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Class:A.T. 0103 - ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS LEC
Subject:Automotive Technology
University:Montana Tech of the University of Montana
Term:Fall 2014
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Today I will be discussing what raw materials are used to make levi jeans, how these raw materials are extracted, where these raw materials are transported to be made into jeans and the main distribution centre, worker conditions in the factories, disposal, and finally how the product could be sustainable.
Cotton is mainly farmed in China, the United States, India, Pakistan, and West Africa. The process is as follows: Cotton seeds are planted by precision planters that place them at a certain depth and interval, harvested after 50-70 days from when they bloomed. Cotton plants would not produce much if not protected from most insects.
This is why many pesticides as well as genetically-modified cotton plants are used to be less attractive to insects. Once the cotton is harvested, “seed cotton” is removed from the harvester before sent to the gin, where lint and foreign items are removed from the cotton and shipped to the mill. At the mill, the cotton is classified by its strength, length, colour, etc and then either 
immediately sold to a buyer or kept by the cotton farmer until ready to be sold. Unfortunately, the extraction of cotton has a big impact on the environment. It is one of the most “thirsty” crops in the world and the amount of pesticides used could severely damage the environment if the irrigated land’s water flow seeped into a main drinking water source.
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Cotton grown in the United States is shipped to factories in Mexico where the jeans would be made and then sent back to the distribution centre for all of America, located in San Francisco. A one way trip by truck to mexico from the U.S would be 1, 915.8 km, and then an additional 1, 915.8 km to get back to the main distribution centre in the United States. 
Steel is used for the rivets, zippers, and/or buttons, mostly extracted in the United States, China, Japan, etc. The process of extracting steel has a few steps: First the iron is mined from the earth and then a process of using heat, called smelting, is used to make pure iron. This iron can be processed in three ways in which steel is one of them.
Steel is made by blasting the smelted iron with pure oxygen and then adding chemicals to clean up sulfur and phosphorus from the steel.Clearly it takes a massive amount of heat energy to smelt the iron, so it would be a waste of energy and resources if some of the steel made doesn’t get used. 
Steel extracted in the United States goes to factories in Mexico where they are put on jeans and then sent back to the main distribution centre for America, where as I said before, is located in San Francisco. Since the steel could be extracted from anywhere in America, I estimated the transportation would be approximately 4313.042 km by truck and/or plane. 
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Polyester is one of the most popular man-made fibers that’s produced in chemical labs mainly located in China. The process has 8 somewhat complicated steps:

Dimethyl terephthalate is first reacted with ethylene glycol at a temperature of 150-210°C.

The resulting chemical is combined with terephthalic acid and raised to a temperature of 280°C, forming molten polyester that is forced through a slot to form long ribbon. 

Then the long molten ribbons are allowed to cool until they become brittle and then are cut into tiny chips that are left to dry.

Next the polyester chips are melted at 260-270°C to form a syrup-like solution, which is then put into a metal container called a spinneret and forced through holes that are usually round. The number of holes in the spinneret determines the size of the yarn as the emerging fibers are brought together to form a single strand.

While spinning, chemicals are added to make the material flame retardant, anti-static, or easier to dye.

When the polyester comes out of the spinneret, it is elongated 5x its original length, with much greater strength, tenacity, and resilience.

As the polyester dries, the fibers become solid and strong.

Once completely dry, the polyester is drawn into different diameters and lengths. In the process, the fibers may be textured or twisted to create softer or duller fabrics.

Finally, after the polyester is drawn, it is wound on large bobbins or flat-wound packages, ready to be woven into material for clothing such as jeans and other things like car tires.

Polyester is flown from China’s polyester factories to some of Levi’s manufacturing factories that are also located in China. Since there are no exact locations of all the polyester factories and levi’s manufacturing factories, I estimated an approximate distance of 5,500 km. From the production sites, the jeans are flown to Asia, the Middle East & Africa’s main distribution centre which is located in Singapore. Singapore is approximately 3,835 km away from China.
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Copper is mainly extracted in Chile, Peru, Indonesia, and Mexico, used for the rivets you find on your jeans. Fun Fact: The largest copper mine in the world is located in Chile, called the Escondida. The process for extracting copper is also somewhat complicated: Copper is extracted from its ore by heating it with carbon. Then it is “purified” by passing electricity through the copper compounds. The pure copper forms on the negative electrode (called a cathode) and the impure copper forms on the positive electrode (called an anode). The pure copper is taken and then sold to buyers.
Copper is flown from Chile to Brazil, where some of Levi’s factories are located. Chile is 3,076 km from Brazil. From the production factories in brazil, the jeans are transported by plane from Brazil to Belgium, where Europe’s main distribution centre is. The distance between Brazil to Belgium is 9,033 km.

