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clinically significant microbes - Flashcards

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Class:BIO 3713 - Microbiology
Subject:Biology
University:University of Texas - San Antonio
Term:Spring 2011
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Giardia lamblia (eukaryote-protozoa)
acute or chronic foul-smelling diarrhea, usually water borne 
Entamoeba histoyltica (eukaryote-protozoa)
amoebic dysentery (blood and pus due to colonic damage); extraintestinal (liver abscess most common)
Naegleria fowleri (eukaryote-protozoa)
free living amoeba; fatal amoebic meningoencephalitis; enter through nose when swimming in contaminated fresh water 
Trichomonas vaginalis (eukaryote-protozoa) 
common cause of sexually transmissible vaginitis 
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Cryptosporidium (eukaryote-protozoa) 
diarrhea that is self limited in normal patients; severe and prolonged in AIDS, very young or old patients; huge approx. (500,000 outbreak in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1993 
Taxoplasma gondii (eukaryote-protozoa) 
congenital infection may result in stillbirths, blindness, CNS anomalies, and other defects; often transmitted from cats; pregnant women should avoid litter boxes 
Plasmodium species (eukaryote-protozoa)
malaria; female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit 
Candida albicans (eukaryote-fungi) 
yeast; common cause of vaginitis (from normal flora); oral thrush in infants; systematic infections in cancer patients; oral thrush and esophagitis in AIDS 

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Cryptococcus neformans (eukaryote-fungi) 
encapsulated yeast; meningitis and death, inhalation of the organism from soil enriched with bird (pigeons) droppings; increased incidence in cancers and AIDS 

Dermatophytes (Trichopyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton) (eukaryote-fungi)
produce infection of superficial keratinized tissues (skin, hair and nails), tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea cruis, etc. (from others)
Coccidiodes immitis (eukaryote-fungi)
"valley fever", "desert rheumatism" flu like illness in S.W. US due to inhaled arthrospores from arid soils , in <1% may progress to disseminated and often fatal disease; enhanced disease in pregnancy and AIDS
Histoplasma capsulatum (eukaryote-fungi)
histoplasmosis, inhaled conidial spores from soils leads to self-limited flu-like syndrome; <1% develop severe disseminated infection (esp. RES); ulceration and disfigurement can occur; enhanced in infants, elderly, and AIDS 
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Pneumocystis carinii (eukaryote-fungi)
pneumonia and occasionally systemic infections; important cause of death in AIDS; also occurs in other types of immunosuppression (transplants, antineoplastic therapy, corticosteroids) and malnourished infants 
Amanita phalloides (eukaryote-fungi) 
wild mushroom poisoning 
Taenia saginata (eukaryote-helminth, cestode)
beef tapeworm; ingestion of raw or undercooked beef 
Taenia solium (eukaryote-helminth, cestode) 
pork tapeworm; ingestion of raw or undercooked pork; Note: ingestion of eggs from human feces can cause systemic spread (cystercerosis) 
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Schistosoma mansoni (eukaryote-helminth, trematode) 
schistosomiasis; "liver fluke"; snail and human host; cercariae penetrate skin; "mask" with host antigens; liver and other tissue damage due to granulomas around eggs released by female worms circulating in conjugal pairs with with males in the mesenteric bloodstream 
Ascaris lumbricoides (eukaryote-helminth, nematode)
giant roundworm, eggs from feces contaminated soil or food; "worm balls" 
Enterobius vermicularis (eukaryote-helminth, nematode) 
pinworm, anal to oral via eggs; puritis ani

Necator americanus (and Ancylostoma duodenale) (eukaryote-helminth, nematode)
hookworm, penetration through skin (e.g. toes) 
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Dracunculus medinensis (eukaryote-helminth, nematode) 
Guinea worm; ingestion of water with infected copepods; the Caduceus 
Rickettsia rickettsii (prokaryote-rickettsias) 
arthropod (ticks, lice) borne and transmitted, rocky mountain spotted fever, wood and dog ticks 
Chlamydia trachomatis (prokaryote-chlamydias) 
transmitted by contact, different serovars cause (1) nongonococcal urethritis (NGU, a very common STD; females commonly asymptomatic, but may get salpingitis & PID) and inclusion conjunctivitis in infants born by these mothers; (2) trachoma of the eye (#1 preventable cause of blindess); and (3) lymphogranuloma venereum (a serious, but uncommon STD)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (prokaryote-mycoplasmas)
atypical or "walking" pneumonia 
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Ureaplasma urealyticum (prokaryote-mycoplasma) 
another cause of NGU 
Treponema pallidum (prokaryote-spirochetes) 
primary (chancre), secondary (rash), and tertiary (gummas, aortic aneurysm, paresis and dementia) syphilis 

