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Exam 1 (Summer Session) - Flashcards

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Class:BIO 2604 - Human Phys & Lab
Subject:Biology
University:University of Central Oklahoma
Term:Fall 2014
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What is physiology? The study of how the parts in an organism function
What is the major underlying theme of physiology? Homeostasis
What is homeostasis? the relative consistency of the internal environment in the face of fluctuating external environment. 
Ex. Body Sweating when hot to maintain normal body temperature of 98.6.
Ex. Shivering when cold increasing heat so that body temp can stay at 98.6.


What would happen if the human equilibrium with the environment? The body would not function properly, because a certain temperature of 98.6 is needed for certain processes of the body, cells, organs, etc.

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What are the two primary methods of maintaining homeostasis in the human body? Negative Loops:maintains both short-term and long-term homeostasis

Positive Loops:maintains long-term homeostasis.
Negative Loops Negative feedback loops occur when a value in the body such as internal body temperature moves away from a set-point. 

Examples: if internal body temperature starts to decrease in response to a lowered temperature in the external environment, a person will curl up to reduce surface area to decrease heat loss, a person may put on a jacket to decrease heat loss, a person may do vasoconstriction at the surface of the skin to decrease blood flow and decrease heat loss, and a person may start to shiver to increase heat production.
or 
Sweating when it's hot to release heat.
Positive loops Positive feedback loops occur when a small change in a value results in an even bigger change which results in an even bigger change in that value. Positive feedback loops essentially move a value further and further from set-point until some specific goal is reached. 

Ex. Contractions, Ovulation, Blood clotting
What is the Scientific Method? Scientific Method includes the steps of observation, question, hypothesis, experiment, conclusions, and communication which eventually lead to a theory.
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Developing Medicine Vitro: Cells cultured outside of body
Vivo: Within body
Animal Testing on animals that have similar reactions as the human body.
Phase 1 Trial :
Developing Medicine: Phase 1 Trial

drugs are tested on healthy humans to determine how the drug is handled by the body
Developing Medicine: Phase 2 Trial drugs are tested on the target population
Developing Medicine: Phase 3 Trial maximize range of test subjects and conditions
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Developing Medicine: Phase 4 Trial other potential uses of the drug
What is the fundamental unit of life? Cell
Nucleus Control center of cells, directs protein synthesis
Ribosomes Translates RNA to proteins
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Endoplasmic Reticulum Forms compartments and vesicles, synthesis and modification of proteins and lipids
Golgi Apparatus Packages protein for export, forms secretory vesicles
Lysosomes Digest macromolecules and cell debris
Peroxisomes Breaks down fatty acid
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Centrioles anchor for cytoskeleton, helps in cell division by forming spindle fibers
Tissue Human tissues can be divided into 4 basic types: epithelial, connective , muscle, nervous.
Muscle Tissue

generate mechanical activities that produce force and movement

  e.g., heart, limbs, intestine, uterus

Nerve Tissue initiate and conduct electrical impulses
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Epithelial Tissue

selectively secrete and absorb ions and organic molecules, membranes & glands

  e.g., intestine, salivary glands

Connective Tissue

 connect, anchor and support structures of body

  e.g.: cartilage, blood, bone, adipose


Organ Systems of the body  The organ systems of the human body include: respiratory system, circulatory system, nervous system, endocrine system, musculoskeletal system, immune system, digestive system, excretory system, and reproductive system.


Elements (atoms) basic building blocks of molecules. Atoms are composed of 3 subatomic particles. 
Proton (+)
Neutrons (no charge)
Electrons (-)

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What does changing the number of protons do? Changes its element, identity, and mass
What does changing the number of neutrons do? Produces and isotrope of same element and different mass
What does changing the number of electrons do? Creates an ion of element without changing mass.
Four elements that make 99% of atoms in the body? Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen 
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Covalent Bonds strong bonds that occur when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
nonpolar covalent bond  electrons are shared evenly and creates bond
Amphipathic Molecule  contain polar covalent bonds at one end of the molecule and nonpolar covalent bonds at other end of the molecule.
 amphipathic molecules to be attracted to water on one side and repelled by water on the other side.
Ionic Bonds Ionic bonds occur when a strongly electronegative atom "steals" an electron from a weakly electronegative atom to create a negative charge on one atom and a positive charge on the other atom. Metal and nonmetal
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Hydrogen Bonds
Hydrogen bonds form when there is an electrical attraction between the H atom in a polar bond with a strongly electronegative atom (O, N, Cl) in polar bond of another molecule (or the same molecule).
Water Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula : one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom.
Carbohydrate
Lipids Lipids are molecules that contain hydrocarbons and make up the building blocks of the structure and function of living cells..
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triacylglycerols Triacylglycerols are synthesized fromthree fatty acids joined together byone glycerol molecule.
phospholipids one –OH of glycerol linked to phosphate (PO3); amphipathic: polar because of phosphate, but nonpolar because of fatty acid chains; important in cell structure
Steroids ring structure of 4 carbon rings; hydrophobic NOT water soluble
Prostaglandins

 type of fatty acid with a  cyclic hydrocarbon group that act as a regulatory molecule in many organs

