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Exam 2 - Flashcards

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Class:BIO 1404 - Biosciences I
Subject:Biology
University:University of Texas - San Antonio
Term:Fall 2010
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Clathrin-coated pits are structures associated with Receptor-mediated endocytosis
During aerobic cellular respiration,a proton gradient in mito will be: generated by THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN and used primarily for ATP SYNTHESIS.
Reddish-yellow leaves. Which wavelengths are NOT being absorbed by pigment Red & yellow
Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis: fix carbon dioxide
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FADH2 contributes to the generation of ___ ATP: 2
NADH contributes to the generation of ___ ATP: 3
The final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is: O2
Active Transport This process explains the movement of molecules against a concentration gradient.
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Simple Diffusion A.K.A.- Molecular diffusion the thermal motion of all particles at temperatures above absolute zero.
Exocytosis -Large protein
Osmosis
Endocytosis
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Facilitated Diffusion
Similarities between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Plasma membrane Cytoplasmic interior Ribosomes
Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
In what respect are the photosynthetic adaptations of C4 and CAM plants similar?: In both, an ENZYME OTHER THAN RUBISCO carries out the first step in carbon fixation.
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C4
CAM
Co-transport The simultaneous or sequential passive transfer of molecules or ions across biological membranes in a fixed ratio.
During chemiosmosis ATP synthase is involved in which type of transport? facilitated diffusion
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Facilitated Diffusion -Net movement of a molecule by this requires: --a protein carrier --a concentration gradient of the molecule
The least likely effect of a drug that binds to and inactivates oxaloacetate?: Prevent the cleavage of glucose into pyruvate
Krebs Cycle -a.k.a.: The citric acid cycle -a series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions, which is of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration. -Produces CO2 -Produces ATP -Occurs at mitochondrial matrix
Functional groups that covalently join a fatty acid to a glycerol hydroxyl and carboxyl
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Factors that directly affect rate of diffusion in an aqueous solution: -Size of diffusing particles -Concentration gradient -Charge of particles -Temperature of the solution
Phosphofructokinase Enzyme -Inhibited by citrate -Inhibited by ATP -It is an Allosteric enzyme
Chloroplast -ATP is formed by chemiosmosis -Calvin-Benson cycle occurs in stroma -Thykaloid membrane contains chlorophyll -Contains the protein rubisco
Chemiosmosis -in Chloroplasts: establishment of a proton gradient
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Gap Junction
Microtubule
Desmosomes
Tight Junction
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Plasmodesmata
Functions of plasma membrane proteins: -Cell-cell recognition -Signal transduction -Intercellular joining -Transport
# of phospholipid bilayers an O2 molecule crosses to go from origin--->matrix of mitchondrion? 5
Phospholipids Contain glycerol linked to two fatty acids (lipid bilayer)
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Enzymes: -Biological catalysts -Specific for a particular substrate -Speed up reactions -Have an active site where catalysis occurs
ATP is formed: During light-dependent cyclic pathway of photosynthesis
Active site of enzyme is the region that can bind: -Competitive inhibitor -The substrate
1st law of thermodynamics -principle of conservation of energy. (ENERGY CAN NEITHER BE CREATED NOR DESTROYED)
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2nd law of thermodynamics - No reaction ia 100% efficient - The entropy of the universe is always increasing - In every reaction, some energy must be lost as heat - For a spontaneously occurring reaction, the energy gained by the PRODUCTS is always LESS THAN the energy lost by the REACTANTS
3rd law of thermodynamics
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have in common: -ATP is produced -DNA is present -Ribosomes are present
Most common form of low-quality energy released in energy conversion: Heat
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"9+2" refers to: cilia and flagella
Compounds associated with Aerobic Respiration: Glucose ---> Pyruvate ---> Acetol-CoA ---> Citrate ELECTRON SEQUENCE: Glucose --> Pyruvate ---> ATP ---> Oxygen
ATP energizes a cellular process by: direct chemical transfer of a PHOSPHATE GROUP
Microfilaments play a role in: - Ameboid movement - Formation of the cleavage furrow between dividing cells - Contracting of muscle cells
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Catabolic Pathways: RELEASE energy as they DEGRADE POLYMERS TO MONOMERS
Final protein modification occurs in: Golgi Apparatus
Result of this rxn: C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced
In a chemical rxn, transition-state species have freee energies: HIGHER than reactants but LOWER than products
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Flow of electrons during Photosynthesis: H2O ---> NADPH ---> Calvin Cycle
Oxygen released in photosynthesis comes from: Water
Anabolic Pathways: CONSUME energy to BUILD UP POLYMERS from MONOMERS
Cellular respiration harvests most chemical energy from: substrate-level phosphorylation
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Enzyme location in autotrophic bacteria that can carry on organic synthesis: free in cytosol
When glucose molecule loses H+ as result of oxidation reduction rxn, molecule becomes dehydronated
Enzyme-catalyzed rxns: the rxn is faster than the same rxn in the absence of the enzyme
Water passes quickly through cell membranes because: it is a small, polar, charged molecule
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abnormal microtubules- which organs/tissues would dysfunction?: sperm larynx trachea
Glycolysis- for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate: 2 ATP used 2 ATP produced
relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?: photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules respiration releases the energy and produces ATP
White blood cells engulf bacteria though what process?: phagocytosis
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What makes one amino acid different from another? different side chains (R groups) attached to an alpha carbon.
Fermentation results in the production of: ATP CO2 Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
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 Clathrin-coated pits are structures associated withReceptor-mediated endocytosis
 During aerobic cellular respiration,a proton gradient in mito will be:generated by THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN and used primarily for ATP SYNTHESIS.
  Reddish-yellow leaves. Which wavelengths are NOT being absorbed by pigmentRed & yellow
 Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis:fix carbon dioxide
 FADH2 contributes to the generation of ___ ATP:2
 NADH contributes to the generation of ___ ATP:3
 The final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is:O2
 Active TransportThis process explains the movement of molecules against a concentration gradient.
 Simple DiffusionA.K.A.- Molecular diffusion