Borrelia burgdorferi (prokaryote-spirochetes) 
Lyme disease, number one arthropod-borne disease in US; ticks; erythema migrans

Leptospira interrogans (prokaryote-spirochetes) 
infectious jaundice (fever, liver and kidney pathology); urine of infected animals 
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (prokaryote-acid-fast bacilli)
TB (granulomas-tubercles in lungs); may disseminate- miliary TB
Mycobacterium bovis (prokaryote-acid-fast bacilli) 
TB; BCG vaccine for TB in an attenuated M. bovis; pasteurization of milk 
Mycobacterium leprae (prokaryote-acid-fast bacilli)
leprosy (Hansen's disease); Tuberculoid leprosy milder than Leprotamous 

Mycobacterium avium-intracellualre (prokaryote-acid-fast bacilli) 
(MAI) complex- systemic infection in AIDS and other immunocompromised patients; very difficult to treat 

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Clostridium botulinum (prokaryote-obligate anaerobe) 
Gram + spore forming rods, botulism (intoxication) and infant botulism (infection, honey); flaccid paralysis 
Clostridium perfringens (prokaryote-obligate anaerobe) 
Gram + spore forming rods, gas gangrene and food-borne illness 

Clostridium tetani (prokaryote-obligate anaerobe)
Gram + spore forming rods, tetanus ("lockjaw" ) and neonatal tetanus; spastic paralysis; toxoid vaccine 
Clostridum difficile (prokaryote-obligate anaerobe) 
Gram + spore forming rods, antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis 

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Bacteroides fragilis (prokaryote-obligate anaerobe) 
Gram - rods, very prevalent part of normal flora of colon, often cause mixed infections (e.g. with E.coli) when displaced, intra-abdominal abscesses, pleuropulmonary infections, bacteremia 

Staphylococcus aureus (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
coagulase +; a major pathogen producing a spectrum of infections from the localized abscess (pimple,boil) to impetigo to scalded skin syndrome in infants; toxic shock syndrome associated with tampons; to osteomyelitis, pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, or sepsis with suppuration in any organ; also major cause of food intoxication; nosocomial infections; MRSA 
Staphylococcus epidermidis (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
CONS; normal flora of skin, cause infections of implanted catheters and prosthetic devices, nosocomial infections 

Staphylococcus saprophyticus (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
CONS; normal flora uropathogen that causes about 10-20% of primary urinary tract infections in young women 