 

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Proteins  are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Amino Acids  Amino acids: building blocks (subunits) of proteins; R = side chain that can vary in property (polar, nonpolar, ionized); 20 different AA's due to 20 different R's
Polypeptides Polypeptides: chains of AA's
Primary Protein Structure

1. # of amino acids in the chain

2. Position/type of amino acid in the chain

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Secondary Protein Structure

1. Alpha helix

  2. Beta sheet

Tertiary Protein Structure

a. H-bonds                      

b. ionic bonds

c. van der Waals forces

d. Covalent bonds

Quaternary Protein Struccture Multimeric proteins; proteins composed of more than one polypeptide chain
Nucleic Acid

Storage, expression & transmission of genetic information

•Basic subunit = nucleotide = sugar + phosphate + nitrogenous base

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DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

  Sugar = deoxyribose ("missing" oxygen)

  4 bases:

  purines = adenine and guanine

  pyrimidines = cytosine and thymine

RNA

 riboxynucleic acid

  Sugar = ribose (a 5-carbon sugar)

  Uracil replaces thymine

ATP

High energy phosphate bonds

Major molecules for transferring energy

Involved in:

  - muscle contraction

  - active transport across membranes

  - synthesis of organic molecules

Diffusion movement of molecules from where they are in high concentration to where they are in low concentration solely as result of random movement of molecules
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3 things that affect the rate of diffusion

1. Magnitude of the concentration gradient across the membrane

2. The permeability of the membrane to the diffusing substance

3. The surface area of the membrane through which the substance is diffusing

Osmosis diffusion of water across membrane that is impermeable to most other compounds; Water moves from where water is in high concentration to where water is in low concentration.
Facilitated Diffusion occurs when a substance is transported down a concentration gradient by a transport protein; does not require the addition of energy
Primary Active Transport active transport of molecules using a protein (pump) that uses ATP as the energy source
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Secondary Active Transport uses energy of ion moving DOWN its electrochemical gradient to drive transport of a different molecule UP its electrochemical gradient. Cotransport (symport) occurs when both particles move in the same direction. Countertransport (antiport) occurs when the particles move in opposite directions.
Endocytosis transport of macromolecules into the cell by forming vesicles from plasma membrane; includes phagocytosis and pinocytosis
Exocytosis

transport of macromolecules out of cell by fusion of vesicles with plasma membrane

 

Enzymes

 proteins that act as catalysts to increase the rate of reactions by lowering the activation energy of the reaction.

 

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Properties of Enzyme

Specificity: to how many different substrates can an enzyme bind

•Affinity: how tightly an enzyme is bound to a substrate; Affinity is affected by both shape and charge. Complimentary shapes and opposite charges provide the highest affinity between an enzyme and a ligand.

•Saturation: how much of the enzyme is in use

•Competition: occurs when more than one type of ligand can bind to the enzymes functional site

 

Regulation of Enzymes

-Allosteric modulation - the shape of enzyme's functional site is altered to match the ligand by binding of a molecule to enzyme's regulatory site; activates the enzyme

-Covalent modulation - the shape of enzyme's functional site is altered to match the ligand by covalent bonding of charged chemical group to enzyme; activates the enzyme

 

What affects reaction rates?

-Enzyme concentration - affected by enzyme synthesis and breakdown

•Enzyme activity - affected by allosteric and covalent modulation

•Substrate and product concentrations    

e.g., increasing [substrate] drives reaction to "right"

•End product inhibition - the end product of a chain of chemical reactions acts as modulator of one of the intermediate enzymes

