Koofers

ch. 1-3 - Flashcards

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Class:BIO 146 - FOUNDATIONS OF SCIENCE
Subject:BIOLOGY
University:Sam Houston State University
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True or false: People are really pretty good at judging the odds of events False
Vincent loved gambling – especially gambling that involved rolling dice or flipping coins. During one of his gambling games, he had to place a bet based on whether he though the next toss of a coin was going to land heads or tails. The previous three tosses had landed on heads and so he placed his bet on tails. He said, “the odds are now greater that it will land tails because the last three were heads.” Vincent was: Mistaken in his reasoning because the previous tosses of the coins have no effect on subsequent tosses. The odds were still 50-50 for either a head or a tail.

What were key ideas that Schick was trying ton convey in Chapter 5?
    1. Eyewitness testimony is often no reliable and, in addition, we can’t accept something as being true just because someone claims strongly that it is

    2. All of us can make mistakes in out reasoning and can misperceive things because of limits to perception and memory

    3. All of us have biases that can adversely affect our ability to draw correct conclusions – especially if don’t try to consciously deal with them

    4. We have to consciously try to avoid making errors in our reasoning if we want to know the truth about something.



B.J. acknowledged that he was racist and was even proud of the fact. But, he claimed he was racist because the “evidence clearly showed that he was correct.” He said he had conducted extensive research on the issue by visiting numerous websites – all of which were committed to the idea that some races were superior to others. He had read books with the same theme – all of which cited only anecdotal evidence to support their claims. He had never read anything with a view opposed to his own. And, whenever Tom was told things that contradicted his claims, he ignored them. he said they weren’t relevant – that they were just anomalies. But, whenever an event occurred that supported his views, he was quick to cite it as proof of his beliefs. Tom’s selective use of information in this manner is an example of: An example of confirmation bias.

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According to research cited by Schick, what provides the most convincing evidence of paranormal phenomena for most people? Our own personal experiences

True or False: Emily watched a TV show about a haunted house. According to the former occupants of the house, the lights would go on and off by themselves, they would hear strange sounds in the house, and one of them was scratched by an unseen entity. The people seemed very sincere. Given their sincerity, and the fact that it was on TV, we have very strong reasons for believing their claims. False
Eyewitness testimony, especially those regarding unusual event that people have experienced, is often:
    1. Unreliable because people misinterpret events, especially when excited



True or False: Once people have an “explanation” that seems to make sense to them they usually stop looking for alternative explanations that might contradict their belief True
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True or False: Our minds construct an image of reality – they do not “record” an image off reality – and the construction process is not perfect True
Our perception that our dreams are sometimes prophetic may result from: Selective recall
True or False: Given the large number of events that occur in the world, seemingly extraordinary coincidences have to occur, even though they seem too unlikely to occur by chance True
When Ava went to a job interview, she was asked to submit a sample of her handwriting so that it could be analyzed by a graphologist to determine if her personality was a good match for the demands of the job which she was applying. When the results came back, she was informed that the analysis indicated that she should not be hired for the position. Based on this, Ava should: Reject the results and continue applying for jobs of the same type in spite of the results of the analysis.

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True or False:When people are confronted with complex issues, they tend to adopt a simple approach to making a decision – an approach that does not adequately deal with the complexity of the situation True
True or False: When people are confronted with complex issues, they tend to adopt a simple approach to making a decision – an approach that does not adequately deal with the complexity of the situation True
True or False: Research has shown that memories are reconstructed based on fragments of memories that are pieced together by the mind and, as such, are subject to error True
Which of the following is true regarding the story of Virginia Tighe, wo claimed to be the reincarnation of an Irish woman named Bridie Murphy?
    1. The street that she claimed to have lived on could not be found

    2. Her memories were probably an example of crytomnesia

    3. Her neighbor, when she was a child told her stories about Ireland

    4. The stories she said her husband had published could not be found



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When Tom went in to have his wisdom teeth removed, he kept thinking about his grandfather’s story of how much pain he had experienced 50 years ago when he’d had his wisdom teeth “ripped out”. The anesthetic hadn’t worked well and his grandfather’s tooth broke during the extraction – further adding to his pain. With these thought in mind, Tom, who had enver had any problems with dental procedures before, experienced an inordinate amount of pain both during and after his teeth were removed. The dentist said that there was no medical basis for this given that everything went very well, but he suggested Tom take some prescription pain killers anyways. In the context of the discussion in Schick’s text, it is very likely that the explanation for Tom’s pain was
    1. Tom’s psychological expectation



Jose grew up his entire life in Chicago. On his first trip to the country, Jose saw a bright light move across the sky, changing color and emitting ”sparks”. Having never seen the night sky, and having never seen anything like the phenomenon he had just witnessed, he concluded that it was a UFO that had lost control and was burning up in the atmosphere. This conclusion is Based on an appeal to ignorance (i.e., what else could it be?)

