphere. 
Xu Beihong, Three Horses, more depth+foreshortening, combine W techniques w/ tradition
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C.C. Wang, Mind Landscape No. 3, Late 20th Century, one of ex-patriots who left country when Mao took power. went to US-manhatten-abstract expressionist-modernize traditional Chinese painting. 
Liu Kuo-sung, Heaven Lake, 1982, Ink on paper, surrealist landscape, originality, 5th Moon Painting Society, modernize Chinese  art, fluid, flying through,
Zhang Xiaogang, Creation Bloodline, Big Family No. 2, 1993, splotches reflect discoloration as in old photographs, 
Xu Bing, A Book From the Sky, 1988, Installation at Chazen Museum of Art, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1991. Movable-type, prints and books, took advantage of new artistic freedoms, filled with nonsensical calligraphy, individual wooden blocks, to show the nonsensical quality of political discourse.
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Ye Yushan and others, Rent Collection Courtyard (detail of larger tableau), Dayi, China, 1965, Clay, 100 yards long with lifesize figures, severe punishment of "offensive art", "abuses" of workers by capitalists, cast bronze later, glass eyes
Ai Weiwei, Neolithic Vessel with Coca-cola logo, c. 1994, he was tricked into critiquing communism and sent to countryside, commentary on Chinese history, castiglione painting Ming chairs(Wu Family Reception Hall, 2008),
Cai Guo-Qiang, Odyssey, 2010, gunpowder on 42 panels each 10' high, ignites gun powder on paper using dampers and stencils to control it.
Wang Hui, A Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines, Qing Dynasty, Manchu favored "orthodox painters"-historical styles, imitating Dong Qichang "Dwelling in the Qinbian mts (ming)", negative + positive spaces, 
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Main Hall, Nanchan Temple, Shaanxi, AD 782, Tang Dynasty, Beginning of upturned eaves, Pheonix? Post and Lintle door-center bay-module-repeat until big enough. wider central bay and 2 side bays. (stepped beams/decking can flex
Great Wild Goose Pagoda, AD 648, 1st Levels from Sui Dynasty-renovated in Tang Dynasty. Similar to Mahabodi Temple. Held Sutras.
Entrance to Great Mosque of Chang'an (Xian), muslims not allowed to push religion/looks residential, nothing looks mosque-like. Inside, pointed arch inside alfiz.
Guo Xi, Early Spring, 1072, human nature seeks nature. feeling of having journeyed through.
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  Oracle Bones, Shang Dynasty/ thought to be dragon bones, ground up and used as meds (made of deer and trurtle). archaologists thought were forgeries. Diviner used to predict. Very early form of Chinese writing.
  Guang, Shang Dynasty, possibly from Anyang 12-11th cent BC, Tao-Tie mask-mythical monster, "fear of empty space"-lots of layers of deco. Phanges? Dragon
  Jade Buffalo, Shang Dynasty, Shang commissioned carving of jade cutting done w/ string saw-chord w/ sticky resin +sand. Only for Elite, Nephrite-soft jade, not usually Jadite, can be many colors.
  Cast Bronze Yu, Western Zhou,  12-11th cent BC, (one of Golden ages, 600 yrs). Tao-Tie monster, slightly less busy
  Wine Container or Hu, Spring and Autumn Period, early 5th cent BC, bronze inlaid w/ copper.
  Bi disk, Zhou Dynasty, very thin translucent jade, represents Celestial Realm, Dragons-celestial messengers, rivers, underground, sky, Axis Mundi idea-goes through center hole, usually near head/face of dead at funerary.
  Yangshao Jug, Yangshao culture, 
"X"s on top may be beginning of Chinese writing, patterns flow,
  Kong, Neolithic China, axis mundi represented  by center hole.
  Dui or ritual food container, Warring States Period, 4th Cent BC, bronze inlaid w/ bone black (bunt bone to ash), + lacquer (toxic product from sap of poisonous plants). Doesn't have "phlanges"-use Lost Wax Casting NOW.
