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Bio exam 2 - Flashcards

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Class:BIO 1330 - FUNCTIONAL BIOLOGY
Subject:Biology
University:Texas State University - San Marcos
Term:Fall 2011
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if kinesin is unable to use atp as an energy source due to a mutation, what will be the result inside the cell? Many vesicles will not be transported to their proper destinations
what is not a feature of plasmodesmata? they allow any molecule to pass thru.
why is atp synthesis associated with microchondrial electron transport chain also called "oxidative phosphoryiation?" atp is produced as a result of E.T.C generated by oxidation of NADH and FADH
the inner mitchondrial membrance.... carries components of the electron transport chain
is highly folded to increase surface area.
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what characteristics of atp is responsible for its ability to carry high energy? the closely spaced negitive charges in phosphate groups. 
what takes place as a direct result of the E.T.C in the mitochondrial inner membrane? transporting protons across the inner membrane
photosystem I&II are present in the chloroplast membrane
have groups of pigment complexes known as antenna pigments
both can absorb the suns energy to excite electrons.
As a direct result of the E.T.C during photosynthetic light reactions... a proton gradient is created across the thylakoid membrane.
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the major purpose of water breakdown during photosynthesis is... to provide electrons to photosystem II reaction center.
if radioactive CO2 is fixed by the cells which compund would the the first to become radioactive? PGA
what is the connection between light depedent reactions and light independent reactions during photosynthesis? the products of the light depedent reactions are used in the light indepedent reactions
movement of organelles and vesicles inside the cells is directed by... microtubles
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what is the role of NADPH during photosynthesis? carrying electrons from the end of the ETC to the calvin cycle.
what important role in cellular movement do motor proteins play? they can get energy from atp.
if a tissue needs to seal the space between cells to prevent leaks, the cells have.... tight junctions
cadherins are proteins that help connect 2 cells in a way they can communicate - in which junction would you find cadherins? Anchoring junctions
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Plasmodesmata are found between plant cells
where does the ETC of aerobic cellular respiration take place in eukaryotes? inside mitochondria.
the highest amount of atp is formed as a result of what process? proton motive force
what is the function of NADH and FADH in cellular respiration they carry and give electrons to ETC
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Photosynthetic pigments are located in the thylakoid membrane
the energy for electrons to begin the ETC in photosystems I&II comes from what energy source? light
the products of light depedent reactions that are used in the Calvin Cycle are... ATP and NADPH
what happens in the reduction phase of the Calvin Cycle? PGA is converted to PGAL
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a protein that is a transporter for a molecule across the plasma membrane should be a... intergral membrane protein
What is an Er Signal Sequence? a short amino acid sequence  that enter into ER
If a mRNA molecule has to be moved from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, what event should occur first? Exportin recognize the molecule to be transported
characteristics if transport proteins thru the nuclear pore complex: it is a energy demanding process
escort proteins are involved in the process
transport can happen in or out of the nucleus
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what happens to different proteins while they move from the same side to the opposite side of the golgi apperatus various tags are added to them.
what would happen if there is a mutation in importin that makes it unable to recognize the NLS? some proteins with NLS will not enter the nucleus. 
ultimate goal of cellular respiration- to produce atp
light depdent reactions of photosynthesis... trnasform light energy to chemical energy
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a communication signal recieved by a cell can be amplified and transmitted inside the cell by
if a hormone molecule is unable to enter thru the plasma membrane, what kind of receptor would you expect? a transmembrane receptor on plasma membrane
if the phospholipid bilayer that surrounds living cells is not selectively permeable, what would happen to living cells? a lot of molecules will enter and exit the cells without proper control
which cellular membrane would be most permeable to a small, slightly charged polar molecule? one with short tails and unsaturated tails
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you collect seaweed and put it into freshwater to grow, but it dies, why? because freshwater is hypertonic for seaweed 
a transporter protein that allows facilited difusion of a molecule should be a... intergral membrane protein
if a protein helps to transport charged ions across a cell membrane from low to high concentration, this protein must be... an intergral membrane protein
an ion pump that uses atp
what would happen if a mutation occured in a group of importin that makes them unable to recognize the NLS? some proteins with NLS will not enter the nucleus.