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Streptococcus pyogenes (prokaryote-Gram + cocci)
Gr. A, B-hemolytic; causes strep throat and post streptococcal sequelae (acute glomerulonephiritis and rheumatic fever); scarlet fever, impetigo, cellulitis, puerperal fever, sepsis, acute endocarditis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing faciitis ("FEB") with high mortality 
Streptococcus agalactiae (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
Gr B, B-hemolytic; causes neonatal sepsis and meningitis 
Enterococcus fecalis (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
Gr. D; causes urinary tract infections and subacute bacterial endocardisis (SBE); nosocomial infections; a fecal streptococcus in water testing 
Viridans streptococci (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
alpha-hemolytic strep of the mouth; causes SBE; Streptococcus mutans causes dental caries; thick glycocalyx slime produced from dietary sugars -> plaque 
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Streptococcus pneumoniae (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
alpha hemolytic; causes lobar pneumonia, sinusitis, bonchitis, otitis media, and meningitis; capsule (80+) major virulence factor; capsular vaccines for pneumonia and otitis media 
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (prokaryote-Gram - cocci) 
gonorrhea, proctitis, salpingitis, pelvic inflammatory disease; gonococcal bactermia leads to skin lesions, arthritis, and occasionally meningitis; gonococcal opthalimia neonatorum is infection of the eye of the newborn during passage through infected birth canal (blindness) 
Neisseria meningitidis (prokaryote-Gram - cocci)
meningitis that can be spread human to human; isolated polysaccharide vaccine 
Bacillus anthrasis (Prokaryote-Gram + aerobic spore forming rods)
cutaneous anthrax (malignant pustule) & pulmonary anthrax ("woolsorter's disease)
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Bacillus cereus (Prokaryote-Gram + aerobic spore forming rods)
produces food poisoning of two types (emetic & diarrheal); eye infections associated with foreign bodies and trauma, and occasional opportunistic infections including endocarditis, meningitis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia
Cornebacterium diphtheria (Prokaryote-Gram + rod) 
diphtheria; pseudomembrane that may suffocate; toxoid vaccine 
Listeria monocytogenes (Prokaryote-Gram + rod) 
meningitis and bacteremia; granulomatosis infantseptica can result in intrauterine sepsis and death, or development of meningitis; escape from phagosome with listeriolysin
Salmonella typhi (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
enteric (typhoid) fever; systemic infection; killed and living attenuated vaccines 
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Salmonella choleraesuis (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
early bacteremia with focal lesions 
Salmonella enterica (S. enteritidis) (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
common enterocolitis (gastroenteritis); many (>2000) varieties (serotypes, previously designated as different species) based on different O and H antigens 
Shigella sonnei (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
bacillary dystentery (blood and pus from colonic damage), most common cause 
Shigella dysenteriae (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
bacillary dysentery, most severe: produces Shiga toxin can lead to HUS 
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Escherichia coli (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
most common cause of urinary tract infections (UTI), common cause of neonatal meningitis; septicemia, pneumonia, and meningitis in compromised patients; nosocominal infections, the fecal coliform; also a coliform (lactose fermenting G- rod); as an enteropathogen 
ETEC (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
traveler's diarrhea; infantile diarrhea in developing countries; plasmid ST/LT; LT acts like CT
EHEC (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
colitis and bloody diarrhea; Shiga like toxin; hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS); O157:H7
Kledsiella pneumoniae (Prokaryote-Gram - rod)
severe pneumonia, UTI, nosocomial infections: slime; nonmotile; coliform 
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Enterobacter (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
UTI, nosocomial infections; coliform 
Serratia (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
nosocomial infections; red pigment (prodigiosin) colors colonies at room temp 

Proteus mirabilis (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
UTI, infection related kidney stones- urease; nosocomial infections; "swarming" 
Vibrio cholerae (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
cholera; acute explosive diarrhea; killer vaccine (+/- B subunit of CT) 
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Vibrio parahemolyticus (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
halophilic, actue gastroenteritis due to contaminated raw or partially cooked seafood 
Vibrio vulnificus (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
halophilic, severe skin lesions; enteritis (e.g. raw oysters); bacteremia, and death 

Campylocacter jejuni (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
microaerophile; diarrhea and dysentery (resembles shigellosis) 

Helicobacter pylori (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
microaerophile; gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcers, gastric cancer 
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
infections of wounds and burns, respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients, nosocomial infections; "blue pus" due to pyocyanin; Exotoxin A acts like a diphtheria toxin 
Yersisnia pestis (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
bubonic and pneumonic plague; rat flea 

Yersisnia enterocolitica (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
food-borne diarrheal illness; severe abdominal pain resembles appendicitis 
Francisella tularensis (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
tularemia, through skin (inflammatory, ulcerating papule) via contact with rabbits, or inhalation (peribronchial inflammation and localized pneumonitis) 
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Pasteurella multocida (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
human wound infections by bites from cats and dogs 
Brucella (B. abortus) (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
infection of the RES; undulant fever; destroyed in milk by pasteurization 
Haemophilus influenzae (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
meningitis in children, occasional respiratory infections; capsule vaccine (HIB) 
Bordatella pertussis (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
whooping cough (pertussis); vaccines old-killed cells, new - toxioid + adhesins 
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Legionella pneumophila (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
severe pneumonia (Legionnaires' disease), and Pontiac fever (less severe disease); aerosolized contaminated water 
Streptobacillus moniliformis (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
rat-bite fever 
Measles (vaccine available) 
MMR (attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses) 
Mumps (vaccine available) 

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Rubella (vaccine available) 
("german measles") congenital infections in first trimester leads to birth defects and death; thus, vaccine protects those "yet to be born" 

Polio (vaccine available) 
inactivated (Salk) [attenuated (Sabin)]

Hepatitis A & B (vaccine available) 