  Tomb of Marquis yi of Zeng, Suixian, Zhou Dynasty, 433 BC, over 10,000 items, Yong-Chong-bronze musical bell, each have 9 bosses, 9=good luck, 2 tiers.
  Great Wall of China, Qin Dynasty, Shihuangdi-conscript laborers
  

Soldier from tomb of ShiHuangdi, Qin Dynasty

part of massive funerary monument to himself. Ceramic army for defense in next world, more than 6,000 soldiers hand built, Officers 6'2'', soldiers 5'10''. He was hated. Suppressed Confucian +Tao +Buddhism.

  Manor House with Tower, Han Dynasty
  Zun or wine warming vessel, Han Dynasty
  Lacquer ware bowl and tray, Tomb of Lady Dai, Han Dynasty
  Funerary banner of Lady Dai, Han Dynasty
  Gold inlaid incense burner from the tomb of Liu Sheng, Han Dynasty
  Jade suit of Prince Liu Sheng, Han Dynasty
  Shakyamuni Buddha, Period of Disunity, AD 338, 15 1/2 '' h. Bronze w/ gilding, similar to Gandharan Seated Buddha. Is earliest existing chinese buddhist art. Response to Gandharan. Holes-pegged in some sort scene as in other. Cast Bronze.
  Buddha, Cave 20, Yungang, N. Wei Period, "Cloud Ridge Caves", Sandstone, easy to carve, erodes quickly, 'Spalding', arched windows and columns, used to have wood awning, statues eroded, lost legs and details, compare to Gandharan-bigger ears, u pattern in middle, flat hair, has pupils, face is more moon-like. Carved before Bamiyan Buddha in Afghanistan, 6th-7th-blown up by Taliban.
  Gu Kaizhi, Lady Feng and the Bear, Admonitions of the instructress to the court ladies scroll, Period of  Disunity, several scenes are lost, explain role of women to be 'meek and submissive', Confucians believe women cannot rule. Lady Feng selflessly steps into path of an escped black bear that has targeted her husband, Han emperor Yuandi, but is saved by armed guards. Individuals aren't important except Emperor, linear style, everyone is type.
  Gu Kaizhi, The Mountain and the Hunter, Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies Scroll, Period of Disunity, w/ cross bow about to shoot tiger. Illustration of the couplet, 'To rise to glory is as hard as to build mountains of dust: To fall into calamity is as easy as the rebound of a tense spring.'
  Terracotta figurine of of musicians on a camel, Tang Dynasty, 8th-9th cent, Probably Persian, came along Silk Route, other countries sent tributes,
  Neighing Horse, Tang Dynasty, Glazed Terracotta, 8th-9th cent, 20''h, Chinese are starting to get horses like the "barbarians" had, "Horses of Heaven" -sweated blood, probably parasites, controlled glaze drips by grooves,
  Tomb of Prince Zhanhuai, Ministers and foreign emissaries, Tang Dynasty, 684, by prof artists, given proper burial later, 3 court officials Korean, Central Asian +Monk/Frier from Bizantine Empire. Missionaries sent along Silk Route.
  Tomb of Princess Yongtai, Palace Ladies, Tang Dynasty, Wu Zetian's Grandaughter-stoned to death for gossiping about Zetian's lover.
  Yan Liben (Attrib.) Emperor Xuan and Attendants from Thirteen Emperors Handscroll, Tang Dynasty, Model Emperors, Kingly Virtues, sense of space, further back is higher,
  Fengxian Grotto, Longmen, AD 672
  Vairocana Buddha, Fengxian Grotto, Longmen, Tang Dynasty,
main buddha looks like Wu Zetian, who built it, trying to win the public's favor, Cosmic Buddha-2 bodhisattvas, halos carved into rock wall-originally wooden cover, 1st caves 4th-5th cent.
