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Exam 1 - Flashcards

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Class:BIO 1330 - FUNCTIONAL BIOLOGY
Subject:Biology
University:Texas State University - San Marcos
Term:Fall 2011
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Plasma Membrane The cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment.
What cell type are species in the domain Bacteria & Archea Prokaryotes
Bacteria & Archeaic cells all contain: Plasma membrane
A chromosome 
Protein Synthezing Ribosomes
Cell Wall 


& Many have...
Flagellum
Inner membranes for photosynthesis
Characteristics of Bacterial Chromosomes Bacteria cells have ONE circular chromosome that consists of:
-a large DNA molecule (which provides genetic info)
-small number of proteins (which provide structural support)

-Found in Nucleoid.
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Nucleoid
Plasmids small, circular super-coiled DNA molecules.
Plasmids contain genes but are physically independent of the main cellular chromosome. 

They help the cell adapt to unusual conditions & are considered auxilary genetic elements.
Ribosomes Manufactor proteins. 
They consist of RNA molecules & proteins. 
Organelles A membrane bound compartment inside cells that contain enzymes or specialized structures for a specific function. 
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Cytoskeleton "Cell Skeleton"
Protein long, thin fibers that maintain cell shape. 
Cytoplasm "cell-formed"
All contents inside the plasma membrane
Cell Wall forms a protective "exoskeleton" around plasma membrane
gives shape to cell
provides rigidity to cell
Glycolipid Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached.
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Benefits of Organelles: 1. incompatiable chemical reactions can be seperated
2. chemical reactions become more efficent. 
How do eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells? 1.in location of DNA
Prokaryotes=Nucleoid  Eukaryotes=Nucleus
2.Internal membranes & organelles
Prokaryotes=are extensive only in photosynthetic species
Eukaryotes=large number of organelles and several types
3.Cytoskelton
Prokaryotes=limited
Eukaryotes=extensive & found through out cell. 
4.Overall size
Prokaryotes are much smaller relative to Eukaryotes. 
Nucleus Contains the chromosomes & functions as a sotrage and processing center. 
Nuclear envelope A complex double membrane that encloses the nucleus
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Nucleolus Is in nucleus, and its where RNA molecules found in ribosomes are manufactored & the large and small ribosomal subunits are assembled. 
E.R Membrane bound sacs that extend from the nuclear envelope to cytoplasm. 
"Inside-formed-network"
Smooth ER A lipid-handling center & storage facility. 
Lacks ribosomes.
Rough ER is a protein synthesis & processing complex with ribosomes attached. It is continueous with the nuclear envelope and smooth ER. 
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In Eukaryotes, the cytoplasm consists of everything inside the cell except... the nucleus
cytosol the fluid portion in cytoplasm.
Peroxisomes Site of oxidation. 
globular organelles that have a single membrane and orginate as buds from the ER.
glyoxysomes special peroxisomes that are found in plants.
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lysosomes Functions as digestive centers.
Contain about 40 different enzymes, each specialized to break down diffrent proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and carbohydrates.
vacuoles in plant and fungal cells, keep cells rigid and store waste, calcium, and carry out chemical reactions. 
Miller's experiment -recreates early earth
-end result supports chemical evolution theory
-the reactions seen were endergonic
Structure of Amino Acids all 20 amino acids have the same common structure. 
-NH2 (amino group)
-COOH (carboxyl group)
-H (hydrogen atom)
-"R group" (an atom or molecule that form a side chain and creates variation/function)
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The pH in a cell is... 7.0
Polymers A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units.
IE: Nucleotides, amino acids, sugars, etc. 
Polymerization the linking of monomers to form polymers. 
This happens through condensation/dyhdration reactions because water is released.
Peptide bond Bond between amino acids.
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Functions of proteins depend on their... Shape and amino acid sequence
Catalyze To speed up chemical reactions
Enzyme Proteins that function as a catalyst. 
They lower the required activation energy. 
Function of enzymes 1.catalyze
2.Defense
3.Movement
4.Signaling
5.Structure
6.Transport in&out of cell
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Enzymes rigid or flexiable? Very flexiable, change shape to fit active site.
Cofactors Most enzymes do not work alone, they work with many small molecules called cofactors.
-Vitamins are cofactors called coenzymes
Competitive Inhibition inhibitor molecule competes with substrate for active site.
Allosteric Regulation Bind to the site other than the active site and changes the shape of the enzyme.
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Allosteric Activation The change of shape due to allosteric regulation causes the active site to be more receptive of the enzyme.
Allosteric Deactivation The change of shape due to allosteric regulation causes the active site to reject the enzyme. 
Allosteric regulation can increase or decrease enzyme activity by... binding/shape change
Primary structure of protein
The primary structure of peptides and proteins refers to the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units.
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Secondary Structure of protein how primary structure is folded due to hydrogen bonds between two sequences of amino acids. 

