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EXAM #2 - Flashcards

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Class:BIO 110 - Life Science
Subject:Biology
University:California State Polytechnic University - Pomona
Term:Fall 2012
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Plants are ___ as are some bacteria and protists photoaurophs/autrophs
Autotrophs have the ability to make their own food via photosyntesis (energy from the sun)
Photosynthesis has the ability to convert solar energy of sunlight into chemical energy of food molecules such as CO2
Photosynthesis occurs in a plants Mitochondria
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Chloroplasts are the unique organelles responsible for photosynthesis
Photosynthesis occurs in the plants chloroplast
Chloroplasts contain light absorbing pigments called ___ which is involed in converting solar energy into chemical energy chlorophyll
Inside Chloroplasts is a viscous liquid called Stroma
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Chloroplast contains folded interconnected membranous sacs called thylakoids
Thlakoids form stacks called Grana
Chloroplasts are found in high concentration in the Cytoplasm
Although chloroplasts can be found in multiple types of plant tissue, they are most abndant in the Leaf
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Stomata Openings in plants so CO2 can enter @ 02 can escape
Chloroplasts contain different pigments to pick up pick up electrons/ absorb more light
The Most important pigment in plants is chlorophyll
Plants absorb light
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Photosynthesis CO2 is reduced into h20
Photosynthesis h20 is oxidized into 02
During cellular respiration electrons fall from glucos to oxyen
This produces energy in the form of ATP
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Photosynthesis has two parts

The light reactions

The Dark Reactions

During the Light Reactions In the thylakoid membranes, chlorophyll is organized along with other molecules into two photosystems (I and II). Photosystems are the light-harvesting units of the thylakoid membrane. Each photosystem has an antenna of a few hundred pigment molecules.
The light reaction occur on the___ of the chloroplasts on the thylakoid membranes
NADP+ and ATP is generated
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The Calvin Cycle (Dark Reaction) The Calvin cycle, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, reductive pentose phosphate cycle or C3 cycle is a series of biochemical redox reactions that take place in the stroma of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms.
The Calvin Cycle occurs within the ___ of the chloroplasts STROMA
Four Steps of The Calvin Cycle`

1. 6 carbon dioxide molecules combine with six 5-carbon molecules forming twelve 3-carbon molecules.

2. The 12 3-carbon molecules are converted into high-energy forms.

3. 2 of the 12 3-carbon molecules are removed and the plant uses them to produce sugars, lipids, amino acids, and other compounds.

4. The 10 3-carbon molecules change back into six 5-carbon molecules, which combine with 6 more carbon dioxide molecules.

The process starts over.

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Cellular Reproduction The biological creation of the next generation
Cellular Reproduction occurs at the Cellular Level
Cell division resulting in two genetically identical daughter cells is referred to as Mitosis
In unicellular organisms, cell division results in A sexual reproduction
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In multicellular organisms cell division results in growth and development or the replacement of aging cells
Specialized cells called gametes are produced by the gonads (testes and ovaries)
Gametes are the result of a unique type of cellular division called Meiosis
During meiosis, 2 rounds of cellular division create 4 genetically different cells with half of the original chromosomes
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DNA exists tightly packed together in very long strands called Chromosomes
Each chromosom consists of thousands of GENES
Genes are discrete units along a stretch of DNA that code for A Particular Trait
Humans have 46 Chromosomes
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When a cell duplicates its chromosomes, they exist as two sister chromatids held together at a Centromere
Each new chromosome after it is duplicaed is identical to te parent chromsome so the daughter cell has Identical genes
The Cell Cycle The Sequence of events between when a cell is first produced by cell division and when it in turn divides
Mitosis consists of four phases

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Cytokinesis occurs simultaneously with telopase

 

PMAT

 

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Chromosomes occur in pairs called homologous chromosomes
Normal cells in an organisms body are called somatic cells
22 Pairs (44 chromosomes) are called AUTOSOMES
Autosomes contain genes from all traits except SEX
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Sex chromosomes determine ones biological sex
XX Female
XY Male
Mitosis (asexual reproduction and growth) results in two genentically identical cells
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Meiosis (sexual reproduction) Results in 4 genetically different cells each w/ only 1/2 the chromosome number
Human Life Cycle the sequence of stages between the adults of one generation and the adults of the next
Meiosis and Fertilization are the basis of sexual reproduction
Diploid cells

have 2 copies of each chromosome

  - 44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes

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Haploid Cells

Gametes that have just one member of a homologous pair of chromosomes

22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome

Fertilization the
Fertilisation is the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism.
Fertilization produces a single cell called a ZYGOTE
ZYGOTE