Levi’s has many manufacturing sites across the world. The most manufacturing sites are located in China, India, Mexico, and Sri Lanka. Other major amounts of manufacturing sites are located in:

Brazil with 21 factories

Bangladesh with 18 factories

Pakistan with 22 factories

Thailand with 28 factories

Turkey with 18 factories

And Vietnam with 25 factories

The conditions in manufacturing factories and even extracting the raw materials are considerably good. Levi’s has a complete sustainability guidebook on:

labour standards

safety guidelines

health guidelines

environment guidelines, etc.


Generated by Koofers.com
Although not always certain that the factories are meeting all these guidelines, Levi’s has people inspecting all factories all the time and make sure that the government, local organizations, and other buyers are supporting the thought of a sustainable and safe working environment for the people and the product. These high standards keep manufacturers and suppliers’ standards high and ensure the well being of their workers and the product. Unfortunately, workers are paid low wages according to public articles, yet Levi hasn’t disclaimed the actual amount they pay their factory workers that make the jeans in manufacturing factories.

Old jeans are usually always thrown out, thus going to a landfill in the world to decay or be incinerated. This is the type of landfill you would find your old jeans in if you threw them out: (point at the picture)


To make levi’s jeans last longer, levi’s has made this chart that you can follow to increase the lifespan of your jeans after you’re done using them. Other ways to be sustainable would be to: 

Buy less jeans and instead take better care for the ones you have.

Buy jeans from Levi’s Waste-less line of jeans that are made from plastic water bottles.

Mail your old jeans to organizations like “BlueJeansGoGreen” who recycle and reuse your jeans for you. Or be crafty and turn your old jeans into shopping bags, little pouches, or even a quilt. 

My product is levi jeans.

My raw materials are: 
Cotton, 
Steel, 
Polyester, 
Copper
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Thanks for watching, hope you learned something new about the stylish jeans that you wear everyday.
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  Today I will be discussing what raw materials are used to make levi jeans, how these raw materials are extracted, where these raw materials are transported to be made into jeans and the main distribution centre, worker conditions in the factories, disposal, and finally how the product could be sustainable.
  Cotton is mainly farmed in China, the United States, India, Pakistan, and West Africa. The process is as follows: Cotton seeds are planted by precision planters that place them at a certain depth and interval, harvested after 50-70 days from when they bloomed. Cotton plants would not produce much if not protected from most insects.
  This is why many pesticides as well as genetically-modified cotton plants are used to be less attractive to insects. Once the cotton is harvested, “seed cotton” is removed from the harvester before sent to the gin, where lint and foreign items are removed from the cotton and shipped to the mill. At the mill, the cotton is classified by its strength, length, colour, etc and then either 
  immediately sold to a buyer or kept by the cotton farmer until ready to be sold. Unfortunately, the extraction of cotton has a big impact on the environment. It is one of the most “thirsty” crops in the world and the amount of pesticides used could severely damage the environment if the irrigated land’s water flow seeped into a main drinking water source.
  Cotton grown in the United States is shipped to factories in Mexico where the jeans would be made and then sent back to the distribution centre for all of America, located in San Francisco. A one way trip by truck to mexico from the U.S would be 1, 915.8 km, and then an additional 1, 915.8 km to get back to the main distribution centre in the United States. 
  Steel is used for the rivets, zippers, and/or buttons, mostly extracted in the United States, China, Japan, etc. The process of extracting steel has a few steps: First the iron is mined from the earth and then a process of using heat, called smelting, is used to make pure iron. This iron can be processed in three ways in which steel is one of them.
  Steel is made by blasting the smelted iron with pure oxygen and then adding chemicals to clean up sulfur and phosphorus from the steel.Clearly it takes a massive amount of heat energy to smelt the iron, so it would be a waste of energy and resources if some of the steel made doesn’t get used. 
  Steel extracted in the United States goes to factories in Mexico where they are put on jeans and then sent back to the main distribution centre for America, where as I said before, is located in San Francisco. Since the steel could be extracted from anywhere in America, I estimated the transportation would be approximately 4313.042 km by truck and/or plane. 
  