  Buddha and bodhisattvas, Dunhuang, Cave 45, Tang  Dynasty, 7th-8th cent, Dunhuang-end of silk route, merchants, clay modeled-straw-covered in stucco+paint, much more human like.
  Paradise of  Amitaba, Dunhuang, cave 172, Tang Dynasty, Buddha of the Western Pure land, 2 bodhisattvas-1 is podmoponei-always w/ Amitaba, gardens, dancing, pavillions, recreation of Emperor's class.
  Fan Kuan, Travelers among Mountains and Streams, Northern Song Period, early 11th cent, hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk, 6'71/4''x3'41/4''. Suggests that mt cannot be contained-nature is enormous, compared to people. "traveler" is tiny, in trees is a monastery, all trees have different leaves, 
  Xu Daoning, Fishing in a mountain stream, Northern Sung Dynasty, panoramic, handscroll, goes through space and time, sense of huge country during Northern Song Period, lots of detail in front.
  Zhang Zeduan, Along the river during Quinming Festival, Northern Sung Dynasty, festival to clean tombs of ancestors and celebrate spring, begins in coutryside and progresses to town and end of festival, multiple vantage points=axiometric perspective=oriental perspective, lines of houses.
  Meiping Vase, Cizhou type, Northern Sung Dynasty, 12th cent, stoneware w/ sgraffito deco=scratched. two layers of paint+scratch through one of layres, meant to hold single bud, peony-prosperity, design emphasizes shape. elegant.
  Huizong, Finches and Bamboo, Northern Sung Dynasty, was 8th ruler 1101-26 of N. Song, was artist, weakened military, made own calligraphy "slender golden", built 1st museum, 1st catologue of art collections, imperial ceramic kilns, Barbarian "Jurchans" take over.

2 male finches eyeing eachother, very lifelike, drop of lacquer for eyes, 
  Huizong, Auspicious Cranes, Northern Sung Period, handscroll section, Northern Song 1112, ink and colors on silk, white birds=good omen, emphasis on birds not palace.
  Ma Yuan, On a Mountain Path in Spring, Southern Song Period, early 13th cent, album leaf, ink and colors on silk. "one corner Ma" - he puts most of focus into lower left corner. Mist in distance shrouding mts. Scholar+servant, quick, few lines, straight robe-album leaf.
  Xia Gui, Streams and Rivers with a Clear Distant View, Southern  Sung Dynasty, hand scroll textured brush stroke, not too clear "axe chop" -short straight lines for texture, shading-dry brush technique,
  Liang Kai, Sixth Chan Patriarch Chopping Bamboo, Southern Song Period, early 13th cent, hanging scroll, ink on paper, resurgence of Buddhism-Chan doesn't portray images of deities. all people have potential for enlightenment, gradual or sudden, sudden during menial tasks, simple quick style "no illusians", sparse, not popular in China, but Japan-known as Zen Buddhism.
  Rashid al-Din, Khuriltai of 1206
  Temple Vase, Yuan Dynasty, 1351, white porcelain w/ cobalt blue under glaze, awkward clunky rings, designs don't mesh w/ shape, elephant handles, dragon and pheonix, haven't seen vases w/ handles til now, beginning of blue and white porcelain. 
  zhao mengfu, Twin Pines, Level Distance, Yuan Dynasty, thought he could persuade Mongols to give better jobs to Chinese, more like Southern Song, 
  Zhao Mengfu, Autumn colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains, Yuan Dynasty, 1296, painted from memory for friend, Southern Song style, 
  Zhao Mengfu, Groom and Horse, Yuan Dynasty, 1296
his attempt to create art that the Mongols better understood, since they were a nomadic culture. tried foreshortening, 
  Guan Daosheng, Bamboo Groves in Mist and Rain, Yuan Dynasty,1308,She was bamboo painting expert. section of handscroll, ink on paper, married to Mengfu, did paintings of bamboo landscapes, not Mongol styles,wrote "bamboo in monochrome", Southern Song style, lots of mist and clouds, directs eye through scene but not far in distance.