True or False: Nostradamus made many predictions involving specific dates and several of them have come true on those dates. False
Dennis refused to go bungee jumping because he remembered one case in which a boy hit the ground because the wrong bungee cord – one that was too long – had been mistakenly used. Based on this accident, he concluded that bungee jumping was incredibly dangerous. This is an example of: The availability error/ selective recall

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Jack swore that the park bench he and his family had used for a picnic was brown because he thought all park benches in national parks were painted brown; but when he saw a photograph of the bench taken during the picnic, he was stunned to see it was actually white. Jack was the ‘victim’ of a Perceptual constancy

Because of the way our brains work;
    1. We always make mistakes in interpreting unusual events

    2. Man natural experiences may seem to be supernatural in nature

    3. Seemingly weird things will happen to us even thought they aren’t really paranormal



We have good reason to doubt a supernatural explanation for an unusual event if:
    1. The claim contradicts laws of nature and previous experience

    2. Our brain could have misperceived what occurred given the circumstances in which the event occurred

    3. The experience was not witnessed by others (i.e., it is not corroborated)



After viewing a video showing a car accidnent, one group of people was asked “how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other” – while a second group was asked “how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” which of the following statements are true regarding the results of this experiment?
    1. The responses of the two groups depended on the wording of the question, showing that our memories can be influenced by seemingly trivial events.



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The apparent success of many types of alleged psychic phenomenon, such as palm reading and fortune telling, can be attributed to:
    1. The Forer effect



As discussed in Schick, the Ba Mbuti people had never learned about Size Constancy
The Judas Priest court case regarding the alleged backward masking of subliminal messages was:
    1. Was lost because there is no evidence that such messages had been placed on the record and, besides, there is no evidence that such messages can have an effect on people



True or False:If something seems real, it must be real. False
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The tendency to see the face of a human is something like a tortilla or piece of wood is an example of Pareidolia

The fact that people frequently misinterpret things they see in the sky as being alien spacecraft Provides good reasons to be skeptical of similar claims

True or False: People have demonstrated the ability to make crop circles – some of which were later claimed by crop circle investigators to have been made by aliens True
Jessica was asked by her friend if she thought the market would go up the next day. Given that Jessica did not follow the market, she chuckled and said, “Sure, why not. I think it will go up.” The next day, the market did, in fact, go up. This does not mean that Jessica had knowledge that the market was going to go up.
    1. (No) Jessica had no logical basis for claiming that the market would go up.



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Which of the following could be sources of knowledge according to Schick?
    1. Introspection regarding our dispositions (emotions); i.e., thinking about our feelings and experiences

    2. Sensory knowledge (based on what we hear, see taste, smell and touch)

    3. reason/logic



True or False: A guess that is correct can be considered a form of knowledge because it was correct False
According to Bertrand Russell, deciding to believe a proposition only when there is evidence to support it would
    1. Eliminate a lot of suffering the world



What part of a sheep’s body did the Babylonians use to try to predict the future? Liver
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True or False: According to Schick and the lecture material, sources of knowledge are perfect, i.e., they are infallible. False
Let’s connect our reading on mysticism with our lecture material. Based on the quote, “Mysticism is just tomorrow’s science dreamed today”, does Marshall McLuhan follow the view of non-overlapping magesteria? Yes or No no!
According to Russell and Schick, we should
    1. Usually defer to experts because they know more about the topic than most others do.



Russell argues that there is a human tendency to:
      1. Believe something more strongly the less evidence we have to support it.




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What type of skeptic embraces the view that “we cannot know what isn’t certain”? Philosophical skeptics.

True or False: The practices of mystics can cause the brain to manufacture the same chemicals that lead to hallucinations during the waking state True
Why is it in our best interest to have a clear understanding of knowledge and how it is acquired
    1. Knowledge is needed to help us attain our goals

    2. Knowledge is needed to help us make predictions

    3. Knowledge is needed to help us make sense of the world.



Even though we cannot be absolutely certain that we are not living in “the Matrix”, we’re justified in believing that we’re not because,
    1. The matrix hypothesis does not provide the best explanation for our sense of experience.



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A proposition is beyond reasonable doubt if it:
    1. Provides the best explanation for something



You can consider a claim to be “beyond a reasonable doubt” if;
    1. It offers the best explanation of something



Dr. Walters is a physics professor. She has won many teaching awards. Dr. Walters got sick of catching colds in class. She became convinced that large doses of vitamin C and electrolytes would help prevent the common cold. She based this on personal experience. She created a supplement for preventing the common cold, packed them with vitamin C and electrolystes, and sold them to the general public. Well placed advertisements resulted in huge sales of the supplement. Given this, which of the following can you logically conclude?
    1. Without independent support for her claim by nutritionists and medical doctors, we have no compelling reason to conclude that she is correct about Vitamin C.



Schick describes a study in which subjects ‘knew’ that the researchers wanted either high or low scores when the subjects were evaluating people in photographs. Schick concludes that this evidence of: Acute sensory perception.

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A fact is;
    1. A true proposition

    2. Statement that corresponds to reality



Bertrand Russell (mentioned by Schick) believed that The use of reason and logic would eliminate a lot of problems and suffering in the world.

