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Intro to Anatomy and Physiology - Flashcards

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Class:AY 300 - Domestic Animal Anat & Phys
Subject:Animal Science
University:Southeast Missouri State University
Term:Spring 2010
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Anatomy the form and structure of the body and its parts what things look like and where they are located
Physiology the functions of the body and its parts
Microscopic Anatomy deals with structures so small a microscope is needed to see them clearly; cells and tissues
Macroscopic Anatomy AKA Gross Anatomy body parts large enough to be seen by unaided eye
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Regional Anatomy study individual regions of body
Systemic Anatomy individual systems of the body
Sagittal Plane plane that runs the length of the body and divides it into left and right parts that are not necessarily equal halves
Median Plane divides down the center into equal left and right halves
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Transverse Plane divides into cranial and caudal
Dorsal Plane at right angles to the sagittal and transverse plance; divides into dorsal and ventral planes as if standing in water
Cranial toward head
Caudal toward the tail
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Rostral toward the tip of the nose
Dorsal top surface(the back)
Ventral bottom surface (the belly)
Medial towards the median plane
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Lateral away from median plane
Deep toward the center of body
Superficial toward the surface of body
Proximal toward the body
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Distal away from body
Carpus distal dividing line for front leg
Tarsus dividing line for rear leg
Palmar back surface of front leg distal to carpus
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Plantar the back of the hind leg distal to the tarsus
Bilateral Symmetry left and right halves are mirrored
Dorsal Body Cavity contains brain and spinal cord AKA Central Nervous System
Ventral Body Cavity contains most viscera(soft organs) of body divided into Thoracic and caudal abdominal cavity
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Pleura a thin membrane covering organs of thoracic cavity
Visceral Layer the pleura layer that covers the organs
Parietal Layer layer of pleura that lines the entire cavity
Epithelial Tissue composed entirely of cells and main job is to cover body surfaces
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Connective Tissue holds the body together and gives it support
Muscle Tissue moves the body inside and out skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Skeletal Muscle moves the bones of the skeleton and is under conscious nervous system control
Cardiac Muscle makes up the heart and works "automatically"
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Smooth Muscle found in internal organs, urinary bladder and digestive tract; also automatic
Nervous Tissue transmits information around the body and controls body functions
Homeostasis the maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium in the body
Covalent Bond when atoms share electrons
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Polar Molecule has oppositely charged ends
Ionic Bond when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Electrostatic Attraction an ionic bond drawn together by their respective electrical charges
Hydrogen Bond a specific type of weak ionic bond
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Synthesis Reaction X+Y->XY
Decomposition Reaction XY->X+Y
Exchange Reaction WX+YZ->WY+XZ
Activation Energy energy required for reaction to happen
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Catalyst special proteins that hold the reactants together so they may react
Enzymes a protein that effects reaction speed where the catalyst protein is not destroyed or used up by the reaction
Functional Group a troup of atoms that defines the properties of the organic molecule
Hydrophilic polar molecules; water loving
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Hydrophobic water hating, neutral or nonpolar molecules
Salts mineral compounds that have ionic bonds
Electrolytes substances that have the ability to transmit electrical charges
Acids ionically bonded substances that, when added to water, freely release hydrogen ions
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Bases alkaline compounds that are ionically bonded, ionize in water and release hydroxyl ions
Carbohydrate molecules used for energy, storage of energy, and cellular structures
Dehydration Synthesis water created by the reaction by being extracted
Hydrolysis water used in reaction
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Glycerol modified, three-carbon simple sugar
Fatty Acid a chain of carbon atoms with one or two hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon by single or double bonds
Saturated Fatty Acid all the bonds in the hydrocarbon chain are single bonds and as many hydrogen atoms as possible are attached to the carbon
Lipoprotein a macromolecule composed of proteins and lipids transports fats throughout the body
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Phospholipids two fatty acids attached to a glycerol bacbone compose the lipid bilayer
Steroids lipids that take the form of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings; hydrophobic
Eicosanoids lipids formed from a 20-carbon fatty acid and a ring structure
Proteins used for cell structures and structural body tissues, controlling chemical reactions, regulating growth and defending the body from invaders
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Amino Acid
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 Anatomythe form and structure of the body and its parts