Cells of the nervous system: neurons or nerve cells
  • Basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system
  • Respond to chemical and physical stimuli
  • Produce and conduct electrochemical impulses; "excitable cells"
  • Releases specific chemical regulators
  • Functions include: perception of sensory stimuli, learning, memory, control of muscles and glands
  • Cannot divide by mitosis, but can regenerate severed portions or sprout new branches under certain circumstances
  • Very high metabolic rate
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Function of Neurons a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.
Afferent Neurons transmit information from sensory receptors into the CNS; cell body and the long peripheral process of the axon are in the PNS; only the short central process of the axon enters the CNS; may have no dendrites
Efferent Neurons  transmit information out of the CNS to effector cells (particularly muscles, glands, or other neurons); cell body, dendrites, and a small segment of the axon are in the CNS; most of the axon is in the PNS
interneurons function as integrators and signal changers; process sensory information from afferent neurons; send commnds to efferent neurons to carry to effectors; and carry out complex functions such as thought, memory, and emotions; integrate groups of afferent and efferent neurons into reflex circuits; lie entirely within the CNS; account for 99% of all neurons
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In the CNS, what are cell bodies of neurons grouped together? Nuclei
In the CNS, axons are grouped together to form? pathways, tracts, or commissures
In the PNS cell bodies are grouped together to form? Ganglia
In the PNS, axons are grouped together to form? nerves
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Glial Cells cells that "support" neurons; account for approximately 90% of the cells in the nervous system
Astrocytes critical to the formation of the BBB, stimulate endothelial cells to form tight junctions, sustain neurons metabolically, regulate composition of extracellular fluid by removing potassium ions and NTs from around synapses, guide neurons as they migrate during development, promote growth by secretion of growth factors, found in CNS.
Ependymal line the cerebral ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord, found in CNS
Microglia perform immune functions in CNS
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Oligodendrocytes  form myelin around axons in the central nervous system
Schwann Cells
  • form myelin around axons in the peripheral nervous system

 

Neurons composed of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon
axon, axon hillock, and axon collateral
  • Axon: process that carries information away from the cell body
  • Axon Hillock: the site where an axon originates on a cell body that is specialized for the initiation of action potentials in an axon
  • Axon Collateral: branches of an axon
  •  

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How does information flow in a neuron? Electric and Chemical Messages
How can a single neuron be considered presynaptic or postsynaptic? Neurons are described as presynpatic or postsynaptic depending on which side of the synapse they occur. ---- Presynaptic neurons occur before the synpase and postsynaptic neurons occur after the synpase.  
-depending on the position being described in a chain of neurons.
How are myelin sheaths created? A myelin sheath occurs when myelin-forming cells such as Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes grow perpendicularly in a spiral around the axon of a neuron. 
What do myelin sheaths help do? create an insulating barrier around sections of the axon that force the electrical signal to jump between the mylein-forming cells to the uninsulated portion of the neuron called a node of Ranvier in a motion called saltatory conduction to reach the axon terminal. 
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Potential Difference difference in voltage between two points
Membrane Potential (Vm) difference in voltage across the plasma membrane from the inside of the cell to the outside of a cell
Resting Membrane Potential difference in voltage between the inside and outside of a cell when the cell is at rest (not sending signals)
Graded Potentials a relatively small change in membrane potential produced by some type of stimulus that triggers the opening or closing of ion channels; size of a graded potential is dependent upon the size of the stimulus
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Synaptic Potential graded potential produced in a post-synpatic cell in response to neurotransmitters binding to receptors
Receptor Potential graded potential produced in response to a stimulus acting on a sensory receptor
Action Potential large, rapid change in membrane potential produced by depolarization of an excitable cell's plasma membrane past threshold; the electrical signal in a neuron; APs are "all-or-none"
Equilibrium Potentials

the membrane potential that counters the chemical forces acting to move an ion across a membrane which puts the ion at equilibrium; the membrane potential that a cell would have if it were based on a single ion which is allowed to come to equilibrium 

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What is the movement of electrical charge called? Hindrance? current (I)
resistance (R)
Ohm's Law

 gives us a basis for electrical signaling in neurons.

 

What is membrane potential based on? The membrane potential of a cell is based on two factors: 1. the electrochemical gradient of all the ions in the intracellular and extracellular fluid and 2. the permeability of the cell membrane to those ions. 
Nernst Equation

 ion's "equilibrium potential".

 

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What is actual resting membrane potential that takes all ions into consideration calculated by?

Goldman's Equation.

 

Difference between nernst and Goldman's Equation?  the only real differences between the Nernst and Goldman's equations are that we have added what all the ions are doing together in the Goldman's equation and we have added the variable "P".
Where do stimuli come from? Stimuli can come from internal or external events such as changes in pressure (mechanical stimulus), changes in light (photostimulus), changes in presence of chemicals or molecules (chemical stimulus) that are detected by sensory cells in the interior or periphery of the body or a stimulus may be a neurotransmitter released by another neuron. 
Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential a stimulus causes a graded potential called an EPSP 
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Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential IPSPs can either stabilize a cell-membrane and make it less likely for the membrane potential to change in either direction or can hyperpolarize the cell which means to make the cell membrane more negative/less positive.
When does an action potential occur? If a stimulus is big enough to cause a graded potential that is big enough to cause the cell membrane potential to reach threshold, then an action potential will occur. 
What happens when a cell membrane reaches threshold?
Class 1 Neurotransmiter Choline Derivative:  ACh is used as a neurotransmitter in both the CNS and PNS, but it is the most abundant NT in the PNS where it is used by efferent neurons of the somatic and

autonomic branches. 

