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Class:BIO 2111 - Human Physiology Laboratory
Subject:Biology
University:University of Texas - San Antonio
Term:Fall 2013
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Respiratory anatomy from nostrils all the way through the alveoli

  Nose   

Pharynx (Throat)   

Larynx (Voice Box)

Trachea (Windpipe)  

Primary Bronchi   

Teritiary Bronchi

Bronchioles

Terminal Bronchioles   

Respiratory Bronchioles -> Alveoli

Surfactant A phospholipid released by septal cells - reduces the surface tension of alveoli - if surfactant is not produced alveoli will not stay open  

o   Keeps Alveoli from collapsing

Isometric Contractions -Stabilize some joints as others are moved. Flexing but not moving . Not getting longer or shorter(Plank, squats, holding grocery bags) Important for maintaining postutre and spporting objects in a fixed position.
Isotonic Contractions

-are used for body movements and for moving external objects

 

2 types- Concentric Isotonic

              Eccentric Isotonic.

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Concentric Isotonic Muscleshortens and pull on another structure such as tendon to produce movement and to reduce the angle at a joint.  Picking a book from the table as an example of  (Involving the biceps brachii muscle in the arm and getting shorter)
Eccentric Isotonic When the overall length of a muscle increases during a     contraction. (repeated contractions produce muscle damage and soreness, gets longer)
Atrioventricular Valves

   Tricuspid Valve: located between the right atrium and the right ventricle

   Bicuspid (mitral) valve: located between the left atrium and left ventricle

Semilunar Valves

   Aortic valve: guards the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta

   Pulmonary valve: guards the opening between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk

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Systole & Diastole

o   Systole: ventricular contraction (numerator)

o   Diastole: ventricular relaxation (denominator)

Sacromere

o   Basic Contractile unit of a muscle fiber

o   Site where contraction occurs

o   Smallest contractile unit of the muscle

o   When muscle fiber is stimulated, sacromeres shorten according to sliding filament model

Path of blood through the heart. Ex. deoxygenated blood retuning from body enters right atria..

o   Superior and Inferior Vena Cava à Right Atrium à Tricuspid Valve à Right Ventricle à Pulmonary Semilunar Valve à Pulmonary Trunk à Pulmonary Capillaries à Four Pulmonary Veins à Left Atrium à Mitral Valve à Left Ventricle à Aortic Semilunar Valve à Aorta

Temporal Summation

-Changing frequency of stimulation

- A second stimulus is delivered before the sarcomere has a time to relax increases the strength of contraction in two ways

  1.Increase in absolute [Ca++], 2nd stimulus arrives before full uptake of ion completed

  2.Elastic elements of the muscle haven’t completely relaxed, force of subsequent contractions translated to contraction more efficiently.

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Recruitment

- Changing strength of stimulus

   Increased number of motor units involvedà increased strength of muscle contraction.

   Naturally done by conscious direction of the brain.

Alkalosis (Basic)

 

 

o   Increase in Ph, Decrease in H+

   H2CO3 à  H+ + HCO3-

   Hyperventilation- Blow off CO2

   Right to Left

 

Acidosis

o   Decrease in Ph, Increase in H+

        H+ + HCO3-  àH2CO3   

   Hypoventialation- Gain more CO2

   Left to Right

Hydroxide

o   Increases alkalinity of a solution, Decreases acidicity

   Takes in H+, Increasing PH

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Hydrogen

o   Increases Acidity, Decreases Alkalinity

   Releases H+, Decreasing PH

What causes the normal color of urine        

o   Urine is usually clear and pale and yellow due to the presence of Urochrome-a pigment metabolite


o   Draw a spirometry chart and label the different capacities and volumes.  Be able to calculate of respiratory volumes and lung capacities

Lobes and membranes associated with Lungs

Lungs lie in the thorax or chest cavity.

The lungs are covered by  PLEURAL MEMBRANE visceral pleura covers the lungs.

Parietal pleura is attached to the thoracic wall.

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Pleural Cavity

The potential space between the layers

-Contains a lubricating fluid.

-This cavity is very important for respiration (the pressure is always sub atm).