To be considered an expert, a person must;
    1. Be able to make consistently correct interpretations of data and draw correct conclusions



True or False: The statement that “reasons confer probability on propositions” means that, the better the reasons we have for believing something, the less likely that the proposition it true False
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True or False:Hypersensory perception (HSP) can be misinterpreted as extrasensory perception (ESP). True
In order for us to claim to “have knowledge” regarding a proposition (an idea) we must be able to:
    1. Offer such strong evidence in support of the idea that our belief in the claim is “beyond reasonable doubt”



True or False: According to Schick, “faith” – even if it leads to a correct belief – CANNOT be considered a source of knowledge because it is not based on observable evidence or logic True
Schick argues that mystical experience ……… be considered a source of knowledge because ……….
    1. Cannot: there is no way to distinguish a “genuine” mystical experience from one that is “not genuine”

    2. Cannot; the experiences of mystics are not identical; i.e., they lack consistency



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Having “factual knowledge” means
    1. Holding a belief that is true; i.e., having true belief

    2. Having good reasons for what we believe



True or False: Schick argues that the continuation of a democratic society depends upon its citizens making rational choices based on rational beliefs True
Most psychic hotlines are staffed by: Unemployed housewives

True or False: According to one of the people quoted in the book, skeptical thinking is essential for our survival True
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True or False: According to Schick, we need good reasons for our beliefs because there are innumerable beliefs to choose from and without good reasons for accepting them, we might as well guess as to what is true – and this isn’t reliable True
Schick asserts that, if we believe that reality is what we want it to be, then: We cannot know anything about the world

Schick states that much of what we read or hear regarding extraordinary claims is: Lacking in good ‘whys’; i.e., lacking in information as to why we should believe that claim

Schick argues that if we want to know the truth about a claim, we should:
    1. Let go of our prejudices and preconceptions and examine the evidence



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Which of the following does Schick think is false?
    1. If an experience seems real, then it is real

    2. Mystical ways of knowing are superior to ordinary ways of knowing

    3. We create our own reality



Which of the following topics are discussed in Schick’s book?
    1. Astrology and ESP

    2. Hauntings and reincarnation



Which of the following does the author cite as an example of pseudoscience? Astrology

A scientist discovered that air pressures decreases as the height above the surface increases. This relationship is an example of: An inverse proportion

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The FoS textbook, and the Foundations of Science course, both discuss several different disciplines
    1. Without this knowledge we are more likely to make mistakes when trying to understand how things occur

    2. The real world is integrated in that physical, chemical, biological, and geological processes all operate together to create the world we experience and so we need to know something about these sciences in order to better understand and appreciate the world



Which of the following is a scientific hypothesis? There is a subatomic particle called a Higgs Boson that should be discoverable using powerful particle accelerators if it exists

Modern science began
    1. In the 1500s, with the work of Galileo Galilei and Francis Bacon



The scientific attitude is based on
    1. Curiosity

    2. A willingness to accept that one may not know everything there is to know about a topic

    3. The desire to test one’s ideas using experiments or studies



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True or False: Science, art, and religion deal with different domains of knowledge and experience and are, therefore, not inherently contradictory to one another True
Based on his work with depressed patients and a review of the scientific literature on depression, Dr. Nelson speculated that some types of depression may be due to a chemical imbalance in the brain related to a chemical called dopamine. This is an example of a: Hypothesis

Can scientists use the scientific method to state, “it is a scientific fact that abortion is morally right – or wrong”?
    1. No – this is a conclusion that science cannot make



In order for a hypothesis or theory to be considered scientific, it must be possible to determine if it is: Incorrect (wrong)

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True or False: The use of control groups enables scientists to determine cause-effect relationships True
According to Schick, science
    1. Seeks to understand the laws and principles that govern the universe



True or False: Ad hoc hypotheses cannot be verified and so, are not considered to be good hypotheses True
As discussed by Schick, Some hypotheses are better than others

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True or False: Schick states that any procedure that serves to systematically eliminate reasonable grounds for doubt can be considered ‘scientific’ True
True or False: In order for us to explain and predict something, it must follow a pattern or obey ‘rules’. True
According to Schick, science is:
    1. A method of discovering the truth

    2. A way of solving problems and answering questions



Developing an understanding of the Law of Gravity in order to enable us to understand the motions of the planets is the domain of …………, whereas using our knowledge of physics to build the spacecraft that carries us to the planets is the domain of…………. Science; technology

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To control for factors that might affect the outcome of a clinical study (other than the medicine that is being tested), scientists often us a: Placebo

True or False: According to Schick, hypotheses are discovered using a sort of “formula” for finding them – a formula which all scientists use. False
Consider the argument below when answering the follow T/F question. Premise: Ships have mysteriously disappeared in the Bermuda Triangle. Premise: the circumstances seem to be too unusual to be accounted for by normal explanations Conclusion: Some of the ships were probably transported to another dimension by some type of space – time anomaly or by aliens The conclusion is valid; in other words, given the premises, the conclusion is the only conclusion that can be drawn in this argument False
Consider the claim below when answering the following questions. Michael said that, “it is well known the ghosts cause spikes in electrical activity as measured on EMF equipment.” Michael detected a spike on his EMF instrument when investigating a house that was said to be haunted and so he concluded that he had detected a ghost. Is Michael’s argument a valid and sound argument? NO
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What type of argument or error has been made in the following argument? David said that the Big Bang theory should not be taught in schools because it suggests that the universe may have begun “on its own” without a divine begin. And, he argued, if people accept that, they will eventually give up their religious beliefs and ultimately live immoral lives. slippery Slope
What type of error has been made in the following argument? Suzanne said that the Senator wanted to raise taxes on everyone and so she argued that we should not vote for him. In fact, she had deliberately misrepresented the Senator’s position because he actually said that he would raise taxes only on those making more than $300,000. Straw Man
Consider the claim below when answering the following questions. Michael said that, “it is well known the ghosts cause spikes in electrical activity as measured on EMF equipment.” Michael detected a spike on his EMF instrument when investigating a house that was said to be haunted and so he concluded that he had detected a ghost. Is the premise of Michael’s argument demonstrably true? No
Consider the claim below when answering the following questions. Michael said that, “it is well known the ghosts cause spikes in electrical activity as measured on EMF equipment.” Michael detected a spike on his EMF instrument when investigating a house that was said to be haunted and so he concluded that he had detected a ghost. Are the premises sufficient for Michael to draw the conclusion he drew? No, the premises are not sufficient because there are many things that can affect the reading on an EMF detector which have nothing to do with ghosts.

