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AST 152 Final Study Questions - Flashcards

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Class:ASTR 152 - ELEM ASTRONOMY
Subject:Astronomy
University:California State University - Northridge
Term:Fall 2014
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Proxima Centauri, the nearest star outside of our solar system, is about _______ times farther away from the Sun than Pluto 7000
Which objects are listed in order from largest to smallest: Star, Solar System, Galaxy, Universe Universe, Galaxy, Solar System, Star
According to the definition of a planet approved by the IAU in 2006, is Pluto a planet? Why? No, because it hasn't cleared most of the other objects from its orbit    
A light year is _______________ the distance that light travels in one year 
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The Big Bang Theory is scientists' present theory for the evolution of the universe
Compared to the distance of the Moon, how far away from Earth is the Space Shuttle when in orbit? Very close to the Earth 
We accept scientific theories as correct when they _________ Make correct predictions
What is the zenith? The point in the sky directly overhead
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The north circumpolar constellations as viewed from Los Angeles are above the horizon? Always
The imaginary boundary between the earth and sky is called the …? Horizon
Consider the star trails as viewed from Los Angeles. Which trail would be seen if you looked north? (Picture attached) D
The winter solstice is the point on the sun's path ______________. farthest south 
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We experience summer when ___________. the rays from the sun hitting us are more concentrated. 
How long does it take for the earth to complete one cycle of its precession? 26,000 years
How long does it take for the earth to complete one cycle of its rotation? 24 hours
For Los Angeles, during the winter solstice there are about _____ hours of daylight 10 hours (12 hours is equinox, 14 hours is summer solstice)
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For viewers in Los Angeles, when does the sun appears at our zenith? Never.

We are too far north from equator.
The sun appears to move through each of the twelve constellations of the "zodiac" during the year. Therefore these twelve constellations are all ___________________. On the ecliptic
Bob and Carol are both observing the moon at exactly the same time. However, Bob is in Miami and Carol is in Los Angeles. Bob observes a full moon. In what phase will Carol observe the moon to be? Full moon.

The moon is the same everywhere on earth.
When the Moon appears to completely cover the Sun (a solar eclipse), the moon must be in what phase? New.
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What is the phase of the moon 4 days after the full moon? Waning Gibbous
During a total lunar eclipse ______________. The moon will be entirely in the umbra of the earth's shadow. 
The dark part of a shadow where light from a source is completely blocked is called the __________ umbra
A particular cycle of similar eclipses that recur about every 18 years is called the ____ Saros
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used his universal law of gravity to explain planetary motions Newton
devised three laws of planetary motion. Kepler
made the first heliocentric model of the solar system copernicus
first used a telescope to observe celestial objects galileo
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made geocentric model of the solar system using epicycles Ptolemy
According to Kepler's 2nd Law each 30 day period a planet will _________. sweep out equal areas
Planetary orbits that are more elliptical have a greater Eccentricity
The apparent backward motion of a planet as seen against the background of stars is called ___________ motion Retrograde
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You have two balls of equal size and smoothness, and you can ignore air resistance. One is heavy, the other is much lighter. You hold one in each hand at the same height and release them at the same time. What will happen? They will hit the ground at the SAME TIME
The point in the earth's orbit farthest from the sun is called _______. Aphelion
The lowest energy state of an atoms is called the _________ state Ground
What type of light is primarily emitted by objects which are at room temperature? Infrared
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The absolute temperature scale is called the __________ scale Kelvin (K)
By examining the widths of the spectral lines we can find information about a star's ____ Rotation.
Which telescopes use a mirror to gather and collect light? reflecting
What process allows two or more small telescopes to achieve the angular resolution of a much larger telescope? interferometry
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A telescope is used to take two images, one magnified 100x and the other magnified 400x. In which image would you be able to see the most detail and why? Neither because magnification doesn't affect the amount of detail seen    
When light rays from a distant star pass through a lens they converge at a single point called the _______. focus 
Two stars are separated by 0.5 arcseconds. Candy's telescope has an angular resolution of 0.3 arcseconds. Billy's telescope has an angular resolution of 0.8 arcseconds. If both of them photograph the stars, which photograph will show two stars? Candy
Which of the following describes the gases in the Sun's corona?