The zgote receives one set of chromosomes from the egg and the other from the sperm

zgotes are diploid

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Genetics The scientific study of genes
Genetics, a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.
Heredity Heredity is the passing of traits to offspring. This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism.
Gregor Mendel The first to study genetics
Genes discrete units of DNA that code for a particular trait
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Alleles are alternative forms of genes
An individual with two of the same alleles for a particular gene is ____ for that gene homozgous
An Individual with two different alleles for a particular gne is ___ for that gene heterozygous
The dominant allele is expressed
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The recessive alle is "masked" and has no effect
An organisms genotype is its genetic makeup
An organims phenotype is its expressed physical characteristics
How many alleles does and organism have for each trait? 2 alleles for each trait because chromosomes occur in homologous pairs
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During meosis each gamete (sperm & egg) carry only one allele for each trait
Offsprings gain ___ alleles for each trait 2
Mendel's Experiment

Punnent Square

DIAGram used for predicting and displaying genetic results

What is used to determine uknown genotypes test crosses and family pedigree
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Recessive Disorders

occur due only to a homozygous recessive genotype:

deafness

cystic fibrosis

 

Dominant Disorders

occur due to both homozygous dominant and heterozgous genotypes

huntingtons disease

Incomplete Dominance Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of a gene, in which one allele masks the expression of another allele at the same locus.
Codominant Alleles heterozgotes exhibit both phenotypes
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Many genes have more than __ possible alleles two possible alleles
Genes on Sex Chromosomes are called sex linked genes
Sex linked genes are found only on The X chromosome
DNA Nucleotide
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James Watson and Francis Crick determined that DNA is a Double Helix
Nitrogenous bases A pairs with T
Nitrogenous bases G alwas pairs with C
In RNA U replaced T
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RNA Is a single nucleic acid strand that does not form a helix
DNA stores the direction that builds Proteins
An organisms DNA is its genotype
An organisms genotype dictates its Phenotype
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DNA specifys phenotypes (proteins) by way of two stages Transcription and Translation
Transcription The synthesis of RNA froM DNA that occurs in the cells nucleus
Translation The synthesis of proteings from RNA it occurs in the cells cytoplasms
RNA Codes for amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins
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DNA is transcribed into RNA by complementary base pairings This ceaes a single RNA strand
A triplet of nucleotdes on RNA is called A codon
Each codon specifies one amino acid
Ribosomes hold both mRNA and tRNA
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tRNA an "interpreter" between nucleotide language and amino acid language
tRNA possesses nucleotide triplets called anticodons that bond to mRNAS codons
tRNA also carries the appropriate amino acid
Genetic information ina cell flows from DNA TO RNA TO PROTEIN (Genotype to Phenotype)
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After sperm and egg undergo fertilization they form A zygote (only one cell)
Multicellular aving multiple types of cells doing specific jobs
All cells that make up organism have the same chromosome number and composition (each cell has identical DNA)
How are the cells different if they have the same DNA

specific geners are expressed in specific cells. This makes certain cell tpes different than others resulting in cellular differentiation.

 Each cell although different has the same set of Dna however each cell has different genes expressed

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Each cell although different has the same set of DNA however each cell has different genes epressed
Bacteria (prokaryotes) are unicellular and therefore don not exhibit cellular differentiation ( because they are only one cell)
Bacteria do regulate gene expression in response to enviornmental changes
Nuclear Transplantion

Cloning is accomplished by way of nuclear transplantation

The nucleus of an egg cell (gamete) is removed and replaced with the nucleus of a somatic cell from a donor organism

Generated by Koofers.com
Reproductive cloning results in an entire new animal or plant
Reproductive cloning is used In agriculture and pharmaceuticals to produce large numbers of plants and animals with desirable traits. To increase the population sizes of endangered species
Therapeutic Cloning