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The word “argument,” as used when practicing critical thinking is:
    1. The reason one gives to support a claim



Jamie wanted to find out if the majority of people in Texas favored the death penalty. So, he surveyed 25 students in his criminal justice class and found that 85% of them strongly supported the death penalty. Jamie therefore concluded that Texans strongly support the death penalty. Jamie therefore concluded that Texans strongly support the death penalty. Which of the following is true?
    1. Jamie’s conclusion is not strongly supported based on her research



What type of error has been made in the following argument? Millions of people believe that St. John’s Wort treats cancer, therefore, you should use it to treat your cancer Appeal to the Masses

Consider the argument below when answering the follow T/F question. Premise: Ships have mysteriously disappeared in the Bermuda Triangle. Premise: the circumstances seem to be too unusual to be accounted for by normal explanations Conclusion: Some of the ships were probably transported to another dimension by some type of space – time anomaly or by aliens The conclusion is valid; in other words, given the premises, the conclusion is the only conclusion that can be drawn in this argument NO
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Schick says that the principles of reasoning and analysis used in his book
    1. Can be verified for yourself by using them



True or False: According to Schick, the fact that we want something to be true is a good reason to believe that it is true. False
Schick reports information that suggests that many high school science teachers are:
    1. May not be prepared to teach science as indicated by many of the unsupported or discredited ideas they believe are true



Which of the following is NOT true of science?
    1. It sometimes explains things in terms of supernatural processes



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The synthesis of a large collection of information that contains well-tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the worlds is known as a scientific: Theory
Which of the following involves passion, talent, and intelligence? A.Art B.Music C.Science D.Literature All of them
In the parlance of science, a “blind” researcher is one that:
    1. Does not know which group (experimental or control) a research subject is in



True or False: In order for a hypothesis to be useful, it must be possible to test it. True
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Melissa, who is 14 years old, wants to be a botanist when she grows up because she loves plants. So, she decided to begin her training by “doing something, scientific”. Specifically, she measured the heights of all the shrubs in her yard and recorded the data in a notebook and then made a graph showing the maximum, minimum, and average height of the shrubs. The questions is, was she doing something scientific?
    1. No, because she did not have a hypothesis to guide her data collection and to serve as a basis for interpreting the data



Scientific investigation begins with
    1. A problem to be solved; a question to be answered

    2. A hypothesis which attempts to predict what will occur based on what the scientist thinks he or she understands about a phenomena.



What type of error has been made in the following argument? Martin said that we have to increase our use of nuclear power, or increase our use of fossil fuels in order to meet our energy needs. (he did not consider conserving energy or developing alternative energies.)  False dilemma/dichotomy

An argument is fallacious (incorrect) if it has: Irrelevant premises
Insufficient premises
False premises
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What type of error has been made in the following argument? Jenny said that Mr. Rogers is a socialist and atheist and he supports the proposed health plan. “Therefore,” she concluded that, “as God-fearing capitalists, we should reject the health plan because Mr. Rogers is obviously immoral.”  Ad Hominem

What type of error has been made in the following argument? Alyssa said that Maggie should believe in Carol’s psychic’s abilities. When Maggie asked why she should believe in them, Alyssa said it was because Carol in psychic. Begging the Question

Which of the following would NOT be an indicator for a conclusion? Strongly believe

One of the key ideas that Schick discusses in Chapter 1 is that: Belief – with out supporting evidence – does not help us discover the truth about a claim

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True or False: According to an attorney cited by Schick, so-called “quack medicine” or “quackery” is relatively harmless. False
Equations are used in science because
    1. They enable scientists to precisely quantify the relationship among variables

    2. The serve as a sort of shorthand: i.e.; it takes less time to state an equation than to explain it in words

    3. They show how things are related to one another



Which of the following is false regarding science? Science can, given enough time, answer all questions regarding human experience and values.

Using science to analyze nature
    1. Adds depth to our understanding and therefore to our appreciation of nature



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True or False: If someone cannot do an experiment a laboratory then, by definition, they cannot do science and, therefore, these people are not scientists. False
The word “argument,” as used when practicing critical thinking is: The reasons one gives to support a claim.