extremely hot and extremely thin 

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Gravitational equilibrium is the balance between ___________. the weight of a star and the pressure that supports it. 
The extended gases from the solar surface shown in the upper left portion of the picture form a ___________. prominence 
Which of the following is true about the Sun's rotation. The Sun rotates faster at its equator than it does at its poles    
The hottest starts are what color? Blue
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Where does the Sun's energy come from? The combining of light elements into heavier elements 
How does the speed of radio waves compare to that of visible light in a vacuum? They will travel at THE SAME speed
What is the absolute magnitude of our Sun? +4.8 (Look at HR graph)
Stellar masses can be determined by observing __________ systems Binary
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Consider the list of apparent magnitudes below. Which one is the brightest? -1
If a star has a large luminosity and also a low surface temperature then it must have __________. Large Radius
Main sequence stars, such as the Sun, shine by _________ in their interiors Converting hydrogen into helium
The nearly explosive beginning of helium burning in the dense core of red giant stars is called a _____________. Helium Flash
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As the sun becomes a red giant, its surface temperature will ________ while its luminosity will ___________. Decrease; increase
Core helium burning occurs when the star becomes __________. Hot Enough
During its red giant stage, the radius of the sun will be about __________. 1 Astronomical Unit (AU)
The collapse of the iron core in a massive star results in a ____________. Supernova Explosion
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Which of the following stages will *not* happen to the sun? Supernova Explosion (Boom)
According to modern ideas and observations what can be said about the center of the Universe? The Universe does not have a center    
A singularity is _________. the point at the center of a black hole 
If a probe with a clock and a lightbeam were to fall into a black hole then we from the outside would observe ________. the clock slowing down and the light beam redshifted 
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The boundary of a black hole is called the Event Horizon
Supermassive Black Holes can be found at the center of ___________ Most Galaxies
The center of our galaxy is located in the direction of what constellation? Sagittarius
We estimate the mass of the galaxy by observations of its ________ curve Rotation
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The flattened circular part of the galaxy is called the galactic _________. Disk
The Population II stars in our galaxy are located in the halo but not in the disk    
Crab Nebula
What causes a crab nebula? supernova explosion.
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The earth completes one ________ around the Sun every year Revolution
An astronomical unit is defined as the distance between _____________. The sun and earth
Compared to the distance of the Moon, how far away from Earth is the Space Shuttle when in orbit? Very close to earth
Suppose an astrophotographer hands you a picture with star trails taken looking toward the north celestial pole. If the star trails are 1/2 of a complete circle, about how long was the picture exposed? 12 hours

(24 * 1/2)=12

If it is…
1/3 = 8 hours
1/4 =6 hours
1/6= 4hours
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We experience winter when ___________. the rays from the sun hitting us are more spread out    
How long does it take for the earth to complete one cycle of its revolution 365 days
For Los Angeles, during the summer solstice there are about _____ hours of daylight 14 (because its summer)
Imagine the Earth's orbit were changed to be a perfect circle so that the distance to the Sun never changed. How would this affect the seasons? We would continue to have seasons in the same way we do now   
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When the Moon appears to completely cover the Sun (a solar eclipse), the moon must be in what phase? new
What is the phase of the moon 4 days before the full moon? waxing gibbous
Annular eclipses are _____________. eclipses of the sun in which a ring of the sun's sruface remains visible around the disk of the moon. 
The lighter part of a shadow where light from a source is only partially blocked is called the __________. penumbra
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used large metal instuments to accurately measure the positions of the planets Tycho
The apparent change in the position of an object because of the motion of the observer is called _____________. Parallax
The point in the earth's orbit closest to the sun is called _______. Perihelion
From examining the peak wavelength of the light emitted from a star we can determine the star's __________. Surface Temperature
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Wien's law relates the peak wavelength of emitted light to an object's ________. Temperature
What type of light is primarily emitted by objects which are at room temperature? Infrared
What type of light is primarily emitted by objects which are at room temperature? Refracting
When light rays from a distant star pass through a lens they converge at a single point called the _______. Focus
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Which of the following effects is cause by atmospheric turbulence? Twinkling 
The light collecting area of a telescope is larger in telescopes which have a larger ____________. Diameter
Convection currents just beneath the sun's surface are responsible for which visible feature? Grannulation
A sudden, violent outburst on the Sun, often associated with sunspots and releasing a tremendous amount of energy at all wavelengths is called a _________. Flare (or solar flare)
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Gravitational equilibrium is the balance between ___________. the weight of a star and the pressure that supports it. 
The visible surface of the sun is called the __________. Photosphere
Where does the Sun's energy come from? The combining of lighter elements into heavier ones
Stellar masses can be determined by observing __________ systems
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Which of the following is the most common type of star? Main sequence
If a star has a large luminosity and also a low surface temperature then it must have __________. Large radius
The debris from a supernova explosion is called a supernova _________. remnant
Which of these is closest in size to a neutron star? A city
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Because of the conservation of angular momentum, as a star collapses ________. Must rotate faster
Accoring to the most modern explanation, what is Sgr A*? A supermassive black hole
The rougly spherical region of faint old stars and globular clusters in which the rest of the galaxy is embedded is called the galactic _________. Halo
The Population II stars in our galaxy are located
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The daily motion of the stars in our sky is a consequence of the earth's ____________.
What is the phase of the moon 4 days before the new moon? Waning crescent
The point in the moon's orbit closest to the earth is called _______.
In a vacuum, a blue photon has __________ a red photon. More energy than
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Which subatomic particles are contained in the nucleus of an atom? protons AND neutrons
The number of wave cycles per second is called the _________. frequency
The light collecting area of a telescope is larger in telescopes which have a larger ____________. diameter
Convection currents just beneath the sun's surface are responsible for which visible feature? grannulation
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What is the approximate temperature of the sun's photosphere? 5800 K
If a star has a low luminosity and also a high surface temperature then it must have __________. small radius
What element is currently building up in the Sun's core? helium
We can estimate the age of an open cluster of stars by examining _________. The turnoff point of the cluster
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A luminous shell of gas ejected from an old low-mass star is called a __________. planetary nebula
Swirling disks of matter that surround compact objects, such as a white dwarfs or neutron stars, are called _________ disks. accretion
The globular clusters in our galaxy are located __________. in the halo but not the disk
The ________ is the totality of all space, time, matter and energy. the universe