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Class 2 Neurotransmitter Biogenic Amines: Characteristics: Biogenic amines are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the axon terminals of the neurons that use them for neurotransmitters, are derived from amino acids, and

contain an amine group (-NH2). Catecholamines contain a catechol group (six-carbon ring with two hydroxyl groups). 

Class 3 Neurotransmitter Amino Acids
Class 4 Neurotransmitters Neuropeptides
Class 5 Others
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Central Nervous Systems consists of the brain and spinal cord; protected by skull, vertebrae and meninges (tough membranes); cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid that flows through center of spinal cord and brain; ventricles are continuation of spinal canal
Blood Brain Barrier tight junctions between endothelial cells of capillaries; lipophilic molecules can enter quickly (alcohol) but most molecules need specific transporter to get into brain; BBB makes it difficult for disease-causing organisms to get in, but once they do it is difficult to kill them in CNS
Spinal Cord
  • Grey matter: cell bodies and nerve fibers lacking myelin; interior of cord
  • White matter: myelinated axons of interneurons, run along length of cord; outer portion of cord
  • Afferent fibers enter on dorsal side via dorsal roots
  • Efferent fibers leave on ventral side via ventral roots
  • Afferent and efferent fibers join to form spinal nerves: thus each nerve carries information in both directions (but each axon only in one direction)
  • Spinal canal runs down center: contains cerebrospinal fluid
Brain
  • Embryologically, brain forms from expansion and folding over of anterior portion of spinal cord
  • White matter inside, gray matter outside and inside (opposite spinal cord)
  • Has spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid called "ventricles"
  • Regions: forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
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Forebrain the anterior part of the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus.
Cerebrum performs higher functions of the brain; 80% of brain mass; right and left hemispheres are connected by the "corpus collosum"; outer layer is called the "cerebral cortex" which is composed of 5 lobes including: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula
Frontal Lobe voluntary motor control of skeletal muscles; personality; higher intellectual processes (concentration, planning, decision making); verbal communication
Parietal Lobe somatesthetic interpretation; understanding speech and formulating words to express thoughts and emotions; interpretation of textures and shapes
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Temporal Lobe  interpretation of auditory sensations; storage (memory) of auditory and visual experiences
Occipital Lobe integrates movements in focusing the eye; correlating visual images with previous visual experiences and other sensory stimuli; conscious perception of vision
Insula Lobe memory; integration of other cerebral activities
Basal Nuclei (Basal Ganglia) masses of gray matter composed of neuron cell bodies; function in control of voluntary movement
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Left hemisphere dominant in language and analytical ability
right hemisphere important in pattern recognition, musical composition, singing, recognition of faces
limbic system along with the hypothalamus along with the hypothalamus: implicated as center for many emotions
medial temporal lobe required for the consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory
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Midbrain
  • Superior Colliculi: involved in visual reflexes
  • Inferior Colliculi: involved in auditory reflexes
Hindbrain
  • Metencephalon

-Pons: site of origination of some cranial nerves

-Cerebellum: involved in control of skeletal movements

  • Myelencephalon

-Medulla oblongata: centers for the regulation of vital functions such as breathing and the cardiovascular system

Peripheral Nervous System the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord
afferent division
  • neurons carrying information from sensory receptors
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efferent division
  • neurons carrying information out to effectors
Somatic Nervous System
  • Somatic motor neurons are efferent neurons that lead to skeletal muscle
  • also called "motor neurons"
  • cell body is in CNS
  • have one synapse directly onto muscle
  • excitatory only
  • use acetylcholine
Autonomic Nervous System
  • efferent neurons taht lead to smooth or cardiac muscle, glands, GI tract
  • generally controls things that are under unconscious control, but responses can be learned: ex: nervousness before exam or game
  • has a pre-effector synapse: takes two neurons to get from CNS to effector
  • synapses can be excitatory or inhibitory
  • divisions are:

a. Enteric NS: gastrointestinal tract

b. Sympathetic NS: "fight-or-flight" response; ex: divert blood flow from digestive tract to skeletal muscles

c. Parasympathetic NS: effects oppose those of sympathetic

Sensory System A sensory system is the pathway that information travels to reach perception or the conscious interpretation of the world based on the sensory system itself, memory, and other neural processes. 
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Receptors A receptor can be a specialized cell that is separate from an afferent neuron or it can be the modified end of an afferent neuron that is designed to detect a specific form of energy (a modality) in the environment. 
Photoreceptors Vision 
Modality: Photons of light
Chemoreceptors Taste, Smell, Pain, Blood Oxygen, Blood pH
Modality:
Thermoreceptor Warm, Cold, 
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 What is physiology?The study of how the parts in an organism function
 What is the major underlying theme of physiology?Homeostasis
 What is homeostasis?the relative consistency of the internal environment in the face of fluctuating external environment. 
Ex. Body Sweating when hot to maintain normal body temperature of 98.6.
Ex. Shivering when cold increasing heat so that body temp can stay at 98.6.