Consider the argument below when answering the following questions Premise: Ships have mysteriously disappeared in the Bermuda Triangle Premise: The circumstances seem to be too unusual to be accounted by normal explanations Conclusion: Some of the ships were probably transported to another dimension by some type of space-time anomaly or by aliens Is the conclusion sound No!
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 True or false: People are really pretty good at judging the odds of eventsFalse
 Vincent loved gambling – especially gambling that involved rolling dice or flipping coins. During one of his gambling games, he had to place a bet based on whether he though the next toss of a coin was going to land heads or tails. The previous three tosses had landed on heads and so he placed his bet on tails. He said, “the odds are now greater that it will land tails because the last three were heads.” Vincent was:Mistaken in his reasoning because the previous tosses of the coins have no effect on subsequent tosses. The odds were still 50-50 for either a head or a tail.

 What were key ideas that Schick was trying ton convey in Chapter 5?
    1. Eyewitness testimony is often no reliable and, in addition, we can’t accept something as being true just because someone claims strongly that it is

    2. All of us can make mistakes in out reasoning and can misperceive things because of limits to perception and memory

    3. All of us have biases that can adversely affect our ability to draw correct conclusions – especially if don’t try to consciously deal with them

    4. We have to consciously try to avoid making errors in our reasoning if we want to know the truth about something.



 B.J. acknowledged that he was racist and was even proud of the fact. But, he claimed he was racist because the “evidence clearly showed that he was correct.” He said he had conducted extensive research on the issue by visiting numerous websites – all of which were committed to the idea that some races were superior to others. He had read books with the same theme – all of which cited only anecdotal evidence to support their claims. He had never read anything with a view opposed to his own. And, whenever Tom was told things that contradicted his claims, he ignored them. he said they weren’t relevant – that they were just anomalies. But, whenever an event occurred that supported his views, he was quick to cite it as proof of his beliefs. Tom’s selective use of information in this manner is an example of:An example of confirmation bias.

 According to research cited by Schick, what provides the most convincing evidence of paranormal phenomena for most people?Our own personal experiences

 True or False: Emily watched a TV show about a haunted house. According to the former occupants of the house, the lights would go on and off by themselves, they would hear strange sounds in the house, and one of them was scratched by an unseen entity. The people seemed very sincere. Given their sincerity, and the fact that it was on TV, we have very strong reasons for believing their claims.False
 Eyewitness testimony, especially those regarding unusual event that people have experienced, is often:
    1. Unreliable because people misinterpret events, especially when excited



 True or False: Once people have an “explanation” that seems to make sense to them they usually stop looking for alternative explanations that might contradict their beliefTrue
 True or False: Our minds construct an image of reality – they do not “record” an image off reality – and the construction process is not perfectTrue
 Our perception that our dreams are sometimes prophetic may result from:Selective recall
 True or False: Given the large number of events that occur in the world, seemingly extraordinary coincidences have to occur, even though they seem too unlikely to occur by chanceTrue
 When Ava went to a job interview, she was asked to submit a sample of her handwriting so that it could be analyzed by a graphologist to determine if her personality was a good match for the demands of the job which she was applying. When the results came back, she was informed that the analysis indicated that she should not be hired for the position. Based on this, Ava should:Reject the results and continue applying for jobs of the same type in spite of the results of the analysis.

 True or False:When people are confronted with complex issues, they tend to adopt a simple approach to making a decision – an approach that does not adequately deal with the complexity of the situationTrue
 True or False: When people are confronted with complex issues, they tend to adopt a simple approach to making a decision – an approach that does not adequately deal with the complexity of the situationTrue
 True or False: Research has shown that memories are reconstructed based on fragments of memories that are pieced together by the mind and, as such, are subject to errorTrue
 Which of the following is true regarding the story of Virginia Tighe, wo claimed to be the reincarnation of an Irish woman named Bridie Murphy?
    1. The street that she claimed to have lived on could not be found

    2. Her memories were probably an example of crytomnesia

    3. Her neighbor, when she was a child told her stories about Ireland

    4. The stories she said her husband had published could not be found



 When Tom went in to have his wisdom teeth removed, he kept thinking about his grandfather’s story of how much pain he had experienced 50 years ago when he’d had his wisdom teeth “ripped out”. The anesthetic hadn’t worked well and his grandfather’s tooth broke during the extraction – further adding to his pain. With these thought in mind, Tom, who had enver had any problems with dental procedures before, experienced an inordinate amount of pain both during and after his teeth were removed. The dentist said that there was no medical basis for this given that everything went very well, but he suggested Tom take some prescription pain killers anyways. In the context of the discussion in Schick’s text, it is very likely that the explanation for Tom’s pain was
    1. Tom’s psychological expectation



 Jose grew up his entire life in Chicago. On his first trip to the country, Jose saw a bright light move across the sky, changing color and emitting ”sparks”. Having never seen the night sky, and having never seen anything like the phenomenon he had just witnessed, he concluded that it was a UFO that had lost control and was burning up in the atmosphere. This conclusion isBased on an appeal to ignorance (i.e., what else could it be?)