Results in embryonic stem cells

Embryonic stem cells have not yet been differentiated

They can be induced to differentiat into any type of speciic cells

Therapeutic cloning is used to grow cells for the repair of injured or diseased tissues and organs

 

Cancer

A disease of a control system

cells divide uncontrollably and the control sstem genes are expressed at unusually high levels

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Proto-oncogenes code for proteins that enable the cell to divid3e
Tumor Supressed genes code for proteins that keep the cell from dividing excessively
Mutations

nucleotide sequence changes

when mutated proto oncogenes cause the cell to divide much more rapdily than normal

mutated tumor suppressor genes cannot stop the cell from dividing

A mass cancerous cells is called a

Tumor

tumors disrupt the normal functioning of the organs on which they develop

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A benign tumor one in which the cancerous cells remain in theri original locaqtion
A malignant tumor one in which the cancer cells spread to other parts of the body
Metasis The spreading of cancer cells
Any cancer causing agent is called Carcinogen
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An organism that carries recombinant DNA is called a trangenetic organism
What is the most common transgenetic organism BACTERIA
In addition to their nucleoid bacteria possess smaller DNA molecules called plasmids
Restriction Enzymes Cut the genes
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DNA ligase joins the genes together
The first pharmaceutical product produced by recombinant DNA technology was humulin
Crops have been genetically modified to resist infestation or to become more nutritious
Forensics The sientific analysis of evidence from crime scenes
Generated by Koofers.com
PCR (polymerise chain reaction) is a procedure using a polymerase enzyme to exponentiall copy DNA into a high concentration that can be analzed (forensics)
STR the area of DNA where restrictions enzymes cut which is unique to each individual
Because everybody has different locations of STRS on the DNA their DNA would be cut at different lengths different than other individuals making their DNA fragments different in length
Gel Electrophoresis is used to sort DNA fragments based on their size
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Shorter DNA fragments move faster and longer dna fragments move slower
DNA is ____ charged negatively so it migrates to the positive cathode in gel electrophresis
DNA migraes according to size
Each individual tested would have a unique set of DNA BANDS
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 Plants are ___ as are some bacteria and protistsphotoaurophs/autrophs
 Autotrophs have the ability to make their own food viaphotosyntesis (energy from the sun)
 Photosynthesis has the ability to convert solar energy of sunlight into chemical energy of food molecules such asCO2
 Photosynthesis occurs in a plantsMitochondria
 Chloroplastsare the unique organelles responsible for photosynthesis
 Photosynthesis occurs in the plantschloroplast
 Chloroplasts contain light absorbing pigments called ___ which is involed in converting solar energy into chemical energychlorophyll
 Inside Chloroplasts is a viscous liquid calledStroma
 Chloroplast contains folded interconnected membranous sacs calledthylakoids
 Thlakoids form stacks calledGrana
 Chloroplasts are found in high concentration in theCytoplasm
 Although chloroplasts can be found in multiple types of plant tissue, they are most abndant in theLeaf
 StomataOpenings in plants so CO2 can enter @ 02 can escape
 Chloroplasts contain different pigments to pick uppick up electrons/ absorb more light
 The Most important pigment in plants ischlorophyll
 Plants absorblight
 Photosynthesis CO2 is reduced intoh20
 Photosynthesis h20 is oxidized into02
 During cellular respiration electrons fall from glucos tooxyen
 This produces energy in the form ofATP
 Photosynthesis has two parts

The light reactions

The Dark Reactions

 During the Light ReactionsIn the thylakoid membranes, chlorophyll is organized along with other molecules into two photosystems (I and II). Photosystems are the light-harvesting units of the thylakoid membrane. Each photosystem has an antenna of a few hundred pigment molecules.
 The light reaction occur on the___ of the chloroplastson the thylakoid membranes
 NADP+ and ATP is generated 
   
 The Calvin Cycle (Dark Reaction)The Calvin cycle, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, reductive pentose phosphate cycle or C3 cycle is a series of biochemical redox reactions that take place in the stroma of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms.
 The Calvin Cycle occurs within the ___ of the chloroplastsSTROMA
 Four Steps of The Calvin Cycle`

1. 6 carbon dioxide molecules combine with six 5-carbon molecules forming twelve 3-carbon molecules.