  Wu Zhen, Stalks of Bamboo by a Rock, Yuan Dynasty, 1347, typical chinese bamboo paintings, bamboo is metaphor for Chinese gentlemen-bend but not break, leaves look like Chinese calligraphy, master of "mossy rock", uses dry brush technique for dimension, places inscription above rock to balance bamboo, instead of just on top. Literati painter, liked austerity in nature, at its simplest
  Ni Zan, Rongxi Studio, Yuan Dynasty, 1372, avoided Mongel court, came from wealthy family, painted it for friend Bu Shwan? who gave to dr. Changran and asked him to sign it. he was living on the property in pic. Literati used monochrome because saw color as distraction.
  Huang Gongwang, Dwelling in the Fu Chun Mountains, Yuan Dynasty, came from poor family, child prodigy, Huang Li (90) adopted him as son, new name meant "old man Huang's longing", gov job-accused of tax poblems, makes living as fortune teller-prison-lived in country and devoted life to painting, fame in 80s, began this at 78, sketched entire scene in 1 sitting, details over 3yr period, saved from funerary burning by wealthy owner's niece, 2 sections now, Southern Song Style, interested in Daoism, dry brush, long hemp strokes for texture.
  Ai Weiwei, Dropping a Han Dynasty Urn, Photo Triptych, 1996
  Wang Meng, Forest Chamber Grotto at Ju'ou, Yuan Dynasty, was grandson of Menfu, minor official in Yuan, spent end of life in prison for false accusation, not literati, wanted to be original, color, detail, no mist, similar to detail of Fan Kuan and N Sung but less focused.
  The Forbidden City, Beijing, Ming Dynasty, 15th cent and later, purple-pole star above city, fixed revolving center, polar city, star has purplish tint, analogy that he is the revolving point., entrance ramps according to rank, Similar structure to Angkor Wat +Thom (centered), Throne room similar to Emerald Buddha,  15th cent and later, carved and lacquer painted, 9999 rooms, over 2mil sq ft.
  Table with Drawers, Ming Dynasty, 1426-1435, 
Carved red Lacquer on wood core, 3'11'' long, for imperial palace, dragon + pheonix. 
Also, carved lacquer folding chair=first folding chair.
  Dai Jin, Tall Pines and Five Deer, Ming Dynasty, souther school-literati painters-painted for own enjoyment+reason, deer are white, started in Imperial painting Academy-dismissed, Dai +followers wanted to elaborate on Southern Song, similar to Wang Meng, Fan Kuan, Wu Zhen, Ni Zan, gets boring, Wu school forms around Shen Zhou-family was wealthy-filial piety respect for parents, took care of mom+make art instead of working, felt Yuan literati painters were innovative(Wang Meng).
  Shen Zhou, Poet on a Mountain Top, Ming Dynasty, Radical Changes in Style, bolder, poet read inscription in sky, believe words to be as important as at
  Dong Qichang, Dwelling in the Qinbian Mountains, Ming Dynasty, poor but scholarly family, hanging scroll, ink on paper, placed 2nd on test 'cause of calligraphy-no job, spent next 5 yrs becoming master calligrapher -35 yr old-gov job-turmoil-resigned multiple times, controversial-mob burned down his house, N+S school based on Chan Enlightenment, focuses on art as calligraphy-contrast. Innovation was important to him, doesn't do much people in art.
  Shen Zhou, Lofty Mount Lu, Ming Dynasty, very similar to Wang Meng's, b day present for teacher on 70th, never seen mt lu, analogy between greatness of mt + teacher, small figure by water for scale between student + master
  W angshi Yuan (Garden of the Master of the Fishing Nets), Ming Dynasty, development of private gardens, this was made in Sung era-elaborate series of pavilions w/ different purposes, series of vistas, Suzhou China, Gold fish in ponds.
  Blue and White Porcelain Flask, Ming Dynasty, what Ming is best known for, wash effects and subtle texture, Dragon in rough sea.