 True or False: Nostradamus made many predictions involving specific dates and several of them have come true on those dates.False
 Dennis refused to go bungee jumping because he remembered one case in which a boy hit the ground because the wrong bungee cord – one that was too long – had been mistakenly used. Based on this accident, he concluded that bungee jumping was incredibly dangerous. This is an example of:The availability error/ selective recall

 Jack swore that the park bench he and his family had used for a picnic was brown because he thought all park benches in national parks were painted brown; but when he saw a photograph of the bench taken during the picnic, he was stunned to see it was actually white. Jack was the ‘victim’ of aPerceptual constancy

 Because of the way our brains work;
    1. We always make mistakes in interpreting unusual events

    2. Man natural experiences may seem to be supernatural in nature

    3. Seemingly weird things will happen to us even thought they aren’t really paranormal



 We have good reason to doubt a supernatural explanation for an unusual event if:
    1. The claim contradicts laws of nature and previous experience

    2. Our brain could have misperceived what occurred given the circumstances in which the event occurred

    3. The experience was not witnessed by others (i.e., it is not corroborated)



 After viewing a video showing a car accidnent, one group of people was asked “how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other” – while a second group was asked “how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” which of the following statements are true regarding the results of this experiment?
    1. The responses of the two groups depended on the wording of the question, showing that our memories can be influenced by seemingly trivial events.



 The apparent success of many types of alleged psychic phenomenon, such as palm reading and fortune telling, can be attributed to:
    1. The Forer effect



 As discussed in Schick, the Ba Mbuti people had never learned aboutSize Constancy
 The Judas Priest court case regarding the alleged backward masking of subliminal messages was:
    1. Was lost because there is no evidence that such messages had been placed on the record and, besides, there is no evidence that such messages can have an effect on people



 True or False:If something seems real, it must be real.False
 The tendency to see the face of a human is something like a tortilla or piece of wood is an example ofPareidolia

 The fact that people frequently misinterpret things they see in the sky as being alien spacecraftProvides good reasons to be skeptical of similar claims

 True or False: People have demonstrated the ability to make crop circles – some of which were later claimed by crop circle investigators to have been made by aliensTrue
 Jessica was asked by her friend if she thought the market would go up the next day. Given that Jessica did not follow the market, she chuckled and said, “Sure, why not. I think it will go up.” The next day, the market did, in fact, go up. This does not mean that Jessica had knowledge that the market was going to go up.
    1. (No) Jessica had no logical basis for claiming that the market would go up.



 Which of the following could be sources of knowledge according to Schick?
    1. Introspection regarding our dispositions (emotions); i.e., thinking about our feelings and experiences

    2. Sensory knowledge (based on what we hear, see taste, smell and touch)

    3. reason/logic



 True or False: A guess that is correct can be considered a form of knowledge because it was correctFalse
 According to Bertrand Russell, deciding to believe a proposition only when there is evidence to support it would
    1. Eliminate a lot of suffering the world



 What part of a sheep’s body did the Babylonians use to try to predict the future?Liver
 True or False: According to Schick and the lecture material, sources of knowledge are perfect, i.e., they are infallible.False
 Let’s connect our reading on mysticism with our lecture material. Based on the quote, “Mysticism is just tomorrow’s science dreamed today”, does Marshall McLuhan follow the view of non-overlapping magesteria? Yes or Nono!
 According to Russell and Schick, we should
    1. Usually defer to experts because they know more about the topic than most others do.



 Russell argues that there is a human tendency to:
      1. Believe something more strongly the less evidence we have to support it.




 What type of skeptic embraces the view that “we cannot know what isn’t certain”?Philosophical skeptics.

 True or False: The practices of mystics can cause the brain to manufacture the same chemicals that lead to hallucinations during the waking stateTrue
 Why is it in our best interest to have a clear understanding of knowledge and how it is acquired
    1. Knowledge is needed to help us attain our goals

    2. Knowledge is needed to help us make predictions

    3. Knowledge is needed to help us make sense of the world.



 Even though we cannot be absolutely certain that we are not living in “the Matrix”, we’re justified in believing that we’re not because,
    1. The matrix hypothesis does not provide the best explanation for our sense of experience.



 A proposition is beyond reasonable doubt if it:
    1. Provides the best explanation for something



 You can consider a claim to be “beyond a reasonable doubt” if;
    1. It offers the best explanation of something



 Dr. Walters is a physics professor. She has won many teaching awards. Dr. Walters got sick of catching colds in class. She became convinced that large doses of vitamin C and electrolytes would help prevent the common cold. She based this on personal experience. She created a supplement for preventing the common cold, packed them with vitamin C and electrolystes, and sold them to the general public. Well placed advertisements resulted in huge sales of the supplement. Given this, which of the following can you logically conclude?
    1. Without independent support for her claim by nutritionists and medical doctors, we have no compelling reason to conclude that she is correct about Vitamin C.



 Schick describes a study in which subjects ‘knew’ that the researchers wanted either high or low scores when the subjects were evaluating people in photographs. Schick concludes that this evidence of:Acute sensory perception.

 A fact is;
    1. A true proposition

    2. Statement that corresponds to reality



 Bertrand Russell (mentioned by Schick) believed thatThe use of reason and logic would eliminate a lot of problems and suffering in the world.