2. The 12 3-carbon molecules are converted into high-energy forms.

3. 2 of the 12 3-carbon molecules are removed and the plant uses them to produce sugars, lipids, amino acids, and other compounds.

4. The 10 3-carbon molecules change back into six 5-carbon molecules, which combine with 6 more carbon dioxide molecules.

The process starts over.

 Cellular ReproductionThe biological creation of the next generation
 Cellular Reproduction occurs at theCellular Level
 Cell division resulting in two genetically identical daughter cells is referred to asMitosis
 In unicellular organisms, cell division results inA sexual reproduction
 In multicellular organisms cell division results in growth and development or thereplacement of aging cells
 Specialized cells called gametes are produced by thegonads (testes and ovaries)
 Gametes are the result of a unique type of cellular division calledMeiosis
 During meiosis, 2 rounds of cellular division create 4 genetically different cells withhalf of the original chromosomes
 DNA exists tightly packed together in very long strands calledChromosomes
 Each chromosom consists of thousands ofGENES
 Genes are discrete units along a stretch of DNA that code forA Particular Trait
 Humans have46 Chromosomes
 When a cell duplicates its chromosomes, they exist as two sister chromatids held together at aCentromere
 Each new chromosome after it is duplicaed is identical to te parent chromsome so the daughter cell hasIdentical genes
 The Cell CycleThe Sequence of events between when a cell is first produced by cell division and when it in turn divides
 Mitosis consists of four phases

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Cytokinesis occurs simultaneously with telopase

 

PMAT

 

 Chromosomes occur in pairs calledhomologous chromosomes
 Normal cells in an organisms body are calledsomatic cells
 22 Pairs (44 chromosomes) are calledAUTOSOMES
 Autosomes contain genes from all traits exceptSEX
 Sex chromosomes determine onesbiological sex
 XXFemale
 XYMale
 Mitosis (asexual reproduction and growth) results intwo genentically identical cells
 Meiosis (sexual reproduction)Results in 4 genetically different cells each w/ only 1/2 the chromosome number
 Human Life Cyclethe sequence of stages between the adults of one generation and the adults of the next
 Meiosis and Fertilization are thebasis of sexual reproduction
 Diploid cells

have 2 copies of each chromosome

  - 44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes

 Haploid Cells

Gametes that have just one member of a homologous pair of chromosomes

22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome

 Fertilizationthe
Fertilisation is the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism.
 Fertilization produces a single cell called aZYGOTE
 ZYGOTE

The zgote receives one set of chromosomes from the egg and the other from the sperm

zgotes are diploid

 GeneticsThe scientific study of genes
Genetics, a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.
 HeredityHeredity is the passing of traits to offspring. This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism.
 Gregor MendelThe first to study genetics
 Genesdiscrete units of DNA that code for a particular trait
 Allelesare alternative forms of genes
 An individual with two of the same alleles for a particular gene is ____ for that genehomozgous
 An Individual with two different alleles for a particular gne is ___ for that geneheterozygous
 The dominant alleleis expressed
 The recessive alle is "masked" andhas no effect
 An organisms genotype isits genetic makeup
 An organims phenotype isits expressed physical characteristics
 How many alleles does and organism have for each trait?2 alleles for each trait because chromosomes occur in homologous pairs
 During meosis each gamete (sperm & egg)carry only one allele for each trait
 Offsprings gain ___ alleles for each trait2
 Mendel's Experiment

Punnent Square

DIAGram used for predicting and displaying genetic results

 What is used to determine uknown genotypestest crosses and family pedigree
 Recessive Disorders

occur due only to a homozygous recessive genotype:

deafness

cystic fibrosis

 