 What would happen if the human equilibrium with the environment?The body would not function properly, because a certain temperature of 98.6 is needed for certain processes of the body, cells, organs, etc.

 What are the two primary methods of maintaining homeostasis in the human body?Negative Loops:maintains both short-term and long-term homeostasis

Positive Loops:maintains long-term homeostasis.
 Negative LoopsNegative feedback loops occur when a value in the body such as internal body temperature moves away from a set-point. 

Examples: if internal body temperature starts to decrease in response to a lowered temperature in the external environment, a person will curl up to reduce surface area to decrease heat loss, a person may put on a jacket to decrease heat loss, a person may do vasoconstriction at the surface of the skin to decrease blood flow and decrease heat loss, and a person may start to shiver to increase heat production.
or 
Sweating when it's hot to release heat.
 Positive loopsPositive feedback loops occur when a small change in a value results in an even bigger change which results in an even bigger change in that value. Positive feedback loops essentially move a value further and further from set-point until some specific goal is reached. 

Ex. Contractions, Ovulation, Blood clotting
 What is the Scientific Method?Scientific Method includes the steps of observation, question, hypothesis, experiment, conclusions, and communication which eventually lead to a theory.
 Developing MedicineVitro: Cells cultured outside of body
Vivo: Within body
Animal Testing on animals that have similar reactions as the human body.
Phase 1 Trial :
 Developing Medicine: Phase 1 Trial

drugs are tested on healthy humans to determine how the drug is handled by the body
 Developing Medicine: Phase 2 Trialdrugs are tested on the target population
 Developing Medicine: Phase 3 Trialmaximize range of test subjects and conditions
 Developing Medicine: Phase 4 Trialother potential uses of the drug
 What is the fundamental unit of life?Cell
 NucleusControl center of cells, directs protein synthesis
 RibosomesTranslates RNA to proteins
 Endoplasmic ReticulumForms compartments and vesicles, synthesis and modification of proteins and lipids
 Golgi ApparatusPackages protein for export, forms secretory vesicles
 LysosomesDigest macromolecules and cell debris
 PeroxisomesBreaks down fatty acid
 Centriolesanchor for cytoskeleton, helps in cell division by forming spindle fibers
 TissueHuman tissues can be divided into 4 basic types: epithelial, connective , muscle, nervous.
 Muscle Tissue

generate mechanical activities that produce force and movement

  e.g., heart, limbs, intestine, uterus

 Nerve Tissueinitiate and conduct electrical impulses
 Epithelial Tissue

selectively secrete and absorb ions and organic molecules, membranes & glands

  e.g., intestine, salivary glands

 Connective Tissue

 connect, anchor and support structures of body

  e.g.: cartilage, blood, bone, adipose


 Organ Systems of the body The organ systems of the human body include: respiratory system, circulatory system, nervous system, endocrine system, musculoskeletal system, immune system, digestive system, excretory system, and reproductive system.


 Elements (atoms)basic building blocks of molecules. Atoms are composed of 3 subatomic particles. 
Proton (+)
Neutrons (no charge)
Electrons (-)

 What does changing the number of protons do?Changes its element, identity, and mass
 What does changing the number of neutrons do?Produces and isotrope of same element and different mass
 What does changing the number of electrons do?Creates an ion of element without changing mass.
 Four elements that make 99% of atoms in the body?Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen 
 Covalent Bondsstrong bonds that occur when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
 nonpolar covalent bond electrons are shared evenly and creates bond
 Amphipathic Molecule contain polar covalent bonds at one end of the molecule and nonpolar covalent bonds at other end of the molecule.
 amphipathic molecules to be attracted to water on one side and repelled by water on the other side.
 Ionic BondsIonic bonds occur when a strongly electronegative atom "steals" an electron from a weakly electronegative atom to create a negative charge on one atom and a positive charge on the other atom. Metal and nonmetal
 Hydrogen Bonds
Hydrogen bonds form when there is an electrical attraction between the H atom in a polar bond with a strongly electronegative atom (O, N, Cl) in polar bond of another molecule (or the same molecule).
 WaterWater is the chemical substance with chemical formula : one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom.
 Carbohydrate
 LipidsLipids are molecules that contain hydrocarbons and make up the building blocks of the structure and function of living cells..
 triacylglycerolsTriacylglycerols are synthesized fromthree fatty acids joined together byone glycerol molecule.
 phospholipidsone –OH of glycerol linked to phosphate (PO3); amphipathic: polar because of phosphate, but nonpolar because of fatty acid chains; important in cell structure
 Steroidsring structure of 4 carbon rings; hydrophobic NOT water soluble
 Prostaglandins

 type of fatty acid with a  cyclic hydrocarbon group that act as a regulatory molecule in many organs