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what is common between microfilaments and microtubles both have polarity
intermediate filaments don't... have polarity
and dont associate with motor proteins
myosin is the motor protein for actin microfilaments
a gap junction is different from an anchoring junction because a gap junction allows the passage of substances.
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photosynthesis and aerobic respiration are considered opposite processes because... photosynthesis uses energy to produce glucose while respiration releases energy by glucose breakdown.
major purpose of water breakdown during photosynthesis is... to provide electrons for photosystem II reaction centers
role of NADPH during photosynthesis carrying electrons from end of ETC to Calvin Cycle. 
what will happen to proteins if a cell is injected with a drug that prevents the formation of microtubles they will still enter the ER but transport to their destinations will be impaired.
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what function does kinesin have on cells? carries vesicles and organelles along microtubles tracks.
the primary role of desosomes is to provide an anchor between adjacent cells that can also come off when cells need to seperate. 
Cadherins are... the protiens that allow cells to selectively adhere to another cell
plasmodesmata allow passage of proteins and small molecules between adjacent plant cells.
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in cellular respiration, glucose is______ & Oxygen is _____ in cellular respiration, glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced.
when atp is hydrolyzed into adp.... a large amount of energy is released.
what eneters the citric acid cycle to be oxidized and broken down? acetyl group
what is not a product of the citric acid cycle? water
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Water is produced when... at the end of the ETC when O2 accepts electrons and H ions (protons)
what job does the ETC accomplish in order to drive the formation of atp? it establishes an electrochemical gradient across the membrane that drive the proton flow thru the atp synthase enzyme.
many organisms have an ETC as well as enzymes for fermentation pathways. However, if 02 is availiable, these organisms always choose ETC over fermentation because... fermentation is extremely ineffective in producing ATP compared to ETC.
photosynthesis equation 6 carbon (co2) + 6 water (h20) yeilds C6 H12 06 + 6o2
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the calvin cycle occurs where? the stroma
the light capturing reactions of photosynthesis use ____ & ____ and produce _____ & _____ the light capturing reactions of photosynthesis uses LIGHT ENERGY and WATER and produces NADPH and ATP
during the calvin cycle, carbon dioxide is _____ in order to drive the formation of sugars. reduced.
As electrons are passed thru the system of electron carriers of the ETC associated with photosystem II, the electrons lose energy, what happens to this energy? it is used to establish and maintain a proton gradient. 
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phospholipid bilayers have hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads
lipid bilayer vesicles (liposomes) are formed so that they contain pure water. If the vesicles are transferred to a solution with a higher concentration of solutes, what will be the net direction of water movement? water will move OUT of the vesicle.
osmosis is the diffusion of water
transporter proteins function: is to allow solute molecules to enter the cell
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____ & ____ CANNOT directly pass thru the phospholipids of the plasma membrane, they must pass thru membrane transport proteins Glucose and Hydrogen Ions
if fatty acid tails on many densely packed phospholipids in a membrane became unsaturated, the resulting membrane would be more fluid like
the best explanation for why veggie oil is a liquid and animal fats are solid at room temp is: veggi oil has more double bonds in fatty acid tails than in animal fats
during active transport- a charge difference (electrochemical gradient) forms across the plasma membrane
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what molecules dont normally go thru the nuclear pore complex? DNA
the nuclear envelope is continous with the ER
what is the function of the nuclear pore complex? regulates the movement of large molecules
ribosomes synthesizing proteins without ER signals remain in the cytosol and are release the protein there
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in the primary structure of a protein, a region of the sequence allows i to interact with importin which functions in the cellular compartments... inside the nucleus
how are proteins transported from the ER to the golgi and what happens to the protein inside the golgi? the proteins travel in vesicles to golgi and get tagged for soting. 