Influenza (vaccine available) 
seasonal vaccine varies; changes in hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) 

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Chickenpox (vaccine available) 
(vorticella-zoster); can get shingles later in life if not immunized 

Rabies (vaccine available) 
a vaccine for rabies (and anthrax) was originally produced by Pasteur 

Yellow Fever (vaccine available) 
(flavivirus) 

Genital Warts (vaccine available) 
(human papilloma virus); cervical cancer 

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Smallpox (vaccine available) 
(variola virus) disease eliminated through immunization with cowpox (vaccinia virus) 

Rotavirus (vaccine available) 
one of most common cause of gastroenteritis; all ages but most severe in children 
"Cold sores, fever blisters" (no vaccines) 
(herpes simple labialis)-common; Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) 

Genital Herpes (no vaccines) 
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2); also HSV1 with oral sex; both HSV1 & HSV2 latent 
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Common cold (no vaccine) 
(rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, coronaviruses) 

Acute gastroenteritis (no vaccine) 
(rotaviruses, calciviruses such as noroviruses (Norwalk)) Warts (papillomaviruses) 

Shingles or herpes zoster (no vaccine) 
(varicella-zoster virus causes chickenpox [varicella], can remain latent for years, but then become reactivated to produce the disease shingles) 

Infectious mononucleosis (no vaccine) 
"mono" (Epstein-Barr [EB] virus) 

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Congenital viral infections (no vaccine) 
(rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, varicella zoster, hepatitis B, measles, mumps, some enteroviruses) 

Hemorrhagic fevers (no vaccine) 
(dengue, Hantaan, Junin, Machupo, Lassa fever, Marburg, Ebola Viruses) 

AIDS (no vaccine) 
(HIV)
Bovine spongioform encephalopathy (no vaccine-prion) 
"mad cow" disease 

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Scrapie (no vaccine-prion) 
sheep and goats scrape and rub skin
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (no vaccine-prion) 
humans; variant (vCJD)-humans consuming meat from BSE animals 
Kuru (no vaccine-prion) 
associated with ritualistic cannibalism by humans in New Guinea 
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 Giardia lamblia(eukaryote-protozoa)
acute or chronic foul-smelling diarrhea, usually water borne 
 Entamoeba histoyltica(eukaryote-protozoa)
amoebic dysentery (blood and pus due to colonic damage); extraintestinal (liver abscess most common)
 Naegleria fowleri(eukaryote-protozoa)
free living amoeba; fatal amoebic meningoencephalitis; enter through nose when swimming in contaminated fresh water 
 Trichomonas vaginalis (eukaryote-protozoa) 
common cause of sexually transmissible vaginitis 
 Cryptosporidium (eukaryote-protozoa) 
diarrhea that is self limited in normal patients; severe and prolonged in AIDS, very young or old patients; huge approx. (500,000 outbreak in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1993 
 Taxoplasma gondii (eukaryote-protozoa) 
congenital infection may result in stillbirths, blindness, CNS anomalies, and other defects; often transmitted from cats; pregnant women should avoid litter boxes 
 Plasmodium species (eukaryote-protozoa)
malaria; female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit 
 Candida albicans (eukaryote-fungi) 
yeast; common cause of vaginitis (from normal flora); oral thrush in infants; systematic infections in cancer patients; oral thrush and esophagitis in AIDS 

 Cryptococcus neformans (eukaryote-fungi) 
encapsulated yeast; meningitis and death, inhalation of the organism from soil enriched with bird (pigeons) droppings; increased incidence in cancers and AIDS 