 To be considered an expert, a person must;
    1. Be able to make consistently correct interpretations of data and draw correct conclusions



 True or False: The statement that “reasons confer probability on propositions” means that, the better the reasons we have for believing something, the less likely that the proposition it trueFalse
 True or False:Hypersensory perception (HSP) can be misinterpreted as extrasensory perception (ESP).True
 In order for us to claim to “have knowledge” regarding a proposition (an idea) we must be able to:
    1. Offer such strong evidence in support of the idea that our belief in the claim is “beyond reasonable doubt”



 True or False: According to Schick, “faith” – even if it leads to a correct belief – CANNOT be considered a source of knowledge because it is not based on observable evidence or logicTrue
 Schick argues that mystical experience ……… be considered a source of knowledge because ……….
    1. Cannot: there is no way to distinguish a “genuine” mystical experience from one that is “not genuine”

    2. Cannot; the experiences of mystics are not identical; i.e., they lack consistency



 Having “factual knowledge” means
    1. Holding a belief that is true; i.e., having true belief

    2. Having good reasons for what we believe



 True or False: Schick argues that the continuation of a democratic society depends upon its citizens making rational choices based on rational beliefsTrue
 Most psychic hotlines are staffed by:Unemployed housewives

 True or False: According to one of the people quoted in the book, skeptical thinking is essential for our survivalTrue
 True or False: According to Schick, we need good reasons for our beliefs because there are innumerable beliefs to choose from and without good reasons for accepting them, we might as well guess as to what is true – and this isn’t reliableTrue
 Schick asserts that, if we believe that reality is what we want it to be, then:We cannot know anything about the world

 Schick states that much of what we read or hear regarding extraordinary claims is:Lacking in good ‘whys’; i.e., lacking in information as to why we should believe that claim

 Schick argues that if we want to know the truth about a claim, we should:
    1. Let go of our prejudices and preconceptions and examine the evidence



 Which of the following does Schick think is false?
    1. If an experience seems real, then it is real

    2. Mystical ways of knowing are superior to ordinary ways of knowing

    3. We create our own reality



 Which of the following topics are discussed in Schick’s book?
    1. Astrology and ESP

    2. Hauntings and reincarnation



 Which of the following does the author cite as an example of pseudoscience?Astrology

 A scientist discovered that air pressures decreases as the height above the surface increases. This relationship is an example of:An inverse proportion

 The FoS textbook, and the Foundations of Science course, both discuss several different disciplines
    1. Without this knowledge we are more likely to make mistakes when trying to understand how things occur

    2. The real world is integrated in that physical, chemical, biological, and geological processes all operate together to create the world we experience and so we need to know something about these sciences in order to better understand and appreciate the world



 Which of the following is a scientific hypothesis?There is a subatomic particle called a Higgs Boson that should be discoverable using powerful particle accelerators if it exists

 Modern science began
    1. In the 1500s, with the work of Galileo Galilei and Francis Bacon



 The scientific attitude is based on
    1. Curiosity

    2. A willingness to accept that one may not know everything there is to know about a topic

    3. The desire to test one’s ideas using experiments or studies



 True or False: Science, art, and religion deal with different domains of knowledge and experience and are, therefore, not inherently contradictory to one anotherTrue
 Based on his work with depressed patients and a review of the scientific literature on depression, Dr. Nelson speculated that some types of depression may be due to a chemical imbalance in the brain related to a chemical called dopamine. This is an example of a:Hypothesis

 Can scientists use the scientific method to state, “it is a scientific fact that abortion is morally right – or wrong”?
    1. No – this is a conclusion that science cannot make



 In order for a hypothesis or theory to be considered scientific, it must be possible to determine if it is:Incorrect (wrong)

 True or False: The use of control groups enables scientists to determine cause-effect relationshipsTrue
 According to Schick, science
    1. Seeks to understand the laws and principles that govern the universe



 True or False: Ad hoc hypotheses cannot be verified and so, are not considered to be good hypothesesTrue
 As discussed by Schick,Some hypotheses are better than others

 True or False: Schick states that any procedure that serves to systematically eliminate reasonable grounds for doubt can be considered ‘scientific’True
 True or False: In order for us to explain and predict something, it must follow a pattern or obey ‘rules’.True
 According to Schick, science is:
    1. A method of discovering the truth

    2. A way of solving problems and answering questions



 Developing an understanding of the Law of Gravity in order to enable us to understand the motions of the planets is the domain of …………, whereas using our knowledge of physics to build the spacecraft that carries us to the planets is the domain of………….Science; technology

 To control for factors that might affect the outcome of a clinical study (other than the medicine that is being tested), scientists often us a:Placebo

 True or False: According to Schick, hypotheses are discovered using a sort of “formula” for finding them – a formula which all scientists use.False
 Consider the argument below when answering the follow T/F question. Premise: Ships have mysteriously disappeared in the Bermuda Triangle. Premise: the circumstances seem to be too unusual to be accounted for by normal explanations Conclusion: Some of the ships were probably transported to another dimension by some type of space – time anomaly or by aliens The conclusion is valid; in other words, given the premises, the conclusion is the only conclusion that can be drawn in this argumentFalse
 Consider the claim below when answering the following questions. Michael said that, “it is well known the ghosts cause spikes in electrical activity as measured on EMF equipment.” Michael detected a spike on his EMF instrument when investigating a house that was said to be haunted and so he concluded that he had detected a ghost. Is Michael’s argument a valid and sound argument?NO
 What type of argument or error has been made in the following argument? David said that the Big Bang theory should not be taught in schools because it suggests that the universe may have begun “on its own” without a divine begin. And, he argued, if people accept that, they will eventually give up their religious beliefs and ultimately live immoral lives.slippery Slope
 What type of error has been made in the following argument? Suzanne said that the Senator wanted to raise taxes on everyone and so she argued that we should not vote for him. In fact, she had deliberately misrepresented the Senator’s position because he actually said that he would raise taxes only on those making more than $300,000.Straw Man
 Consider the claim below when answering the following questions. Michael said that, “it is well known the ghosts cause spikes in electrical activity as measured on EMF equipment.” Michael detected a spike on his EMF instrument when investigating a house that was said to be haunted and so he concluded that he had detected a ghost. Is the premise of Michael’s argument demonstrably true?No
 Consider the claim below when answering the following questions. Michael said that, “it is well known the ghosts cause spikes in electrical activity as measured on EMF equipment.” Michael detected a spike on his EMF instrument when investigating a house that was said to be haunted and so he concluded that he had detected a ghost. Are the premises sufficient for Michael to draw the conclusion he drew?No, the premises are not sufficient because there are many things that can affect the reading on an EMF detector which have nothing to do with ghosts.