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 if kinesin is unable to use atp as an energy source due to a mutation, what will be the result inside the cell?Many vesicles will not be transported to their proper destinations
 what is not a feature of plasmodesmata?they allow any molecule to pass thru.
 why is atp synthesis associated with microchondrial electron transport chain also called "oxidative phosphoryiation?"atp is produced as a result of E.T.C generated by oxidation of NADH and FADH
 the inner mitchondrial membrance....carries components of the electron transport chain
is highly folded to increase surface area.
 what characteristics of atp is responsible for its ability to carry high energy?the closely spaced negitive charges in phosphate groups. 
 what takes place as a direct result of the E.T.C in the mitochondrial inner membrane?transporting protons across the inner membrane
 photosystem I&IIare present in the chloroplast membrane
have groups of pigment complexes known as antenna pigments
both can absorb the suns energy to excite electrons.
 As a direct result of the E.T.C during photosynthetic light reactions...a proton gradient is created across the thylakoid membrane.
 the major purpose of water breakdown during photosynthesis is...to provide electrons to photosystem II reaction center.
 if radioactive CO2 is fixed by the cells which compund would the the first to become radioactive?PGA
 what is the connection between light depedent reactions and light independent reactions during photosynthesis?the products of the light depedent reactions are used in the light indepedent reactions
 movement of organelles and vesicles inside the cells is directed by...microtubles
 what is the role of NADPH during photosynthesis?carrying electrons from the end of the ETC to the calvin cycle.
 what important role in cellular movement do motor proteins play?they can get energy from atp.
 if a tissue needs to seal the space between cells to prevent leaks, the cells have....tight junctions
 cadherins are proteins that help connect 2 cells in a way they can communicate - in which junction would you find cadherins?Anchoring junctions
 Plasmodesmata are found betweenplant cells
 where does the ETC of aerobic cellular respiration take place in eukaryotes?inside mitochondria.
 the highest amount of atp is formed as a result of what process?proton motive force
 what is the function of NADH and FADH in cellular respirationthey carry and give electrons to ETC
 Photosynthetic pigments are located in thethylakoid membrane
 the energy for electrons to begin the ETC in photosystems I&II comes from what energy source?light
 the products of light depedent reactions that are used in the Calvin Cycle are...ATP and NADPH
 what happens in the reduction phase of the Calvin Cycle?PGA is converted to PGAL
 a protein that is a transporter for a molecule across the plasma membrane should be a...intergral membrane protein
 What is an Er Signal Sequence?a short amino acid sequence  that enter into ER
 If a mRNA molecule has to be moved from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, what event should occur first?Exportin recognize the molecule to be transported
 characteristics if transport proteins thru the nuclear pore complex:it is a energy demanding process
escort proteins are involved in the process
transport can happen in or out of the nucleus
 what happens to different proteins while they move from the same side to the opposite side of the golgi apperatusvarious tags are added to them.
 what would happen if there is a mutation in importin that makes it unable to recognize the NLS?some proteins with NLS will not enter the nucleus. 
 ultimate goal of cellular respiration-to produce atp
 light depdent reactions of photosynthesis...trnasform light energy to chemical energy
 a communication signal recieved by a cell can be amplified and transmitted inside the cell by 
 if a hormone molecule is unable to enter thru the plasma membrane, what kind of receptor would you expect?a transmembrane receptor on plasma membrane
 if the phospholipid bilayer that surrounds living cells is not selectively permeable, what would happen to living cells?a lot of molecules will enter and exit the cells without proper control
 which cellular membrane would be most permeable to a small, slightly charged polar molecule?one with short tails and unsaturated tails
 you collect seaweed and put it into freshwater to grow, but it dies, why?because freshwater is hypertonic for seaweed 
 a transporter protein that allows facilited difusion of a molecule should be a...intergral membrane protein
 if a protein helps to transport charged ions across a cell membrane from low to high concentration, this protein must be...an intergral membrane protein
an ion pump that uses atp
 what would happen if a mutation occured in a group of importin that makes them unable to recognize the NLS?some proteins with NLS will not enter the nucleus.