 Dermatophytes (Trichopyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton)(eukaryote-fungi)
produce infection of superficial keratinized tissues (skin, hair and nails), tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea cruis, etc. (from others)
 Coccidiodes immitis(eukaryote-fungi)
"valley fever", "desert rheumatism" flu like illness in S.W. US due to inhaled arthrospores from arid soils , in <1% may progress to disseminated and often fatal disease; enhanced disease in pregnancy and AIDS
 Histoplasma capsulatum (eukaryote-fungi)
histoplasmosis, inhaled conidial spores from soils leads to self-limited flu-like syndrome; <1% develop severe disseminated infection (esp. RES); ulceration and disfigurement can occur; enhanced in infants, elderly, and AIDS 
 Pneumocystis carinii(eukaryote-fungi)
pneumonia and occasionally systemic infections; important cause of death in AIDS; also occurs in other types of immunosuppression (transplants, antineoplastic therapy, corticosteroids) and malnourished infants 
 Amanita phalloides (eukaryote-fungi) 
wild mushroom poisoning 
 Taenia saginata(eukaryote-helminth, cestode)
beef tapeworm; ingestion of raw or undercooked beef 
 Taenia solium (eukaryote-helminth, cestode) 
pork tapeworm; ingestion of raw or undercooked pork; Note: ingestion of eggs from human feces can cause systemic spread (cystercerosis) 
 Schistosoma mansoni(eukaryote-helminth, trematode) 
schistosomiasis; "liver fluke"; snail and human host; cercariae penetrate skin; "mask" with host antigens; liver and other tissue damage due to granulomas around eggs released by female worms circulating in conjugal pairs with with males in the mesenteric bloodstream 
 Ascaris lumbricoides (eukaryote-helminth, nematode)
giant roundworm, eggs from feces contaminated soil or food; "worm balls" 
 Enterobius vermicularis(eukaryote-helminth, nematode) 
pinworm, anal to oral via eggs; puritis ani

 Necator americanus (and Ancylostoma duodenale) (eukaryote-helminth, nematode)
hookworm, penetration through skin (e.g. toes) 
 Dracunculus medinensis(eukaryote-helminth, nematode) 
Guinea worm; ingestion of water with infected copepods; the Caduceus 
 Rickettsia rickettsii(prokaryote-rickettsias) 
arthropod (ticks, lice) borne and transmitted, rocky mountain spotted fever, wood and dog ticks 
 Chlamydia trachomatis (prokaryote-chlamydias) 
transmitted by contact, different serovars cause (1) nongonococcal urethritis (NGU, a very common STD; females commonly asymptomatic, but may get salpingitis & PID) and inclusion conjunctivitis in infants born by these mothers; (2) trachoma of the eye (#1 preventable cause of blindess); and (3) lymphogranuloma venereum (a serious, but uncommon STD)
 Mycoplasma pneumoniae (prokaryote-mycoplasmas)
atypical or "walking" pneumonia 
 Ureaplasma urealyticum (prokaryote-mycoplasma) 
another cause of NGU 
 Treponema pallidum (prokaryote-spirochetes) 
primary (chancre), secondary (rash), and tertiary (gummas, aortic aneurysm, paresis and dementia) syphilis 

 Borrelia burgdorferi (prokaryote-spirochetes) 
Lyme disease, number one arthropod-borne disease in US; ticks; erythema migrans

 Leptospira interrogans (prokaryote-spirochetes) 
infectious jaundice (fever, liver and kidney pathology); urine of infected animals 
 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (prokaryote-acid-fast bacilli)
TB (granulomas-tubercles in lungs); may disseminate- miliary TB
 Mycobacterium bovis (prokaryote-acid-fast bacilli) 
TB; BCG vaccine for TB in an attenuated M. bovis; pasteurization of milk 
 Mycobacterium leprae (prokaryote-acid-fast bacilli)
leprosy (Hansen's disease); Tuberculoid leprosy milder than Leprotamous 

 Mycobacterium avium-intracellualre(prokaryote-acid-fast bacilli) 
(MAI) complex- systemic infection in AIDS and other immunocompromised patients; very difficult to treat 

 Clostridium botulinum (prokaryote-obligate anaerobe) 
Gram + spore forming rods, botulism (intoxication) and infant botulism (infection, honey); flaccid paralysis 
 Clostridium perfringens (prokaryote-obligate anaerobe) 
Gram + spore forming rods, gas gangrene and food-borne illness 

 Clostridium tetani (prokaryote-obligate anaerobe)
Gram + spore forming rods, tetanus ("lockjaw" ) and neonatal tetanus; spastic paralysis; toxoid vaccine 
 Clostridum difficile (prokaryote-obligate anaerobe) 
Gram + spore forming rods, antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis 

 Bacteroides fragilis (prokaryote-obligate anaerobe) 
Gram - rods, very prevalent part of normal flora of colon, often cause mixed infections (e.g. with E.coli) when displaced, intra-abdominal abscesses, pleuropulmonary infections, bacteremia 