 The word “argument,” as used when practicing critical thinking is:
    1. The reason one gives to support a claim



 Jamie wanted to find out if the majority of people in Texas favored the death penalty. So, he surveyed 25 students in his criminal justice class and found that 85% of them strongly supported the death penalty. Jamie therefore concluded that Texans strongly support the death penalty. Jamie therefore concluded that Texans strongly support the death penalty. Which of the following is true?
    1. Jamie’s conclusion is not strongly supported based on her research



 What type of error has been made in the following argument? Millions of people believe that St. John’s Wort treats cancer, therefore, you should use it to treat your cancerAppeal to the Masses

 Consider the argument below when answering the follow T/F question. Premise: Ships have mysteriously disappeared in the Bermuda Triangle. Premise: the circumstances seem to be too unusual to be accounted for by normal explanations Conclusion: Some of the ships were probably transported to another dimension by some type of space – time anomaly or by aliens The conclusion is valid; in other words, given the premises, the conclusion is the only conclusion that can be drawn in this argumentNO
 Schick says that the principles of reasoning and analysis used in his book
    1. Can be verified for yourself by using them



 True or False: According to Schick, the fact that we want something to be true is a good reason to believe that it is true.False
 Schick reports information that suggests that many high school science teachers are:
    1. May not be prepared to teach science as indicated by many of the unsupported or discredited ideas they believe are true



 Which of the following is NOT true of science?
    1. It sometimes explains things in terms of supernatural processes



 The synthesis of a large collection of information that contains well-tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the worlds is known as a scientific:Theory
 Which of the following involves passion, talent, and intelligence? A.Art B.Music C.Science D.LiteratureAll of them
 In the parlance of science, a “blind” researcher is one that:
    1. Does not know which group (experimental or control) a research subject is in



 True or False: In order for a hypothesis to be useful, it must be possible to test it.True
 Melissa, who is 14 years old, wants to be a botanist when she grows up because she loves plants. So, she decided to begin her training by “doing something, scientific”. Specifically, she measured the heights of all the shrubs in her yard and recorded the data in a notebook and then made a graph showing the maximum, minimum, and average height of the shrubs. The questions is, was she doing something scientific?
    1. No, because she did not have a hypothesis to guide her data collection and to serve as a basis for interpreting the data



 Scientific investigation begins with
    1. A problem to be solved; a question to be answered

    2. A hypothesis which attempts to predict what will occur based on what the scientist thinks he or she understands about a phenomena.



 What type of error has been made in the following argument? Martin said that we have to increase our use of nuclear power, or increase our use of fossil fuels in order to meet our energy needs. (he did not consider conserving energy or developing alternative energies.) False dilemma/dichotomy

 An argument is fallacious (incorrect) if it has:Irrelevant premises
Insufficient premises
False premises
 What type of error has been made in the following argument? Jenny said that Mr. Rogers is a socialist and atheist and he supports the proposed health plan. “Therefore,” she concluded that, “as God-fearing capitalists, we should reject the health plan because Mr. Rogers is obviously immoral.” Ad Hominem

 What type of error has been made in the following argument? Alyssa said that Maggie should believe in Carol’s psychic’s abilities. When Maggie asked why she should believe in them, Alyssa said it was because Carol in psychic.Begging the Question

 Which of the following would NOT be an indicator for a conclusion?Strongly believe

 One of the key ideas that Schick discusses in Chapter 1 is that:Belief – with out supporting evidence – does not help us discover the truth about a claim

 True or False: According to an attorney cited by Schick, so-called “quack medicine” or “quackery” is relatively harmless.False
 Equations are used in science because
    1. They enable scientists to precisely quantify the relationship among variables

    2. The serve as a sort of shorthand: i.e.; it takes less time to state an equation than to explain it in words

    3. They show how things are related to one another



 Which of the following is false regarding science?Science can, given enough time, answer all questions regarding human experience and values.

 Using science to analyze nature
    1. Adds depth to our understanding and therefore to our appreciation of nature



 True or False: If someone cannot do an experiment a laboratory then, by definition, they cannot do science and, therefore, these people are not scientists.False
 The word “argument,” as used when practicing critical thinking is:The reasons one gives to support a claim.

 Consider the argument below when answering the following questions Premise: Ships have mysteriously disappeared in the Bermuda Triangle Premise: The circumstances seem to be too unusual to be accounted by normal explanations Conclusion: Some of the ships were probably transported to another dimension by some type of space-time anomaly or by aliens Is the conclusion soundNo!
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