 

 Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
 Amino Acids Amino acids: building blocks (subunits) of proteins; R = side chain that can vary in property (polar, nonpolar, ionized); 20 different AA's due to 20 different R's
 PolypeptidesPolypeptides: chains of AA's
 Primary Protein Structure

1. # of amino acids in the chain

2. Position/type of amino acid in the chain

 Secondary Protein Structure

1. Alpha helix

  2. Beta sheet

 Tertiary Protein Structure

a. H-bonds                      

b. ionic bonds

c. van der Waals forces

d. Covalent bonds

 Quaternary Protein StrucctureMultimeric proteins; proteins composed of more than one polypeptide chain
 Nucleic Acid

Storage, expression & transmission of genetic information

•Basic subunit = nucleotide = sugar + phosphate + nitrogenous base

 DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

  Sugar = deoxyribose ("missing" oxygen)

  4 bases:

  purines = adenine and guanine

  pyrimidines = cytosine and thymine

 RNA

 riboxynucleic acid

  Sugar = ribose (a 5-carbon sugar)

  Uracil replaces thymine

 ATP

High energy phosphate bonds

Major molecules for transferring energy

Involved in:

  - muscle contraction

  - active transport across membranes

  - synthesis of organic molecules

 Diffusionmovement of molecules from where they are in high concentration to where they are in low concentration solely as result of random movement of molecules
 3 things that affect the rate of diffusion

1. Magnitude of the concentration gradient across the membrane

2. The permeability of the membrane to the diffusing substance

3. The surface area of the membrane through which the substance is diffusing

 Osmosisdiffusion of water across membrane that is impermeable to most other compounds; Water moves from where water is in high concentration to where water is in low concentration.
 Facilitated Diffusionoccurs when a substance is transported down a concentration gradient by a transport protein; does not require the addition of energy
 Primary Active Transportactive transport of molecules using a protein (pump) that uses ATP as the energy source
 Secondary Active Transportuses energy of ion moving DOWN its electrochemical gradient to drive transport of a different molecule UP its electrochemical gradient. Cotransport (symport) occurs when both particles move in the same direction. Countertransport (antiport) occurs when the particles move in opposite directions.
 Endocytosistransport of macromolecules into the cell by forming vesicles from plasma membrane; includes phagocytosis and pinocytosis
 Exocytosis

transport of macromolecules out of cell by fusion of vesicles with plasma membrane

 

 Enzymes

 proteins that act as catalysts to increase the rate of reactions by lowering the activation energy of the reaction.

 

 Properties of Enzyme

Specificity: to how many different substrates can an enzyme bind

•Affinity: how tightly an enzyme is bound to a substrate; Affinity is affected by both shape and charge. Complimentary shapes and opposite charges provide the highest affinity between an enzyme and a ligand.

•Saturation: how much of the enzyme is in use

•Competition: occurs when more than one type of ligand can bind to the enzymes functional site

 

 Regulation of Enzymes

-Allosteric modulation - the shape of enzyme's functional site is altered to match the ligand by binding of a molecule to enzyme's regulatory site; activates the enzyme

-Covalent modulation - the shape of enzyme's functional site is altered to match the ligand by covalent bonding of charged chemical group to enzyme; activates the enzyme

 

 What affects reaction rates?

-Enzyme concentration - affected by enzyme synthesis and breakdown

•Enzyme activity - affected by allosteric and covalent modulation

•Substrate and product concentrations    

e.g., increasing [substrate] drives reaction to "right"

•End product inhibition - the end product of a chain of chemical reactions acts as modulator of one of the intermediate enzymes

 Cells of the nervous system: neurons or nerve cells
  • Basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system
  • Respond to chemical and physical stimuli
  • Produce and conduct electrochemical impulses; "excitable cells"
  • Releases specific chemical regulators
  • Functions include: perception of sensory stimuli, learning, memory, control of muscles and glands
  • Cannot divide by mitosis, but can regenerate severed portions or sprout new branches under certain circumstances
  • Very high metabolic rate
 Function of Neuronsa specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.
 Afferent Neuronstransmit information from sensory receptors into the CNS; cell body and the long peripheral process of the axon are in the PNS; only the short central process of the axon enters the CNS; may have no dendrites
 Efferent Neurons transmit information out of the CNS to effector cells (particularly muscles, glands, or other neurons); cell body, dendrites, and a small segment of the axon are in the CNS; most of the axon is in the PNS
 interneuronsfunction as integrators and signal changers; process sensory information from afferent neurons; send commnds to efferent neurons to carry to effectors; and carry out complex functions such as thought, memory, and emotions; integrate groups of afferent and efferent neurons into reflex circuits; lie entirely within the CNS; account for 99% of all neurons
 In the CNS, what are cell bodies of neurons grouped together?Nuclei
 In the CNS, axons are grouped together to form?pathways, tracts, or commissures
 In the PNS cell bodies are grouped together to form?Ganglia
 In the PNS, axons are grouped together to form?nerves
 Glial Cellscells that "support" neurons; account for approximately 90% of the cells in the nervous system
 Astrocytescritical to the formation of the BBB, stimulate endothelial cells to form tight junctions, sustain neurons metabolically, regulate composition of extracellular fluid by removing potassium ions and NTs from around synapses, guide neurons as they migrate during development, promote growth by secretion of growth factors, found in CNS.
 Ependymalline the cerebral ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord, found in CNS
 Microgliaperform immune functions in CNS
 Oligodendrocytes form myelin around axons in the central nervous system
 Schwann Cells
  • form myelin around axons in the peripheral nervous system