 

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Object A is larger than object B. Can they have the same angular diameter? Yes, if objects A and B are the same distance away from the observer. 
The average distance from the sun to Uranus is about 19 astronomical units. Therefore _____________. Uranus is on average 19 times farther away from the Sun than the Earth. 
Constellations that do not set and are always above our horizon are called ___________ constellations. circumpolar
An equinox is a point on the sun's path ______________. Where it crosses the celestial equator
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How long does it take for the moon to rotate on its axis? about 1 day
What is the phase of the moon during an total lunar eclipse? Full moon
The amount of time from one new moon to the next is referred to as a _______ month sidereal
During a total lunar eclipse ______________.
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 Proxima Centauri, the nearest star outside of our solar system, is about _______ times farther away from the Sun than Pluto7000
 Which objects are listed in order from largest to smallest: Star, Solar System, Galaxy, UniverseUniverse, Galaxy, Solar System, Star
 According to the definition of a planet approved by the IAU in 2006, is Pluto a planet? Why?No, because it hasn't cleared most of the other objects from its orbit    
 A light year is _______________the distance that light travels in one year 
 The Big Bang Theory isscientists' present theory for the evolution of the universe
 Compared to the distance of the Moon, how far away from Earth is the Space Shuttle when in orbit?Very close to the Earth 
 We accept scientific theories as correct when they _________Make correct predictions
 What is the zenith?The point in the sky directly overhead
 The north circumpolar constellations as viewed from Los Angeles are above the horizon?Always
 The imaginary boundary between the earth and sky is called the …?Horizon
 Consider the star trails as viewed from Los Angeles. Which trail would be seen if you looked north? (Picture attached)D
 The winter solstice is the point on the sun's path ______________.farthest south 
 We experience summer when ___________.the rays from the sun hitting us are more concentrated. 
 How long does it take for the earth to complete one cycle of its precession?26,000 years
 How long does it take for the earth to complete one cycle of its rotation?24 hours
 For Los Angeles, during the winter solstice there are about _____ hours of daylight10 hours (12 hours is equinox, 14 hours is summer solstice)
 For viewers in Los Angeles, when does the sun appears at our zenith?Never.

We are too far north from equator.
 The sun appears to move through each of the twelve constellations of the "zodiac" during the year. Therefore these twelve constellations are all ___________________.On the ecliptic
 Bob and Carol are both observing the moon at exactly the same time. However, Bob is in Miami and Carol is in Los Angeles. Bob observes a full moon. In what phase will Carol observe the moon to be?Full moon.