*Alpha helices & beta folding occur here*
Alpha=swirl&curl
Beta=folding into hairpin like structure
Tertiary Structure of protein  3D Apperance
Protein takes shape due to interact of Alpha Helices & Beta Folding
Quaternary Structure of protein Where subunits are arranged. 
Quaternary structure may include:
1 protein molecule
2 equal or unequal protein molecules
3 equal or unequal protein molecules
or many equal AND unequal protein molecules
Nucleic Acid are polymers, like proteins, but instead of being made up of amino acids, Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides.

*found in DNA and RNA
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Structure of a nucleotide 5 carbon sugar ; Ribose for RNA, Deoxyribose for DNA
Phosphate group
Nitrogenous base----- RNA Bases: A,G,U,C
                                        DNA Bases: A,G,T,C
Nucleic acids form when... nucleotides polymerize, forming Phosphodiester Bonds.
All Nucleic acids have a __ & a __ end All nucleic acids have a 5' & 3' ends.
During the construction of a nucleotide, the OH group on the 3' carbon joins the... Phosphate group on 5' carbon sugar creating Phosphodiester bonds.
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RNA Sugar V. DNA Sugar Differs by 1 atom at the 2' carbon location. 
Ribose = -OH
Deoxyribose= H  (DEOXY=Missing Oxygen)
The double helix in DNA is formed by... Hydrogen bonds
Each strand of DNA has what components? A sugar-phosphate backbone with nitrogenous bases sticking out

The two strands in DNA run... Parallel to each other but in opposite directions.
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A ----- T G------C Found in DNA
Called complementary base pairing or Watson-Crick Base Pairing
DNA carries... All heredity info in all living cells.
DNA's ___ & ___ make it the perfect canidate for carrying genetic info Stability & accuracy of copying
1 DNA strand is copied onto Messanger RNA for... Protein Synthesis.
this is how the DNA info is converted into a function. 
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Characteristics of RNA Structure -Single Strand
-Has sugar-phosphate backbone
-OH group at 3' carbon combines with phosphate group at 5' carbon of the next nucleotide. 
-RNA can make short hydrogen bonds in some areas = Loop&Stem Structure


What pairing occurs in RNA? A------U
G-----C
RNA has the ability to... Carry genetic info and catalytic activities
(making it ideal for the first life on Earth)
Ribozymes A RNA molecule with a well defined tertiary structure that enables it to catalyze a chemical reaction.
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RNA has Primary thru Quartanary Structures & DNA has... Primary & Secondary only.
Examples of Common Carbohydrates in Biology Sugars
Starches
cellulose & related compounds
Carbohydrates consist of what atoms? C,H & O (CH2O)
Functions of Carbohydrates Energy
Cell Identity
Metabolic Regulation
Osmotic regulation
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Monosaccharides are... Simple sugars like glucose and fructose
Sugars with the same number of atoms can... still very in their arrangement
Sugars exist in linear and circular molecules, which is more stable? Circular/Ring Sugars
Glycosidic Bonds Bond sugars
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Plants store energy from ____ & Animals store energy from____ Starch
Glycogen
Which has a more complex branching pattern -- Starch or Glycogen? Glycogen is highly branched. 
Examples of Carbohydrates used for structural support: Cellulose in plant cell walls
Chitlin in fungal cell walls
Most important lipids: Fats & oils
Steriods
phospolipids
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Fats are formed by... 3 fatty acids joining with Glycerol. 
Unsaturated V. Saturated fats Saturated fats has straight tails and are tightly packed.
Unsaturated are bent & loosely packed. 
2 examples of Steriods: Sex Hormones
Cholestrol
What is unique about phospholipids? The head is highly hydrophylic
& the tail is highly hydrophobic. 