 

 Neurons composed ofa cell body, dendrites, and an axon
 axon, axon hillock, and axon collateral
  • Axon: process that carries information away from the cell body
  • Axon Hillock: the site where an axon originates on a cell body that is specialized for the initiation of action potentials in an axon
  • Axon Collateral: branches of an axon
  •  

 How does information flow in a neuron?Electric and Chemical Messages
 How can a single neuron be considered presynaptic or postsynaptic?Neurons are described as presynpatic or postsynaptic depending on which side of the synapse they occur. ---- Presynaptic neurons occur before the synpase and postsynaptic neurons occur after the synpase.  
-depending on the position being described in a chain of neurons.
 How are myelin sheaths created?A myelin sheath occurs when myelin-forming cells such as Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes grow perpendicularly in a spiral around the axon of a neuron. 
 What do myelin sheaths help do?create an insulating barrier around sections of the axon that force the electrical signal to jump between the mylein-forming cells to the uninsulated portion of the neuron called a node of Ranvier in a motion called saltatory conduction to reach the axon terminal. 
 Potential Differencedifference in voltage between two points
 Membrane Potential (Vm)difference in voltage across the plasma membrane from the inside of the cell to the outside of a cell
 Resting Membrane Potentialdifference in voltage between the inside and outside of a cell when the cell is at rest (not sending signals)
 Graded Potentialsa relatively small change in membrane potential produced by some type of stimulus that triggers the opening or closing of ion channels; size of a graded potential is dependent upon the size of the stimulus
 Synaptic Potentialgraded potential produced in a post-synpatic cell in response to neurotransmitters binding to receptors
 Receptor Potentialgraded potential produced in response to a stimulus acting on a sensory receptor
 Action Potentiallarge, rapid change in membrane potential produced by depolarization of an excitable cell's plasma membrane past threshold; the electrical signal in a neuron; APs are "all-or-none"
 Equilibrium Potentials

the membrane potential that counters the chemical forces acting to move an ion across a membrane which puts the ion at equilibrium; the membrane potential that a cell would have if it were based on a single ion which is allowed to come to equilibrium 

 What is the movement of electrical charge called? Hindrance?current (I)
resistance (R)
 Ohm's Law

 gives us a basis for electrical signaling in neurons.

 

 What is membrane potential based on?The membrane potential of a cell is based on two factors: 1. the electrochemical gradient of all the ions in the intracellular and extracellular fluid and 2. the permeability of the cell membrane to those ions. 
 Nernst Equation

 ion's "equilibrium potential".

 

 What is actual resting membrane potential that takes all ions into consideration calculated by?

Goldman's Equation.

 

 Difference between nernst and Goldman's Equation? the only real differences between the Nernst and Goldman's equations are that we have added what all the ions are doing together in the Goldman's equation and we have added the variable "P".
 Where do stimuli come from?Stimuli can come from internal or external events such as changes in pressure (mechanical stimulus), changes in light (photostimulus), changes in presence of chemicals or molecules (chemical stimulus) that are detected by sensory cells in the interior or periphery of the body or a stimulus may be a neurotransmitter released by another neuron. 
 Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potentiala stimulus causes a graded potential called an EPSP 
 Inhibitory Post-Synaptic PotentialIPSPs can either stabilize a cell-membrane and make it less likely for the membrane potential to change in either direction or can hyperpolarize the cell which means to make the cell membrane more negative/less positive.
 When does an action potential occur?If a stimulus is big enough to cause a graded potential that is big enough to cause the cell membrane potential to reach threshold, then an action potential will occur. 
 What happens when a cell membrane reaches threshold? 
 Class 1 NeurotransmiterCholine Derivative:  ACh is used as a neurotransmitter in both the CNS and PNS, but it is the most abundant NT in the PNS where it is used by efferent neurons of the somatic and

autonomic branches. 

