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MIS 7-12 - Flashcards

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Class:BCIS 3610 - Basic Information Systems
Subject:Business Computers and Information Systems
University:University of North Texas
Term:Fall 2013
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Structured Processes formally defined, standardized processes that involve day-to-day operations (e.g., accepting a return)
Dynamic Processes flexible, informal, and adaptive processes that normally involved strategic and less structured managerial decisions and activities (e.g., deciding whether to open a new store)
Workgroup Processes enable workgroups to fulfill the charter, purpose, and goals of a particular group or department. Supported with workgroup information systems, a.k.a functional information systems
  • 10-100 users
  • Procedures often formalized
  • Problem solutions within one group
  • Workgroups can duplicate data
  • Somewhat difficult to change
Enterprise Processes processes which span an organization and support activities in multiple departments. Supported by enterprise information systems (e.g., CRM, ERP, EAI)
  • 1,000s users
  • Procedures formalized
  • Problem solutions affect enterprise
  • Eliminate workgroup data duplication
  • Difficult to change

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Inter-Enterprise Processes processes which span two or more independent organizations. Supported by inter-enterprise information systems. 
  • 1,000s users
  • Procedures formalized
  • Problem solutions affect multiple organizations
  • Can resolve problems of duplicated enterprise data
  • Very difficult to change
Process Quality
  1. Two dimensions of process quality
  • Efficiency-ratio of process outputs to inputs
  • Effectiveness- how well a process achieves organizational strategy
  1. Processes can be improved by 
  • Changing process structure
  • Changing process resources
  • Changing both structure and resources
  1. Information systems can improve process quality by
  • performing an activity (automating)
  • Augmenting a human performing an activity
  • Controlling process flow
Information Silos
  1. condition that exists when data are isolated in separated information systems. 
  • Can be resolved by
  1. Integrating systems
  2. Consolidating data
Inherent processes standardized business processes included in enterprise information systems
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Customer Relationship Management (CRM) System a suite of applications, a database, and a set of inherent processes for managing all the interactions with the customer
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) System a suite of applications (called modules),  a database, and set of inherent processes for consolidating business operations into a single, consistent, computing platform. Top vendors are SAP and Oracle
Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) system a suite of software applications that integrates existing systems by proving layers of software that connect application together. May rely on service oriented architectures (SOA). 
Social Media the use of information technology to support the sharing of content among networks of users
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Social Media Information Systems (SMIS) an information that supports the sharing of content among networks of users
Three roles in social media information systems
  • User communities- You and your friends
  • Social media sponsors- companies and other organization that choose to support a presence on one or more social media sites. 
  • Social media application providers- companies that operate social media sites (e.g., Facebook, Twitter)
Enterprise 2.0 the application of social media to facilitate the cooperative work of people inside organizations
  • 6 characteristics of Enterprise 2.0 (SLATES)
  1. Search- people have more success searching than they do in finding from structured content
  2. Links- links to enterprise resources (like on the web)
  3. Authoring- create enterprise content via blogs, wikis, discussion groups, presentations, etc. 
  4. Tags- flexible tagging results in folksonomies of enterprise content
  5. Extensions- using usage patterns to offer enterprise content via tag processing 
  6. Signals- pushing enterprise content to users based on subscriptions and alerts.
Capital the investment of resources for future profit
  • human capital- the investment of human knowledge and skills for future profit.
  • Social capital- the investment in social relations with the expectations of returns in the marketplace
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Factors which increase the value of social capital
  • number of relationships
  • strength of relationships
  • resources controlled by related entities 
  • Formula: number of relationships x strength x entity resources
How to integrate social media into and organization (SEAMS)
  1. Sense- important communities. What they do, where they hang out, what they care about, how your organization can relate to them
  2. Engage- in relationships. Talk with, not to , community members.
  3. Activate- connect communities to your internal value chains and processes,
  4. Measure- success in terms of social capital.
  5. Story tell- publicize community successes. Take a backseat role to the community 
Sources of problems for user generated content
  • junk and crackpot contributions
  • inappropriate content
  • unfavorable reviews
  • mutinous movements
Business intelligence information containing patterns, relationships, and trends of various forms of data
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Three primary activities in the BI process
  • Data acquisition- process of obtaining, cleaning, organizing, cleaning, organizing relating, and cataloging source data. 
  • BI analysis- process of creating business intelligence
  • Publish results- process of delivering business intelligence to the knowledge workers who need it
  • push publishing- delivers business intelligence to users without any request from the users
  • pull publishing- requires the user to request BI results
Data warehouse a facility for managing an organization BI data
Possible problems with data
  • Dirty data
  • Missing values
  • Inconsistent data
  • Data not integrated
  • Wrong granularity 
  • Too much data
Data mart a data collection (smaller than a data warehouse) that addresses a particular department or functional area of the business
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RFM Analysis -a way of analyzing and ranking customers according to their purchasing patterns according to
  • Recently 
  • Frequently 
  • Money
Online analytical processing (OLAP) a reporting application that allows the ability to sum, count, average, and perform other simple arithmetic operations on groups of data. OLAP reports are generated from data structures called OLAP CUbes whichare composed of 
  • Measure- the data item of interest
  • Dimensions- characteristics of a measure
Data mining the application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data for classification and prediction. Two types
  • Unsupervised data mining- Analysts DO NOT create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis. 
  • Supervised data mining- Analysts DO create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis.
Knowledge management the process of creating value from intellectual capital and sharing that knowledge with employees, managers, suppliers, customers, and others who need it
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Business Process Management a technique to create new business processes and to manage changes to existing processes
  • Business processes, information systems, and applications are related
  • Relationship of business processes to information systems in many-to-many.... a business process need not relate to any IS bus an IS
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 Structured Processesformally defined, standardized processes that involve day-to-day operations (e.g., accepting a return)
 Dynamic Processesflexible, informal, and adaptive processes that normally involved strategic and less structured managerial decisions and activities (e.g., deciding whether to open a new store)
 Workgroup Processesenable workgroups to fulfill the charter, purpose, and goals of a particular group or department. Supported with workgroup information systems, a.k.a functional information systems
  • 10-100 users
  • Procedures often formalized
  • Problem solutions within one group
  • Workgroups can duplicate data
  • Somewhat difficult to change
 Enterprise Processesprocesses which span an organization and support activities in multiple departments. Supported by enterprise information systems (e.g., CRM, ERP, EAI)
  • 1,000s users
  • Procedures formalized
  • Problem solutions affect enterprise
  • Eliminate workgroup data duplication
  • Difficult to change