Polyester is one of the most popular man-made fibers that’s produced in chemical labs mainly located in China. The process has 8 somewhat complicated steps:

Dimethyl terephthalate is first reacted with ethylene glycol at a temperature of 150-210°C.

The resulting chemical is combined with terephthalic acid and raised to a temperature of 280°C, forming molten polyester that is forced through a slot to form long ribbon. 

  

Then the long molten ribbons are allowed to cool until they become brittle and then are cut into tiny chips that are left to dry.

Next the polyester chips are melted at 260-270°C to form a syrup-like solution, which is then put into a metal container called a spinneret and forced through holes that are usually round. The number of holes in the spinneret determines the size of the yarn as the emerging fibers are brought together to form a single strand.

While spinning, chemicals are added to make the material flame retardant, anti-static, or easier to dye.

  

When the polyester comes out of the spinneret, it is elongated 5x its original length, with much greater strength, tenacity, and resilience.

As the polyester dries, the fibers become solid and strong.

Once completely dry, the polyester is drawn into different diameters and lengths. In the process, the fibers may be textured or twisted to create softer or duller fabrics.

Finally, after the polyester is drawn, it is wound on large bobbins or flat-wound packages, ready to be woven into material for clothing such as jeans and other things like car tires.

  Polyester is flown from China’s polyester factories to some of Levi’s manufacturing factories that are also located in China. Since there are no exact locations of all the polyester factories and levi’s manufacturing factories, I estimated an approximate distance of 5,500 km. From the production sites, the jeans are flown to Asia, the Middle East & Africa’s main distribution centre which is located in Singapore. Singapore is approximately 3,835 km away from China.
  Copper is mainly extracted in Chile, Peru, Indonesia, and Mexico, used for the rivets you find on your jeans. Fun Fact: The largest copper mine in the world is located in Chile, called the Escondida. The process for extracting copper is also somewhat complicated: Copper is extracted from its ore by heating it with carbon. Then it is “purified” by passing electricity through the copper compounds. The pure copper forms on the negative electrode (called a cathode) and the impure copper forms on the positive electrode (called an anode). The pure copper is taken and then sold to buyers.
  Copper is flown from Chile to Brazil, where some of Levi’s factories are located. Chile is 3,076 km from Brazil. From the production factories in brazil, the jeans are transported by plane from Brazil to Belgium, where Europe’s main distribution centre is. The distance between Brazil to Belgium is 9,033 km.
  

Levi’s has many manufacturing sites across the world. The most manufacturing sites are located in China, India, Mexico, and Sri Lanka. Other major amounts of manufacturing sites are located in:

Brazil with 21 factories

Bangladesh with 18 factories

Pakistan with 22 factories

Thailand with 28 factories

Turkey with 18 factories

And Vietnam with 25 factories

  

The conditions in manufacturing factories and even extracting the raw materials are considerably good. Levi’s has a complete sustainability guidebook on:

labour standards

safety guidelines

health guidelines

environment guidelines, etc.


  Although not always certain that the factories are meeting all these guidelines, Levi’s has people inspecting all factories all the time and make sure that the government, local organizations, and other buyers are supporting the thought of a sustainable and safe working environment for the people and the product. These high standards keep manufacturers and suppliers’ standards high and ensure the well being of their workers and the product. Unfortunately, workers are paid low wages according to public articles, yet Levi hasn’t disclaimed the actual amount they pay their factory workers that make the jeans in manufacturing factories.
  

Old jeans are usually always thrown out, thus going to a landfill in the world to decay or be incinerated. This is the type of landfill you would find your old jeans in if you threw them out: (point at the picture)


  

To make levi’s jeans last longer, levi’s has made this chart that you can follow to increase the lifespan of your jeans after you’re done using them. Other ways to be sustainable would be to: 

Buy less jeans and instead take better care for the ones you have.

Buy jeans from Levi’s Waste-less line of jeans that are made from plastic water bottles.

Mail your old jeans to organizations like “BlueJeansGoGreen” who recycle and reuse your jeans for you. Or be crafty and turn your old jeans into shopping bags, little pouches, or even a quilt. 

  My product is levi jeans.

My raw materials are: 
Cotton, 
Steel, 
Polyester, 
Copper
  Thanks for watching, hope you learned something new about the stylish jeans that you wear everyday.
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