 what is common between microfilaments and microtublesboth have polarity
 intermediate filaments don't...have polarity
and dont associate with motor proteins
 myosin is the motor protein foractin microfilaments
 a gap junction is different from an anchoring junction becausea gap junction allows the passage of substances.
 photosynthesis and aerobic respiration are considered opposite processes because...photosynthesis uses energy to produce glucose while respiration releases energy by glucose breakdown.
 major purpose of water breakdown during photosynthesis is...to provide electrons for photosystem II reaction centers
 role of NADPH during photosynthesiscarrying electrons from end of ETC to Calvin Cycle. 
 what will happen to proteins if a cell is injected with a drug that prevents the formation of microtublesthey will still enter the ER but transport to their destinations will be impaired.
 what function does kinesin have on cells?carries vesicles and organelles along microtubles tracks.
 the primary role of desosomesis to provide an anchor between adjacent cells that can also come off when cells need to seperate. 
 Cadherins are...the protiens that allow cells to selectively adhere to another cell
 plasmodesmataallow passage of proteins and small molecules between adjacent plant cells.
 in cellular respiration, glucose is______ & Oxygen is _____in cellular respiration, glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced.
 when atp is hydrolyzed into adp....a large amount of energy is released.
 what eneters the citric acid cycle to be oxidized and broken down?acetyl group
 what is not a product of the citric acid cycle?water
 Water is produced when...at the end of the ETC when O2 accepts electrons and H ions (protons)
 what job does the ETC accomplish in order to drive the formation of atp?it establishes an electrochemical gradient across the membrane that drive the proton flow thru the atp synthase enzyme.
 many organisms have an ETC as well as enzymes for fermentation pathways. However, if 02 is availiable, these organisms always choose ETC over fermentation because...fermentation is extremely ineffective in producing ATP compared to ETC.
 photosynthesis equation6 carbon (co2) + 6 water (h20) yeilds C6 H12 06 + 6o2
 the calvin cycle occurs where?the stroma
 the light capturing reactions of photosynthesis use ____ & ____ and produce _____ & _____the light capturing reactions of photosynthesis uses LIGHT ENERGY and WATER and produces NADPH and ATP
 during the calvin cycle, carbon dioxide is _____ in order to drive the formation of sugars.reduced.
 As electrons are passed thru the system of electron carriers of the ETC associated with photosystem II, the electrons lose energy, what happens to this energy?it is used to establish and maintain a proton gradient. 
 phospholipid bilayershave hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads
 lipid bilayer vesicles (liposomes) are formed so that they contain pure water. If the vesicles are transferred to a solution with a higher concentration of solutes, what will be the net direction of water movement?water will move OUT of the vesicle.
 osmosis isthe diffusion of water
 transporter proteins function:is to allow solute molecules to enter the cell
 ____ & ____ CANNOT directly pass thru the phospholipids of the plasma membrane, they must pass thru membrane transport proteinsGlucose and Hydrogen Ions
 if fatty acid tails on many densely packed phospholipids in a membrane became unsaturated, the resulting membrane would bemore fluid like
 the best explanation for why veggie oil is a liquid and animal fats are solid at room temp is:veggi oil has more double bonds in fatty acid tails than in animal fats
 during active transport-a charge difference (electrochemical gradient) forms across the plasma membrane
 what molecules dont normally go thru the nuclear pore complex?DNA
 the nuclear envelope is continous with theER
 what is the function of the nuclear pore complex?regulates the movement of large molecules
 ribosomes synthesizing proteins without ER signalsremain in the cytosol and are release the protein there
 in the primary structure of a protein, a region of the sequence allows i to interact with importin which functions in the cellular compartments...inside the nucleus
 how are proteins transported from the ER to the golgi and what happens to the protein inside the golgi?the proteins travel in vesicles to golgi and get tagged for soting. 
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