 Inter-Enterprise Processesprocesses which span two or more independent organizations. Supported by inter-enterprise information systems. 
  • 1,000s users
  • Procedures formalized
  • Problem solutions affect multiple organizations
  • Can resolve problems of duplicated enterprise data
  • Very difficult to change
 Process Quality
  1. Two dimensions of process quality
  • Efficiency-ratio of process outputs to inputs
  • Effectiveness- how well a process achieves organizational strategy
  1. Processes can be improved by 
  • Changing process structure
  • Changing process resources
  • Changing both structure and resources
  1. Information systems can improve process quality by
  • performing an activity (automating)
  • Augmenting a human performing an activity
  • Controlling process flow
 Information Silos
  1. condition that exists when data are isolated in separated information systems. 
  • Can be resolved by
  1. Integrating systems
  2. Consolidating data
 Inherent processesstandardized business processes included in enterprise information systems
 Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Systema suite of applications, a database, and a set of inherent processes for managing all the interactions with the customer
 Enterprise resource planning (ERP) Systema suite of applications (called modules),  a database, and set of inherent processes for consolidating business operations into a single, consistent, computing platform. Top vendors are SAP and Oracle
 Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) systema suite of software applications that integrates existing systems by proving layers of software that connect application together. May rely on service oriented architectures (SOA). 
 Social Mediathe use of information technology to support the sharing of content among networks of users
 Social Media Information Systems (SMIS)an information that supports the sharing of content among networks of users
 Three roles in social media information systems
  • User communities- You and your friends
  • Social media sponsors- companies and other organization that choose to support a presence on one or more social media sites. 
  • Social media application providers- companies that operate social media sites (e.g., Facebook, Twitter)
 Enterprise 2.0the application of social media to facilitate the cooperative work of people inside organizations
  • 6 characteristics of Enterprise 2.0 (SLATES)
  1. Search- people have more success searching than they do in finding from structured content
  2. Links- links to enterprise resources (like on the web)
  3. Authoring- create enterprise content via blogs, wikis, discussion groups, presentations, etc. 
  4. Tags- flexible tagging results in folksonomies of enterprise content
  5. Extensions- using usage patterns to offer enterprise content via tag processing 
  6. Signals- pushing enterprise content to users based on subscriptions and alerts.
 Capitalthe investment of resources for future profit
  • human capital- the investment of human knowledge and skills for future profit.
  • Social capital- the investment in social relations with the expectations of returns in the marketplace
 Factors which increase the value of social capital
  • number of relationships
  • strength of relationships
  • resources controlled by related entities 
  • Formula: number of relationships x strength x entity resources
 How to integrate social media into and organization (SEAMS)
  1. Sense- important communities. What they do, where they hang out, what they care about, how your organization can relate to them
  2. Engage- in relationships. Talk with, not to , community members.
  3. Activate- connect communities to your internal value chains and processes,
  4. Measure- success in terms of social capital.
  5. Story tell- publicize community successes. Take a backseat role to the community 
 Sources of problems for user generated content
  • junk and crackpot contributions
  • inappropriate content
  • unfavorable reviews
  • mutinous movements
 Business intelligenceinformation containing patterns, relationships, and trends of various forms of data
 Three primary activities in the BI process
  • Data acquisition- process of obtaining, cleaning, organizing, cleaning, organizing relating, and cataloging source data. 
  • BI analysis- process of creating business intelligence
  • Publish results- process of delivering business intelligence to the knowledge workers who need it
  • push publishing- delivers business intelligence to users without any request from the users
  • pull publishing- requires the user to request BI results
 Data warehousea facility for managing an organization BI data
 Possible problems with data
  • Dirty data
  • Missing values
  • Inconsistent data
  • Data not integrated
  • Wrong granularity 
  • Too much data
 Data marta data collection (smaller than a data warehouse) that addresses a particular department or functional area of the business
 RFM Analysis-a way of analyzing and ranking customers according to their purchasing patterns according to
  • Recently 
  • Frequently 
  • Money
 Online analytical processing (OLAP)a reporting application that allows the ability to sum, count, average, and perform other simple arithmetic operations on groups of data. OLAP reports are generated from data structures called OLAP CUbes whichare composed of 
  • Measure- the data item of interest
  • Dimensions- characteristics of a measure
 Data miningthe application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data for classification and prediction. Two types
  • Unsupervised data mining- Analysts DO NOT create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis. 
  • Supervised data mining- Analysts DO create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis.
 Knowledge managementthe process of creating value from intellectual capital and sharing that knowledge with employees, managers, suppliers, customers, and others who need it
 Business Process Managementa technique to create new business processes and to manage changes to existing processes
  • Business processes, information systems, and applications are related
  • Relationship of business processes to information systems in many-to-many.... a business process need not relate to any IS bus an IS
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