The moon is the same everywhere on earth.
 When the Moon appears to completely cover the Sun (a solar eclipse), the moon must be in what phase?New.
 What is the phase of the moon 4 days after the full moon?Waning Gibbous
 During a total lunar eclipse ______________.The moon will be entirely in the umbra of the earth's shadow. 
 The dark part of a shadow where light from a source is completely blocked is called the __________umbra
 A particular cycle of similar eclipses that recur about every 18 years is called the ____Saros
 used his universal law of gravity to explain planetary motionsNewton
 devised three laws of planetary motion.Kepler
 made the first heliocentric model of the solar systemcopernicus
 first used a telescope to observe celestial objectsgalileo
 made geocentric model of the solar system using epicyclesPtolemy
 According to Kepler's 2nd Law each 30 day period a planet will _________.sweep out equal areas
 Planetary orbits that are more elliptical have a greaterEccentricity
 The apparent backward motion of a planet as seen against the background of stars is called ___________ motionRetrograde
 You have two balls of equal size and smoothness, and you can ignore air resistance. One is heavy, the other is much lighter. You hold one in each hand at the same height and release them at the same time. What will happen?They will hit the ground at the SAME TIME
 The point in the earth's orbit farthest from the sun is called _______.Aphelion
 The lowest energy state of an atoms is called the _________ stateGround
 What type of light is primarily emitted by objects which are at room temperature?Infrared
 The absolute temperature scale is called the __________ scaleKelvin (K)
 By examining the widths of the spectral lines we can find information about a star's ____Rotation.
 Which telescopes use a mirror to gather and collect light?reflecting
 What process allows two or more small telescopes to achieve the angular resolution of a much larger telescope?interferometry
 A telescope is used to take two images, one magnified 100x and the other magnified 400x. In which image would you be able to see the most detail and why?Neither because magnification doesn't affect the amount of detail seen    
 When light rays from a distant star pass through a lens they converge at a single point called the _______.focus 
 Two stars are separated by 0.5 arcseconds. Candy's telescope has an angular resolution of 0.3 arcseconds. Billy's telescope has an angular resolution of 0.8 arcseconds. If both of them photograph the stars, which photograph will show two stars?Candy
 Which of the following describes the gases in the Sun's corona?

extremely hot and extremely thin 

 Gravitational equilibrium is the balance between ___________.the weight of a star and the pressure that supports it. 
 The extended gases from the solar surface shown in the upper left portion of the picture form a ___________.prominence 
 Which of the following is true about the Sun's rotation.The Sun rotates faster at its equator than it does at its poles    
 The hottest starts are what color?Blue
 Where does the Sun's energy come from?The combining of light elements into heavier elements 
 How does the speed of radio waves compare to that of visible light in a vacuum?They will travel at THE SAME speed
 What is the absolute magnitude of our Sun?+4.8 (Look at HR graph)
 Stellar masses can be determined by observing __________ systemsBinary
 Consider the list of apparent magnitudes below. Which one is the brightest?-1
 If a star has a large luminosity and also a low surface temperature then it must have __________.Large Radius
 Main sequence stars, such as the Sun, shine by _________ in their interiorsConverting hydrogen into helium
 The nearly explosive beginning of helium burning in the dense core of red giant stars is called a _____________.Helium Flash
 As the sun becomes a red giant, its surface temperature will ________ while its luminosity will ___________.Decrease; increase
 Core helium burning occurs when the star becomes __________.Hot Enough
 During its red giant stage, the radius of the sun will be about __________.1 Astronomical Unit (AU)
 The collapse of the iron core in a massive star results in a ____________.Supernova Explosion
 Which of the following stages will *not* happen to the sun?Supernova Explosion (Boom)
 According to modern ideas and observations what can be said about the center of the Universe?The Universe does not have a center    
 A singularity is _________.the point at the center of a black hole 
 If a probe with a clock and a lightbeam were to fall into a black hole then we from the outside would observe ________.the clock slowing down and the light beam redshifted 
 The boundary of a black hole is called theEvent Horizon
 Supermassive Black Holes can be found at the center of ___________Most Galaxies
 The center of our galaxy is located in the direction of what constellation?Sagittarius
 We estimate the mass of the galaxy by observations of its ________ curveRotation
 The flattened circular part of the galaxy is called the galactic _________.Disk
 The Population II stars in our galaxy are locatedin the halo but not in the disk    
  Crab Nebula
 What causes a crab nebula?supernova explosion.
 The earth completes one ________ around the Sun every yearRevolution
 An astronomical unit is defined as the distance between _____________.The sun and earth
 Compared to the distance of the Moon, how far away from Earth is the Space Shuttle when in orbit?Very close to earth
 Suppose an astrophotographer hands you a picture with star trails taken looking toward the north celestial pole. If the star trails are 1/2 of a complete circle, about how long was the picture exposed?12 hours