the thermal motion of all particles at temperatures above absolute zero.
 Exocytosis-Large protein
 Osmosis 
 Endocytosis 
 Facilitated Diffusion 
 Similarities between Prokaryotes and EukaryotesPlasma membrane
Cytoplasmic interior
Ribosomes
 Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes 
 In what respect are the photosynthetic adaptations of C4 and CAM plants similar?:In both, an ENZYME OTHER THAN RUBISCO carries out the first step in carbon fixation.
 C4 
 CAM 
 Co-transportThe simultaneous or sequential passive transfer of molecules or ions across biological membranes in a fixed ratio.
 During chemiosmosis ATP synthase is involved in which type of transport?facilitated diffusion
 Facilitated Diffusion-Net movement of a molecule by this requires:
--a protein carrier
--a concentration gradient of the molecule
 The least likely effect of a drug that binds to and inactivates oxaloacetate?:Prevent the cleavage of glucose into pyruvate
 Krebs Cycle-a.k.a.: The citric acid cycle
-a series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions, which is of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration.

-Produces CO2

-Produces ATP

-Occurs at mitochondrial matrix
 Functional groups that covalently join a fatty acid to a glycerolhydroxyl and carboxyl
 Factors that directly affect rate of diffusion in an aqueous solution:-Size of diffusing particles

-Concentration gradient

-Charge of particles

-Temperature of the solution
 Phosphofructokinase Enzyme-Inhibited by citrate

-Inhibited by ATP

-It is an Allosteric enzyme
 Chloroplast-ATP is formed by chemiosmosis

-Calvin-Benson cycle occurs in stroma

-Thykaloid membrane contains chlorophyll

-Contains the protein rubisco
 Chemiosmosis-in Chloroplasts: establishment of a proton gradient
 Gap Junction 
 Microtubule 
 Desmosomes 
 Tight Junction 
 Plasmodesmata 
 Functions of plasma membrane proteins:-Cell-cell recognition

-Signal transduction

-Intercellular joining

-Transport
 # of phospholipid bilayers an O2 molecule crosses to go from origin--->matrix of mitchondrion?5
 PhospholipidsContain glycerol linked to two fatty acids (lipid bilayer)
 Enzymes:-Biological catalysts

-Specific for a particular substrate

-Speed up reactions

-Have an active site where catalysis occurs
 ATP is formed:During light-dependent cyclic pathway of photosynthesis
 Active site of enzyme is the region that can bind:-Competitive inhibitor

-The substrate
 1st law of thermodynamics-principle of conservation of energy. (ENERGY CAN NEITHER BE CREATED NOR DESTROYED)
 2nd law of thermodynamics- No reaction ia 100% efficient

- The entropy of the universe is always increasing

- In every reaction, some energy must be lost as heat

- For a spontaneously occurring reaction, the energy gained by the PRODUCTS is always LESS THAN the energy lost by the REACTANTS
 3rd law of thermodynamics 
 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have in common:-ATP is produced

-DNA is present

-Ribosomes are present
 Most common form of low-quality energy released in energy conversion:Heat
 "9+2" refers to:cilia and flagella
 Compounds associated with Aerobic Respiration:Glucose ---> Pyruvate ---> Acetol-CoA ---> Citrate

ELECTRON SEQUENCE:
Glucose --> Pyruvate ---> ATP ---> Oxygen
 ATP energizes a cellular process by:direct chemical transfer of a PHOSPHATE GROUP
 Microfilaments play a role in:- Ameboid movement

- Formation of the cleavage furrow between dividing cells

- Contracting of muscle cells
 Catabolic Pathways:RELEASE energy as they DEGRADE POLYMERS TO MONOMERS
 Final protein modification occurs in:Golgi Apparatus
 Result of this rxn: C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGYC6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced
 In a chemical rxn, transition-state species have freee energies:HIGHER than reactants
but
LOWER than products
 Flow of electrons during Photosynthesis:H2O ---> NADPH ---> Calvin Cycle
 Oxygen released in photosynthesis comes from:Water
 Anabolic Pathways:CONSUME energy to BUILD UP POLYMERS from MONOMERS
 Cellular respiration harvests most chemical energy from:substrate-level phosphorylation
 Enzyme location in autotrophic bacteria that can carry on organic synthesis:free in cytosol
 When glucose molecule loses H+ as result of oxidation reduction rxn, molecule becomesdehydronated
 Enzyme-catalyzed rxns:the rxn is faster than the same rxn in the absence of the enzyme
 Water passes quickly through cell membranes because:it is a small, polar, charged molecule
 abnormal microtubules- which organs/tissues would dysfunction?:sperm
larynx
trachea
 Glycolysis- for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate:2 ATP used
2 ATP produced
 relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?:photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules

respiration releases the energy and produces ATP
 White blood cells engulf bacteria though what process?:phagocytosis
 What makes one amino acid different from another?different side chains (R groups) attached to an alpha carbon.
 Fermentation results in the production of:ATP
CO2
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
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