 Dominant Disorders

occur due to both homozygous dominant and heterozgous genotypes

huntingtons disease

 Incomplete DominanceDominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of a gene, in which one allele masks the expression of another allele at the same locus.
 Codominant Allelesheterozgotes exhibit both phenotypes
 Many genes have more than __ possible allelestwo possible alleles
 Genes on Sex Chromosomes are calledsex linked genes
 Sex linked genes are found only onThe X chromosome
 DNA Nucleotide 
 James Watson and Francis Crick determinedthat DNA is a Double Helix
 Nitrogenous bases A pairs withT
 Nitrogenous bases G alwas pairs withC
 In RNA U replacedT
 RNAIs a single nucleic acid strand that does not form a helix
 DNA stores the direction that buildsProteins
 An organisms DNA isits genotype
 An organisms genotype dictates itsPhenotype
 DNA specifys phenotypes (proteins) by way of two stagesTranscription and Translation
 TranscriptionThe synthesis of RNA froM DNA that occurs in the cells nucleus
 TranslationThe synthesis of proteings from RNA it occurs in the cells cytoplasms
 RNA Codes foramino acids which are the building blocks of proteins
 DNA is transcribed into RNA bycomplementary base pairings This ceaes a single RNA strand
 A triplet of nucleotdes on RNA is calledA codon
 Each codon specifies oneamino acid
 Ribosomes holdboth mRNA and tRNA
 tRNAan "interpreter" between nucleotide language and amino acid language
 tRNA possesses nucleotide triplets calledanticodons that bond to mRNAS codons
 tRNA also carriesthe appropriate amino acid
 Genetic information ina cell flows fromDNA TO RNA TO PROTEIN (Genotype to Phenotype)
 After sperm and egg undergo fertilization they formA zygote (only one cell)
 Multicellularaving multiple types of cells doing specific jobs
 All cells that make up organism have the samechromosome number and composition (each cell has identical DNA)
 How are the cells different if they have the same DNA

specific geners are expressed in specific cells. This makes certain cell tpes different than others resulting in cellular differentiation.

 Each cell although different has the same set of Dna however each cell has different genes expressed

 Each cell although different has the same set ofDNA however each cell has different genes epressed
 Bacteria (prokaryotes) are unicellular and therefore don not exhibitcellular differentiation ( because they are only one cell)
 Bacteria do regulate gene expression in response toenviornmental changes
 Nuclear Transplantion

Cloning is accomplished by way of nuclear transplantation

The nucleus of an egg cell (gamete) is removed and replaced with the nucleus of a somatic cell from a donor organism

 Reproductive cloning results in an entire newanimal or plant
 Reproductive cloning is usedIn agriculture and pharmaceuticals to produce large numbers of plants and animals with desirable traits. To increase the population sizes of endangered species
 Therapeutic Cloning

Results in embryonic stem cells

Embryonic stem cells have not yet been differentiated

They can be induced to differentiat into any type of speciic cells

Therapeutic cloning is used to grow cells for the repair of injured or diseased tissues and organs

 

 Cancer

A disease of a control system

cells divide uncontrollably and the control sstem genes are expressed at unusually high levels

 Proto-oncogenescode for proteins that enable the cell to divid3e
 Tumor Supressed genescode for proteins that keep the cell from dividing excessively
 Mutations

nucleotide sequence changes

when mutated proto oncogenes cause the cell to divide much more rapdily than normal

mutated tumor suppressor genes cannot stop the cell from dividing

 A mass cancerous cells is called a

Tumor

tumors disrupt the normal functioning of the organs on which they develop

 A benign tumorone in which the cancerous cells remain in theri original locaqtion
 A malignant tumorone in which the cancer cells spread to other parts of the body
 MetasisThe spreading of cancer cells
 Any cancer causing agent is calledCarcinogen
 An organism that carries recombinant DNA is calleda trangenetic organism
 What is the most common transgenetic organismBACTERIA
 In addition to their nucleoid bacteria possess smaller DNA molecules calledplasmids
 Restriction EnzymesCut the genes
 DNA ligasejoins the genes together
 The first pharmaceutical product produced by recombinant DNA technology washumulin
 Crops have been genetically modified to resistinfestation or to become more nutritious
 ForensicsThe sientific analysis of evidence from crime scenes
 PCR(polymerise chain reaction) is a procedure using a polymerase enzyme to exponentiall copy DNA into a high concentration that can be analzed (forensics)
 STRthe area of DNA where restrictions enzymes cut which is unique to each individual
 Because everybody has different locations of STRS on the DNA their DNA would be cut at different lengths different than other individualsmaking their DNA fragments different in length
 Gel Electrophoresisis used to sort DNA fragments based on their size
 Shorter DNA fragments movefaster and longer dna fragments move slower
 DNA is ____ chargednegatively so it migrates to the positive cathode in gel electrophresis
 DNA migraes according tosize
 Each individual tested would have a unique set ofDNA BANDS
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