 Staphylococcus aureus (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
coagulase +; a major pathogen producing a spectrum of infections from the localized abscess (pimple,boil) to impetigo to scalded skin syndrome in infants; toxic shock syndrome associated with tampons; to osteomyelitis, pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, or sepsis with suppuration in any organ; also major cause of food intoxication; nosocomial infections; MRSA 
 Staphylococcus epidermidis (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
CONS; normal flora of skin, cause infections of implanted catheters and prosthetic devices, nosocomial infections 

 Staphylococcus saprophyticus(prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
CONS; normal flora uropathogen that causes about 10-20% of primary urinary tract infections in young women 

 Streptococcus pyogenes(prokaryote-Gram + cocci)
Gr. A, B-hemolytic; causes strep throat and post streptococcal sequelae (acute glomerulonephiritis and rheumatic fever); scarlet fever, impetigo, cellulitis, puerperal fever, sepsis, acute endocarditis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing faciitis ("FEB") with high mortality 
 Streptococcus agalactiae (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
Gr B, B-hemolytic; causes neonatal sepsis and meningitis 
 Enterococcus fecalis (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
Gr. D; causes urinary tract infections and subacute bacterial endocardisis (SBE); nosocomial infections; a fecal streptococcus in water testing 
 Viridans streptococci (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
alpha-hemolytic strep of the mouth; causes SBE; Streptococcus mutans causes dental caries; thick glycocalyx slime produced from dietary sugars -> plaque 
 Streptococcus pneumoniae (prokaryote-Gram + cocci) 
alpha hemolytic; causes lobar pneumonia, sinusitis, bonchitis, otitis media, and meningitis; capsule (80+) major virulence factor; capsular vaccines for pneumonia and otitis media 
 Neisseria gonorrhoeae (prokaryote-Gram - cocci) 
gonorrhea, proctitis, salpingitis, pelvic inflammatory disease; gonococcal bactermia leads to skin lesions, arthritis, and occasionally meningitis; gonococcal opthalimia neonatorum is infection of the eye of the newborn during passage through infected birth canal (blindness) 
 Neisseria meningitidis(prokaryote-Gram - cocci)
meningitis that can be spread human to human; isolated polysaccharide vaccine 
 Bacillus anthrasis (Prokaryote-Gram + aerobic spore forming rods)
cutaneous anthrax (malignant pustule) & pulmonary anthrax ("woolsorter's disease)
 Bacillus cereus (Prokaryote-Gram + aerobic spore forming rods)
produces food poisoning of two types (emetic & diarrheal); eye infections associated with foreign bodies and trauma, and occasional opportunistic infections including endocarditis, meningitis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia
 Cornebacterium diphtheria(Prokaryote-Gram + rod) 
diphtheria; pseudomembrane that may suffocate; toxoid vaccine 
 Listeria monocytogenes(Prokaryote-Gram + rod) 
meningitis and bacteremia; granulomatosis infantseptica can result in intrauterine sepsis and death, or development of meningitis; escape from phagosome with listeriolysin
 Salmonella typhi(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
enteric (typhoid) fever; systemic infection; killed and living attenuated vaccines 
 Salmonella choleraesuis(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
early bacteremia with focal lesions 
 Salmonella enterica (S. enteritidis)(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
common enterocolitis (gastroenteritis); many (>2000) varieties (serotypes, previously designated as different species) based on different O and H antigens 
 Shigella sonnei (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
bacillary dystentery (blood and pus from colonic damage), most common cause 
 Shigella dysenteriae(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
bacillary dysentery, most severe: produces Shiga toxin can lead to HUS 
 Escherichia coli(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
most common cause of urinary tract infections (UTI), common cause of neonatal meningitis; septicemia, pneumonia, and meningitis in compromised patients; nosocominal infections, the fecal coliform; also a coliform (lactose fermenting G- rod); as an enteropathogen 
 ETEC(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
traveler's diarrhea; infantile diarrhea in developing countries; plasmid ST/LT; LT acts like CT
 EHEC(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
colitis and bloody diarrhea; Shiga like toxin; hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS); O157:H7
 Kledsiella pneumoniae (Prokaryote-Gram - rod)
severe pneumonia, UTI, nosocomial infections: slime; nonmotile; coliform 
 Enterobacter (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
UTI, nosocomial infections; coliform 
 Serratia (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
nosocomial infections; red pigment (prodigiosin) colors colonies at room temp 