(24 * 1/2)=12

If it is…
1/3 = 8 hours
1/4 =6 hours
1/6= 4hours
 We experience winter when ___________.the rays from the sun hitting us are more spread out    
 How long does it take for the earth to complete one cycle of its revolution365 days
 For Los Angeles, during the summer solstice there are about _____ hours of daylight14 (because its summer)
 Imagine the Earth's orbit were changed to be a perfect circle so that the distance to the Sun never changed. How would this affect the seasons?We would continue to have seasons in the same way we do now   
 When the Moon appears to completely cover the Sun (a solar eclipse), the moon must be in what phase?new
 What is the phase of the moon 4 days before the full moon?waxing gibbous
 Annular eclipses are _____________.eclipses of the sun in which a ring of the sun's sruface remains visible around the disk of the moon. 
 The lighter part of a shadow where light from a source is only partially blocked is called the __________.penumbra
 used large metal instuments to accurately measure the positions of the planetsTycho
 The apparent change in the position of an object because of the motion of the observer is called _____________.Parallax
 The point in the earth's orbit closest to the sun is called _______.Perihelion
 From examining the peak wavelength of the light emitted from a star we can determine the star's __________.Surface Temperature
 Wien's law relates the peak wavelength of emitted light to an object's ________.Temperature
 What type of light is primarily emitted by objects which are at room temperature?Infrared
 What type of light is primarily emitted by objects which are at room temperature?Refracting
 When light rays from a distant star pass through a lens they converge at a single point called the _______.Focus
 Which of the following effects is cause by atmospheric turbulence?Twinkling 
 The light collecting area of a telescope is larger in telescopes which have a larger ____________.Diameter
 Convection currents just beneath the sun's surface are responsible for which visible feature?Grannulation
 A sudden, violent outburst on the Sun, often associated with sunspots and releasing a tremendous amount of energy at all wavelengths is called a _________.Flare (or solar flare)
 Gravitational equilibrium is the balance between ___________.the weight of a star and the pressure that supports it. 
 The visible surface of the sun is called the __________.Photosphere
 Where does the Sun's energy come from?The combining of lighter elements into heavier ones
 Stellar masses can be determined by observing __________ systems 
 Which of the following is the most common type of star?Main sequence
 If a star has a large luminosity and also a low surface temperature then it must have __________.Large radius
 The debris from a supernova explosion is called a supernova _________.remnant
 Which of these is closest in size to a neutron star?A city
 Because of the conservation of angular momentum, as a star collapses ________.Must rotate faster
 Accoring to the most modern explanation, what is Sgr A*?A supermassive black hole
 The rougly spherical region of faint old stars and globular clusters in which the rest of the galaxy is embedded is called the galactic _________.Halo
 The Population II stars in our galaxy are located 
 The daily motion of the stars in our sky is a consequence of the earth's ____________. 
 What is the phase of the moon 4 days before the new moon?Waning crescent
 The point in the moon's orbit closest to the earth is called _______. 
 In a vacuum, a blue photon has __________ a red photon.More energy than
 Which subatomic particles are contained in the nucleus of an atom?protons AND neutrons
 The number of wave cycles per second is called the _________.frequency
 The light collecting area of a telescope is larger in telescopes which have a larger ____________.diameter
 Convection currents just beneath the sun's surface are responsible for which visible feature?grannulation
 What is the approximate temperature of the sun's photosphere?5800 K
 If a star has a low luminosity and also a high surface temperature then it must have __________.small radius
 What element is currently building up in the Sun's core?helium
 We can estimate the age of an open cluster of stars by examining _________.The turnoff point of the cluster
 A luminous shell of gas ejected from an old low-mass star is called a __________.planetary nebula
 Swirling disks of matter that surround compact objects, such as a white dwarfs or neutron stars, are called _________ disks.accretion
 The globular clusters in our galaxy are located __________.in the halo but not the disk
 The ________ is the totality of all space, time, matter and energy.the universe

 

 Object A is larger than object B. Can they have the same angular diameter?Yes, if objects A and B are the same distance away from the observer. 
 The average distance from the sun to Uranus is about 19 astronomical units. Therefore _____________.Uranus is on average 19 times farther away from the Sun than the Earth. 
 Constellations that do not set and are always above our horizon are called ___________ constellations.circumpolar
 An equinox is a point on the sun's path ______________.Where it crosses the celestial equator
 How long does it take for the moon to rotate on its axis?about 1 day
 What is the phase of the moon during an total lunar eclipse?Full moon
 The amount of time from one new moon to the next is referred to as a _______ monthsidereal
 During a total lunar eclipse ______________. 
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