  Wen Shu, Carnations and Garden Rock, Ming Dynasty, 1627, husband died, worked doing album leaf art, credited w/ fan art-popular with collectors 
  Meiping Blue and White Porcelain Vase, Ming Dynasty, 
  Giuseppe Castiglione (Lang Shining), Auspicious Objects, Qing Dynasty, for Emperor on Birthday, Southern Song cloud banks in sky. 
  Castiglione, Emperor Qinglong, Qing Dynasty, typical pose, perspective, seated, didn't make much impact because Chinese did not view W art as real art.
  Giuseppe Castiglione, Spring's Peaceful Message, Qing Dynasty, 1736, court artist, Western perspective of table, robe folds, Hair-Que-pigtail shaved around-required, asserting dominance over Chinese
  Shitao, Man in a House Beneath a Cliff, Qing Dynasty, 17th Cent, album leaf, ink and color on paper, entered Chan Buddhist monastery for safety, converted to Daoism, Yuan era literati inspired his work. "Pre mortial line" -countour line- crisp, most Chan painters don't use colors, Sun shining through fog shows light being refracted through moisture-what impressionists do in 19th cent.
  Xu Beihong Two Horses, artists more able to go West, 1 of first to travel abroad before Communists take over, bold lines, modeling Western foreshortening
  Fu Baoshi, Yun'an, 1964, master of modern landscapes, mist, atmospheric perspective-usually a cool color, he uses red, like Shitao atmosphere. 
  Xu Beihong, Three Horses, more depth+foreshortening, combine W techniques w/ tradition
  C.C. Wang, Mind Landscape No. 3, Late 20th Century, one of ex-patriots who left country when Mao took power. went to US-manhatten-abstract expressionist-modernize traditional Chinese painting. 
  Liu Kuo-sung, Heaven Lake, 1982, Ink on paper, surrealist landscape, originality, 5th Moon Painting Society, modernize Chinese  art, fluid, flying through,
  Zhang Xiaogang, Creation Bloodline, Big Family No. 2, 1993, splotches reflect discoloration as in old photographs, 
  Xu Bing, A Book From the Sky, 1988, Installation at Chazen Museum of Art, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1991. Movable-type, prints and books, took advantage of new artistic freedoms, filled with nonsensical calligraphy, individual wooden blocks, to show the nonsensical quality of political discourse.
  Ye Yushan and others, Rent Collection Courtyard (detail of larger tableau), Dayi, China, 1965, Clay, 100 yards long with lifesize figures, severe punishment of "offensive art", "abuses" of workers by capitalists, cast bronze later, glass eyes
  Ai Weiwei, Neolithic Vessel with Coca-cola logo, c. 1994, he was tricked into critiquing communism and sent to countryside, commentary on Chinese history, castiglione painting Ming chairs(Wu Family Reception Hall, 2008),
  Cai Guo-Qiang, Odyssey, 2010, gunpowder on 42 panels each 10' high, ignites gun powder on paper using dampers and stencils to control it.
  Wang Hui, A Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines, Qing Dynasty, Manchu favored "orthodox painters"-historical styles, imitating Dong Qichang "Dwelling in the Qinbian mts (ming)", negative + positive spaces, 
  Main Hall, Nanchan Temple, Shaanxi, AD 782, Tang Dynasty, Beginning of upturned eaves, Pheonix? Post and Lintle door-center bay-module-repeat until big enough. wider central bay and 2 side bays. (stepped beams/decking can flex
  Great Wild Goose Pagoda, AD 648, 1st Levels from Sui Dynasty-renovated in Tang Dynasty. Similar to Mahabodi Temple. Held Sutras.
  Entrance to Great Mosque of Chang'an (Xian), muslims not allowed to push religion/looks residential, nothing looks mosque-like. Inside, pointed arch inside alfiz.
  Guo Xi, Early Spring, 1072, human nature seeks nature. feeling of having journeyed through.
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