what things look like and where they are located
 Physiologythe functions of the body and its parts
 Microscopic Anatomydeals with structures so small a microscope is needed to see them clearly; cells and tissues
 Macroscopic AnatomyAKA Gross Anatomy

body parts large enough to be seen by unaided eye
 Regional Anatomystudy individual regions of body
 Systemic Anatomyindividual systems of the body
 Sagittal Planeplane that runs the length of the body and divides it into left and right parts that are not necessarily equal halves
 Median Planedivides down the center into equal left and right halves
 Transverse Planedivides into cranial and caudal
 Dorsal Planeat right angles to the sagittal and transverse plance;
divides into dorsal and ventral planes

as if standing in water
 Cranialtoward head
 Caudaltoward the tail
 Rostraltoward the tip of the nose
 Dorsaltop surface(the back)
 Ventralbottom surface (the belly)
 Medialtowards the median plane
 Lateralaway from median plane
 Deeptoward the center of body
 Superficialtoward the surface of body
 Proximal toward the body
 Distalaway from body
 Carpusdistal dividing line for front leg
 Tarsusdividing line for rear leg
 Palmarback surface of front leg distal to carpus
 Plantarthe back of the hind leg distal to the tarsus
 Bilateral Symmetryleft and right halves are mirrored
 Dorsal Body Cavitycontains brain and spinal cord

AKA Central Nervous System
 Ventral Body Cavitycontains most viscera(soft organs) of body

divided into Thoracic and caudal abdominal cavity
 Pleuraa thin membrane covering organs of thoracic cavity
 Visceral Layerthe pleura layer that covers the organs
 Parietal Layerlayer of pleura that lines the entire cavity
 Epithelial Tissuecomposed entirely of cells and main job is to cover body surfaces
 Connective Tissueholds the body together and gives it support
 Muscle Tissuemoves the body inside and out

skeletal, cardiac, smooth
 Skeletal Musclemoves the bones of the skeleton and is under conscious nervous system control
 Cardiac Musclemakes up the heart and works "automatically"
 Smooth Musclefound in internal organs, urinary bladder and digestive tract; also automatic
 Nervous Tissuetransmits information around the body and controls body functions
 Homeostasisthe maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium in the body
 Covalent Bondwhen atoms share electrons
 Polar Moleculehas oppositely charged ends
 Ionic Bondwhen electrons are transferred from one atom to another
 Electrostatic Attractionan ionic bond drawn together by their respective electrical charges
 Hydrogen Bonda specific type of weak ionic bond
 Synthesis ReactionX+Y->XY
 Decomposition ReactionXY->X+Y
 Exchange ReactionWX+YZ->WY+XZ
 Activation Energyenergy required for reaction to happen
 Catalystspecial proteins that hold the reactants together so they may react
 Enzymesa protein that effects reaction speed where the catalyst protein is not destroyed or used up by the reaction
 Functional Groupa troup of atoms that defines the properties of the organic molecule
 Hydrophilicpolar molecules; water loving
 Hydrophobicwater hating, neutral or nonpolar molecules
 Saltsmineral compounds that have ionic bonds
 Electrolytessubstances that have the ability to transmit electrical charges
 Acidsionically bonded substances that, when added to water, freely release hydrogen ions
 Basesalkaline compounds that are ionically bonded, ionize in water and release hydroxyl ions
 Carbohydratemolecules used for energy, storage of energy, and cellular structures
 Dehydration Synthesiswater created by the reaction by being extracted
 Hydrolysiswater used in reaction
 Glycerolmodified, three-carbon simple sugar
 Fatty Acida chain of carbon atoms with one or two hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon by single or double bonds
 Saturated Fatty Acidall the bonds in the hydrocarbon chain are single bonds and as many hydrogen atoms as possible are attached to the carbon
 Lipoproteina macromolecule composed of proteins and lipids

transports fats throughout the body
 Phospholipidstwo fatty acids attached to a glycerol bacbone

compose the lipid bilayer
 Steroidslipids that take the form of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings; hydrophobic
 Eicosanoidslipids formed from a 20-carbon fatty acid and a ring structure
 Proteinsused for cell structures and structural body tissues, controlling chemical reactions, regulating growth and defending the body from invaders
 Amino Acid 
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