If put into water the head will sink and tail will rise. 

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Phospholipids are the major component in... Membranes.
5 characteristics of a living thing use energy
made of cells
carry and process info
reproduce
evolve
The cell theory states... all living things are made of cells and cells come from prexisting cells.
What is a cell? It is a unit, surrounded by a thine membrane, the plasma membrane, and inside is a watery solution. 
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Pasteur's experiment proved what? That cells come from prexisting cells.
When populations change overtime, they... give rise to new species and provide diversity. the more evolving that occurs, the more distant species become.
What molecule can be used to idenify how closely related a species is to another? RNA
What are the 3 current domains? Eukarya
Archaea
Bacteria

BUT ALL HAVE A COMMON ANCESTOR
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who 1st observed cells? Robert Hooke did in a plant bark. 
Artifical Selection When humans select traits from different species for their benefit
Early life was believed to be what kind of cell? Prokaryotic cell that contained some RNA as genetic info and was surrounded by a membrane. 
Covalent V. Ionic Bonding Covalent = Sharing between 2 non-metals
Ionic=taking or losing electrons between a non-metal and a metal
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Proteins are to Amino Acids : Nucleic Acids are to _____ Nucleotides
If side group R is polar or charged, the amino acid is more.... Water solulable
Delta G is Less than zero = Delta G is Greater than zero= 1. exogonic
2.Endogonic
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 Plasma MembraneThe cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment.
 What cell type are species in the domain Bacteria & ArcheaProkaryotes
 Bacteria & Archeaic cells all contain:Plasma membrane
A chromosome 
Protein Synthezing Ribosomes
Cell Wall 


& Many have...
Flagellum
Inner membranes for photosynthesis
 Characteristics of Bacterial ChromosomesBacteria cells have ONE circular chromosome that consists of:
-a large DNA molecule (which provides genetic info)
-small number of proteins (which provide structural support)

-Found in Nucleoid.
 Nucleoid
 Plasmidssmall, circular super-coiled DNA molecules.
Plasmids contain genes but are physically independent of the main cellular chromosome. 