Constituents of Urine

o   Urea

o   Phosphate

o   Potassium

o   Water

o   Sodium

o   Sulfate ions (Creatinine and Uric Acid)

Skeletal Muscle

o   Skeletal Muscle

o   Long and voluntary-conscious control

o   Striated and multinucleated

Smooth Muscle

o   Short and involuntary

o   Uninucleate

o   Associated with organs e.g. GI motility and blood vessel constriction

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Cardiac Muscle

o   Involuntary-myocardium

o    striated and uninucleated  

Contraction of Muscles
Cross-bridging: binding of myosin head to active sites of actin After Ca2+ binding to troponinàmoves tropomyosin so binding site I exposed
Power Stroke:the myosin pullls the actin filaments past itself Actin binding promotes ATPàADP + Pi
   -Dissociation: of myosin head from actin binding site

o   Needs ATP

-Preparation of myosin head: ATP hydrolysis occurs immediately, causing the myosin head to become cocked. Another cycle begins when the myosin head binds to another actin binding site.  
Bradychardia

o   slow heartbeat; less QRS complexes seen; heart rate = <60 bpm

In athletes bradycardia may be normal!

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Trachycardia

o   fast heartbeat; more QRS complexes seen; heart rate = 100-160 bpm

Atrial Fibrillation atria very irritable causing them to depolarize, quiver, rapidly and repeatedly
Ventricular Fibrillation  a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly
Tidal volume,TV: the amount of air inhaled or exhaled in a normal quiet breath. About 500ml.
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Inspiratory Reserve Volume, IRV The amount of air inhaled or above normal quiet inspiration.About 3300ml.
Expiration Reserve Volume, ERV:

o   the amount of air exhaled after a normal quiet expiration.

Residual Volume, RV : the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a complete exhalation. The air remains in the airways and air spaces of the lungs
Inspiratory Capacity, IC

o   : the amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal quiet expiration. IC = TV + IRV

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Vital Capacity, VT

the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation. VC = ERV + IRV + TV or VC = ERV + IC.

Expiratory capacity + expitatory reserve

Total Lung Capacity,TLC maximum amount of air contained in the lung after a maximum inhalation.  TLC = RV + ERV + TV + IRV or TLC = RV + VC
Functional Reserve Volume, FRC amount of air in the lungs after a normal quiet expiration. FRC = RV +  ERV
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 Respiratory anatomy from nostrils all the way through the alveoli

  Nose   

Pharynx (Throat)   

Larynx (Voice Box)

Trachea (Windpipe)  

Primary Bronchi   

Teritiary Bronchi

Bronchioles

Terminal Bronchioles   

Respiratory Bronchioles -> Alveoli

 Surfactant A phospholipid released by septal cells - reduces the surface tension of alveoli - if surfactant is not produced alveoli will not stay open  

o   Keeps Alveoli from collapsing

 Isometric Contractions-Stabilize some joints as others are moved. Flexing but not moving . Not getting longer or shorter(Plank, squats, holding grocery bags) Important for maintaining postutre and spporting objects in a fixed position.
 Isotonic Contractions

-are used for body movements and for moving external objects

 

2 types- Concentric Isotonic

              Eccentric Isotonic.

 Concentric IsotonicMuscleshortens and pull on another structure such as tendon to produce movement and to reduce the angle at a joint.  Picking a book from the table as an example of  (Involving the biceps brachii muscle in the arm and getting shorter)
 Eccentric IsotonicWhen the overall length of a muscle increases during a     contraction. (repeated contractions produce muscle damage and soreness, gets longer)
 Atrioventricular Valves

   Tricuspid Valve: located between the right atrium and the right ventricle

   Bicuspid (mitral) valve: located between the left atrium and left ventricle

 Semilunar Valves

   Aortic valve: guards the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta

   Pulmonary valve: guards the opening between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk

 Systole & Diastole

o   Systole: ventricular contraction (numerator)

o   Diastole: ventricular relaxation (denominator)

 Sacromere

o   Basic Contractile unit of a muscle fiber

o   Site where contraction occurs

o   Smallest contractile unit of the muscle

o   When muscle fiber is stimulated, sacromeres shorten according to sliding filament model

 Path of blood through the heart. Ex. deoxygenated blood retuning from body enters right atria..

o   Superior and Inferior Vena Cava à Right Atrium à Tricuspid Valve à Right Ventricle à Pulmonary Semilunar Valve à Pulmonary Trunk à Pulmonary Capillaries à Four Pulmonary Veins à Left Atrium à Mitral Valve à Left Ventricle à Aortic Semilunar Valve à Aorta

 Temporal Summation

-Changing frequency of stimulation

- A second stimulus is delivered before the sarcomere has a time to relax increases the strength of contraction in two ways

  1.Increase in absolute [Ca++], 2nd stimulus arrives before full uptake of ion completed

  2.Elastic elements of the muscle haven’t completely relaxed, force of subsequent contractions translated to contraction more efficiently.