 Proteus mirabilis (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
UTI, infection related kidney stones- urease; nosocomial infections; "swarming" 
 Vibrio cholerae (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
cholera; acute explosive diarrhea; killer vaccine (+/- B subunit of CT) 
 Vibrio parahemolyticus (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
halophilic, actue gastroenteritis due to contaminated raw or partially cooked seafood 
 Vibrio vulnificus (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
halophilic, severe skin lesions; enteritis (e.g. raw oysters); bacteremia, and death 

 Campylocacter jejuni(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
microaerophile; diarrhea and dysentery (resembles shigellosis) 

 Helicobacter pylori(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
microaerophile; gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcers, gastric cancer 
 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
infections of wounds and burns, respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients, nosocomial infections; "blue pus" due to pyocyanin; Exotoxin A acts like a diphtheria toxin 
 Yersisnia pestis(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
bubonic and pneumonic plague; rat flea 

 Yersisnia enterocolitica(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
food-borne diarrheal illness; severe abdominal pain resembles appendicitis 
 Francisella tularensis(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
tularemia, through skin (inflammatory, ulcerating papule) via contact with rabbits, or inhalation (peribronchial inflammation and localized pneumonitis) 
 Pasteurella multocida(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
human wound infections by bites from cats and dogs 
 Brucella (B. abortus) (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
infection of the RES; undulant fever; destroyed in milk by pasteurization 
 Haemophilus influenzae(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
meningitis in children, occasional respiratory infections; capsule vaccine (HIB) 
 Bordatella pertussis(Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
whooping cough (pertussis); vaccines old-killed cells, new - toxioid + adhesins 
 Legionella pneumophila (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
severe pneumonia (Legionnaires' disease), and Pontiac fever (less severe disease); aerosolized contaminated water 
 Streptobacillus moniliformis (Prokaryote-Gram - rod) 
rat-bite fever 
 Measles (vaccine available) 
MMR (attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses) 
 Mumps (vaccine available) 

 Rubella (vaccine available) 
("german measles") congenital infections in first trimester leads to birth defects and death; thus, vaccine protects those "yet to be born" 

 Polio (vaccine available) 
inactivated (Salk) [attenuated (Sabin)]

 Hepatitis A & B(vaccine available) 

 Influenza (vaccine available) 
seasonal vaccine varies; changes in hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) 

 Chickenpox(vaccine available) 
(vorticella-zoster); can get shingles later in life if not immunized 

 Rabies (vaccine available) 
a vaccine for rabies (and anthrax) was originally produced by Pasteur 

 Yellow Fever (vaccine available) 
(flavivirus) 

 Genital Warts (vaccine available) 
(human papilloma virus); cervical cancer 

 Smallpox(vaccine available) 
(variola virus) disease eliminated through immunization with cowpox (vaccinia virus) 

 Rotavirus (vaccine available) 
one of most common cause of gastroenteritis; all ages but most severe in children 
 "Cold sores, fever blisters" (no vaccines) 
(herpes simple labialis)-common; Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) 

 Genital Herpes (no vaccines) 
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2); also HSV1 with oral sex; both HSV1 & HSV2 latent 
 Common cold (no vaccine) 
(rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, coronaviruses) 

 Acute gastroenteritis(no vaccine) 
(rotaviruses, calciviruses such as noroviruses (Norwalk)) Warts (papillomaviruses) 

 Shingles or herpes zoster (no vaccine) 
(varicella-zoster virus causes chickenpox [varicella], can remain latent for years, but then become reactivated to produce the disease shingles) 

 Infectious mononucleosis(no vaccine) 
"mono" (Epstein-Barr [EB] virus) 

 Congenital viral infections (no vaccine) 
(rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, varicella zoster, hepatitis B, measles, mumps, some enteroviruses) 

 Hemorrhagic fevers (no vaccine) 
(dengue, Hantaan, Junin, Machupo, Lassa fever, Marburg, Ebola Viruses) 

 AIDS(no vaccine) 
(HIV)
 Bovine spongioform encephalopathy(no vaccine-prion) 
"mad cow" disease 

 Scrapie (no vaccine-prion) 
sheep and goats scrape and rub skin
 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (no vaccine-prion) 
humans; variant (vCJD)-humans consuming meat from BSE animals 
 Kuru(no vaccine-prion) 
associated with ritualistic cannibalism by humans in New Guinea 
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