They help the cell adapt to unusual conditions & are considered auxilary genetic elements.
 RibosomesManufactor proteins. 
They consist of RNA molecules & proteins. 
 OrganellesA membrane bound compartment inside cells that contain enzymes or specialized structures for a specific function. 
 Cytoskeleton"Cell Skeleton"
Protein long, thin fibers that maintain cell shape. 
 Cytoplasm"cell-formed"
All contents inside the plasma membrane
 Cell Wallforms a protective "exoskeleton" around plasma membrane
gives shape to cell
provides rigidity to cell
 GlycolipidGlycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached.
 Benefits of Organelles:1. incompatiable chemical reactions can be seperated
2. chemical reactions become more efficent. 
 How do eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells?1.in location of DNA
Prokaryotes=Nucleoid  Eukaryotes=Nucleus
2.Internal membranes & organelles
Prokaryotes=are extensive only in photosynthetic species
Eukaryotes=large number of organelles and several types
3.Cytoskelton
Prokaryotes=limited
Eukaryotes=extensive & found through out cell. 
4.Overall size
Prokaryotes are much smaller relative to Eukaryotes. 
 NucleusContains the chromosomes & functions as a sotrage and processing center. 
 Nuclear envelopeA complex double membrane that encloses the nucleus
 NucleolusIs in nucleus, and its where RNA molecules found in ribosomes are manufactored & the large and small ribosomal subunits are assembled. 
 E.RMembrane bound sacs that extend from the nuclear envelope to cytoplasm. 
"Inside-formed-network"
 Smooth ERA lipid-handling center & storage facility. 
Lacks ribosomes.
 Rough ERis a protein synthesis & processing complex with ribosomes attached. It is continueous with the nuclear envelope and smooth ER. 
 In Eukaryotes, the cytoplasm consists of everything inside the cell except...the nucleus
 cytosolthe fluid portion in cytoplasm.
 PeroxisomesSite of oxidation. 
globular organelles that have a single membrane and orginate as buds from the ER.
 glyoxysomesspecial peroxisomes that are found in plants.
 lysosomesFunctions as digestive centers.
Contain about 40 different enzymes, each specialized to break down diffrent proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and carbohydrates.
 vacuolesin plant and fungal cells, keep cells rigid and store waste, calcium, and carry out chemical reactions. 
 Miller's experiment-recreates early earth
-end result supports chemical evolution theory
-the reactions seen were endergonic
 Structure of Amino Acidsall 20 amino acids have the same common structure. 
-NH2 (amino group)
-COOH (carboxyl group)
-H (hydrogen atom)
-"R group" (an atom or molecule that form a side chain and creates variation/function)
 The pH in a cell is...7.0
 PolymersA polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units.
IE: Nucleotides, amino acids, sugars, etc. 
 Polymerizationthe linking of monomers to form polymers. 
This happens through condensation/dyhdration reactions because water is released.
 Peptide bondBond between amino acids.
 Functions of proteins depend on their...Shape and amino acid sequence
 CatalyzeTo speed up chemical reactions
 EnzymeProteins that function as a catalyst. 
They lower the required activation energy. 
 Function of enzymes1.catalyze
2.Defense
3.Movement
4.Signaling
5.Structure
6.Transport in&out of cell
 Enzymes rigid or flexiable?Very flexiable, change shape to fit active site.
 CofactorsMost enzymes do not work alone, they work with many small molecules called cofactors.
-Vitamins are cofactors called coenzymes
 Competitive Inhibitioninhibitor molecule competes with substrate for active site.
 Allosteric RegulationBind to the site other than the active site and changes the shape of the enzyme.
 Allosteric ActivationThe change of shape due to allosteric regulation causes the active site to be more receptive of the enzyme.
 Allosteric DeactivationThe change of shape due to allosteric regulation causes the active site to reject the enzyme. 
 Allosteric regulation can increase or decrease enzyme activity by...binding/shape change
 Primary structure of protein
The primary structure of peptides and proteins refers to the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units.
 Secondary Structure of proteinhow primary structure is folded due to hydrogen bonds between two sequences of amino acids. 

*Alpha helices & beta folding occur here*
Alpha=swirl&curl
Beta=folding into hairpin like structure
 Tertiary Structure of protein 3D Apperance
Protein takes shape due to interact of Alpha Helices & Beta Folding
 Quaternary Structure of proteinWhere subunits are arranged. 
Quaternary structure may include:
1 protein molecule
2 equal or unequal protein molecules
3 equal or unequal protein molecules
or many equal AND unequal protein molecules
 Nucleic Acidare polymers, like proteins, but instead of being made up of amino acids, Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides.

*found in DNA and RNA
 Structure of a nucleotide5 carbon sugar ; Ribose for RNA, Deoxyribose for DNA
Phosphate group
Nitrogenous base----- RNA Bases: A,G,U,C
                                        DNA Bases: A,G,T,C
 Nucleic acids form when...nucleotides polymerize, forming Phosphodiester Bonds.
 All Nucleic acids have a __ & a __ endAll nucleic acids have a 5' & 3' ends.
 During the construction of a nucleotide, the OH group on the 3' carbon joins the...Phosphate group on 5' carbon sugar creating Phosphodiester bonds.
 RNA Sugar V. DNA SugarDiffers by 1 atom at the 2' carbon location. 
Ribose = -OH
Deoxyribose= H  (DEOXY=Missing Oxygen)
 The double helix in DNA is formed by...Hydrogen bonds
 Each strand of DNA has what components?A sugar-phosphate backbone with nitrogenous bases sticking out