 Class 2 NeurotransmitterBiogenic Amines: Characteristics: Biogenic amines are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the axon terminals of the neurons that use them for neurotransmitters, are derived from amino acids, and

contain an amine group (-NH2). Catecholamines contain a catechol group (six-carbon ring with two hydroxyl groups). 

 Class 3 NeurotransmitterAmino Acids
 Class 4 NeurotransmittersNeuropeptides
 Class 5Others
 Central Nervous Systemsconsists of the brain and spinal cord; protected by skull, vertebrae and meninges (tough membranes); cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid that flows through center of spinal cord and brain; ventricles are continuation of spinal canal
 Blood Brain Barriertight junctions between endothelial cells of capillaries; lipophilic molecules can enter quickly (alcohol) but most molecules need specific transporter to get into brain; BBB makes it difficult for disease-causing organisms to get in, but once they do it is difficult to kill them in CNS
 Spinal Cord
  • Grey matter: cell bodies and nerve fibers lacking myelin; interior of cord
  • White matter: myelinated axons of interneurons, run along length of cord; outer portion of cord
  • Afferent fibers enter on dorsal side via dorsal roots
  • Efferent fibers leave on ventral side via ventral roots
  • Afferent and efferent fibers join to form spinal nerves: thus each nerve carries information in both directions (but each axon only in one direction)
  • Spinal canal runs down center: contains cerebrospinal fluid
 Brain
  • Embryologically, brain forms from expansion and folding over of anterior portion of spinal cord
  • White matter inside, gray matter outside and inside (opposite spinal cord)
  • Has spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid called "ventricles"
  • Regions: forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
 Forebrainthe anterior part of the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus.
 Cerebrumperforms higher functions of the brain; 80% of brain mass; right and left hemispheres are connected by the "corpus collosum"; outer layer is called the "cerebral cortex" which is composed of 5 lobes including: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula
 Frontal Lobevoluntary motor control of skeletal muscles; personality; higher intellectual processes (concentration, planning, decision making); verbal communication
 Parietal Lobesomatesthetic interpretation; understanding speech and formulating words to express thoughts and emotions; interpretation of textures and shapes
 Temporal Lobe interpretation of auditory sensations; storage (memory) of auditory and visual experiences
 Occipital Lobeintegrates movements in focusing the eye; correlating visual images with previous visual experiences and other sensory stimuli; conscious perception of vision
 Insula Lobememory; integration of other cerebral activities
 Basal Nuclei (Basal Ganglia)masses of gray matter composed of neuron cell bodies; function in control of voluntary movement
 Left hemispheredominant in language and analytical ability
 right hemisphereimportant in pattern recognition, musical composition, singing, recognition of faces
 limbic system along with the hypothalamusalong with the hypothalamus: implicated as center for many emotions
 medial temporal loberequired for the consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory
 Midbrain
  • Superior Colliculi: involved in visual reflexes
  • Inferior Colliculi: involved in auditory reflexes
 Hindbrain
  • Metencephalon

-Pons: site of origination of some cranial nerves

-Cerebellum: involved in control of skeletal movements

  • Myelencephalon

-Medulla oblongata: centers for the regulation of vital functions such as breathing and the cardiovascular system

 Peripheral Nervous Systemthe nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord
 afferent division
  • neurons carrying information from sensory receptors
 efferent division
  • neurons carrying information out to effectors
 Somatic Nervous System
  • Somatic motor neurons are efferent neurons that lead to skeletal muscle
  • also called "motor neurons"
  • cell body is in CNS
  • have one synapse directly onto muscle
  • excitatory only
  • use acetylcholine
 Autonomic Nervous System
  • efferent neurons taht lead to smooth or cardiac muscle, glands, GI tract
  • generally controls things that are under unconscious control, but responses can be learned: ex: nervousness before exam or game
  • has a pre-effector synapse: takes two neurons to get from CNS to effector
  • synapses can be excitatory or inhibitory
  • divisions are:

a. Enteric NS: gastrointestinal tract

b. Sympathetic NS: "fight-or-flight" response; ex: divert blood flow from digestive tract to skeletal muscles

c. Parasympathetic NS: effects oppose those of sympathetic

 Sensory SystemA sensory system is the pathway that information travels to reach perception or the conscious interpretation of the world based on the sensory system itself, memory, and other neural processes. 
 ReceptorsA receptor can be a specialized cell that is separate from an afferent neuron or it can be the modified end of an afferent neuron that is designed to detect a specific form of energy (a modality) in the environment. 
 PhotoreceptorsVision 
Modality: Photons of light
 ChemoreceptorsTaste, Smell, Pain, Blood Oxygen, Blood pH
Modality:
 ThermoreceptorWarm, Cold, 
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