 Recruitment

- Changing strength of stimulus

   Increased number of motor units involvedà increased strength of muscle contraction.

   Naturally done by conscious direction of the brain.

 Alkalosis (Basic)

 

 

o   Increase in Ph, Decrease in H+

   H2CO3 à  H+ + HCO3-

   Hyperventilation- Blow off CO2

   Right to Left

 

 Acidosis

o   Decrease in Ph, Increase in H+

        H+ + HCO3-  àH2CO3   

   Hypoventialation- Gain more CO2

   Left to Right

 Hydroxide

o   Increases alkalinity of a solution, Decreases acidicity

   Takes in H+, Increasing PH

 Hydrogen

o   Increases Acidity, Decreases Alkalinity

   Releases H+, Decreasing PH

 What causes the normal color of urine        

o   Urine is usually clear and pale and yellow due to the presence of Urochrome-a pigment metabolite

  

o   Draw a spirometry chart and label the different capacities and volumes.  Be able to calculate of respiratory volumes and lung capacities

 Lobes and membranes associated with Lungs

Lungs lie in the thorax or chest cavity.

The lungs are covered by  PLEURAL MEMBRANE visceral pleura covers the lungs.

Parietal pleura is attached to the thoracic wall.

 Pleural Cavity

The potential space between the layers

-Contains a lubricating fluid.

-This cavity is very important for respiration (the pressure is always sub atm).

 Constituents of Urine

o   Urea

o   Phosphate

o   Potassium

o   Water

o   Sodium

o   Sulfate ions (Creatinine and Uric Acid)

 Skeletal Muscle

o   Skeletal Muscle

o   Long and voluntary-conscious control

o   Striated and multinucleated

 Smooth Muscle

o   Short and involuntary

o   Uninucleate

o   Associated with organs e.g. GI motility and blood vessel constriction

 Cardiac Muscle

o   Involuntary-myocardium

o    striated and uninucleated  

 Contraction of Muscles
Cross-bridging: binding of myosin head to active sites of actin After Ca2+ binding to troponinàmoves tropomyosin so binding site I exposed
Power Stroke:the myosin pullls the actin filaments past itself Actin binding promotes ATPàADP + Pi
  
   -Dissociation: of myosin head from actin binding site

o   Needs ATP

-Preparation of myosin head: ATP hydrolysis occurs immediately, causing the myosin head to become cocked. Another cycle begins when the myosin head binds to another actin binding site.  
 Bradychardia

o   slow heartbeat; less QRS complexes seen; heart rate = <60 bpm

In athletes bradycardia may be normal!

 Trachycardia

o   fast heartbeat; more QRS complexes seen; heart rate = 100-160 bpm

 Atrial Fibrillation atria very irritable causing them to depolarize, quiver, rapidly and repeatedly
 Ventricular Fibrillation a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly
 Tidal volume,TV:the amount of air inhaled or exhaled in a normal quiet breath. About 500ml.
 Inspiratory Reserve Volume, IRVThe amount of air inhaled or above normal quiet inspiration.About 3300ml.
 Expiration Reserve Volume, ERV:

o   the amount of air exhaled after a normal quiet expiration.

 Residual Volume, RV: the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a complete exhalation. The air remains in the airways and air spaces of the lungs
 Inspiratory Capacity, IC

o   : the amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal quiet expiration. IC = TV + IRV

 Vital Capacity, VT

the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation. VC = ERV + IRV + TV or VC = ERV + IC.

Expiratory capacity + expitatory reserve

 Total Lung Capacity,TLCmaximum amount of air contained in the lung after a maximum inhalation.  TLC = RV + ERV + TV + IRV or TLC = RV + VC
 Functional Reserve Volume, FRCamount of air in the lungs after a normal quiet expiration. FRC = RV +  ERV
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