 The two strands in DNA run...Parallel to each other but in opposite directions.
 A ----- T G------CFound in DNA
Called complementary base pairing or Watson-Crick Base Pairing
 DNA carries...All heredity info in all living cells.
 DNA's ___ & ___ make it the perfect canidate for carrying genetic infoStability & accuracy of copying
 1 DNA strand is copied onto Messanger RNA for...Protein Synthesis.
this is how the DNA info is converted into a function. 
 Characteristics of RNA Structure-Single Strand
-Has sugar-phosphate backbone
-OH group at 3' carbon combines with phosphate group at 5' carbon of the next nucleotide. 
-RNA can make short hydrogen bonds in some areas = Loop&Stem Structure


 What pairing occurs in RNA?A------U
G-----C
 RNA has the ability to...Carry genetic info and catalytic activities
(making it ideal for the first life on Earth)
 RibozymesA RNA molecule with a well defined tertiary structure that enables it to catalyze a chemical reaction.
 RNA has Primary thru Quartanary Structures & DNA has...Primary & Secondary only.
 Examples of Common Carbohydrates in BiologySugars
Starches
cellulose & related compounds
 Carbohydrates consist of what atoms?C,H & O (CH2O)
 Functions of CarbohydratesEnergy
Cell Identity
Metabolic Regulation
Osmotic regulation
 Monosaccharides are...Simple sugars like glucose and fructose
 Sugars with the same number of atoms can...still very in their arrangement
 Sugars exist in linear and circular molecules, which is more stable?Circular/Ring Sugars
 Glycosidic BondsBond sugars
 Plants store energy from ____ & Animals store energy from____Starch
Glycogen
 Which has a more complex branching pattern -- Starch or Glycogen?Glycogen is highly branched. 
 Examples of Carbohydrates used for structural support:Cellulose in plant cell walls
Chitlin in fungal cell walls
 Most important lipids:Fats & oils
Steriods
phospolipids
 Fats are formed by...3 fatty acids joining with Glycerol. 
 Unsaturated V. Saturated fatsSaturated fats has straight tails and are tightly packed.
Unsaturated are bent & loosely packed. 
 2 examples of Steriods:Sex Hormones
Cholestrol
 What is unique about phospholipids?The head is highly hydrophylic
& the tail is highly hydrophobic. 

If put into water the head will sink and tail will rise. 

 Phospholipids are the major component in...Membranes.
 5 characteristics of a living thinguse energy
made of cells
carry and process info
reproduce
evolve
 The cell theory states...all living things are made of cells and cells come from prexisting cells.
 What is a cell?It is a unit, surrounded by a thine membrane, the plasma membrane, and inside is a watery solution. 
 Pasteur's experiment proved what?That cells come from prexisting cells.
 When populations change overtime, they...give rise to new species and provide diversity. the more evolving that occurs, the more distant species become.
 What molecule can be used to idenify how closely related a species is to another?RNA
 What are the 3 current domains?Eukarya
Archaea
Bacteria

BUT ALL HAVE A COMMON ANCESTOR
 who 1st observed cells?Robert Hooke did in a plant bark. 
 Artifical SelectionWhen humans select traits from different species for their benefit
 Early life was believed to be what kind of cell?Prokaryotic cell that contained some RNA as genetic info and was surrounded by a membrane. 
 Covalent V. Ionic BondingCovalent = Sharing between 2 non-metals
Ionic=taking or losing electrons between a non-metal and a metal
 Proteins are to Amino Acids : Nucleic Acids are to _____Nucleotides
 If side group R is polar or charged, the amino acid is more....Water solulable
 Delta G is Less than zero = Delta G is Greater than zero=1. exogonic
2.Endogonic
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