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Final Exam - Flashcards

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Class:BIO 2111 - Human Physiology Laboratory
Subject:Biology
University:University of Texas - San Antonio
Term:Fall 2011
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Atrioventricular Valve (mitral and tricuspid valves) prevent backflow of blood into the atrium during ventricular contraction. The closure of these valves is softer and slower than that of the semilunar valves
Semilunar Valves (aortic and pulmonary prevent backflow of blood from the aorta to the ventricle and snap shut at the end of ventricular contraction. Since the ejection velocity of blood during ventricular contraction is large, the valves close much more rapidly than the AV valves
Fibrillation rapid uncoordinated heart contractions. Makes the heart useless as a pump
Bradycardia is a heart rate below 60 ( decrease in heart rate) . Individuals feels loss of energy, fainting and weakness.
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Tachycardia a heart rate greater than 100 (increase heart rate). Individuals feels breathlessness and lightheadedness.
P wave Atrial depolarization
QRS Complex Ventricular Depolarization
T Wave Ventricular Repolarization
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sphygmomanometer Blood Pressure Cuff
Systolic Pressure the pressure that corresponds to the hearts contraction
Diastolic Pressure the pressure when the heart’s ventricles are relaxed between beats and are filled with blood
Isometric Contractions  
stabilize some joints as others are moved.
Important for maintaining posture and for supporting objects in a fixed position.
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Isotonic Contractions are used for body movements and for moving external objects.
Concentric isotonic contraction

muscle shortens and pull on another structure such as tendon to produce movement and to reduce the angle at a joint

 

Ex. Involving the biceps brachii muscle in the arm

Eccentric isotonic contraction

when the overall length of a muscle increases during a contraction.

 

Ex. produces muscle damage and soreness

Urochrome Urine is generally clear and pale yellow due to this pigment metabolite
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Glycosuria the presence of glucose in the urine greater than 100mg/100ml of blood; .
Albuminuria the presence of albumin in the urine.
Bilirubinuria the presence of bile pigments, (bilirubin), in the urine.
Casts presence of hardened cell fragments in urine.
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Hematuria the presence of RBC’s in the urine.
Hemoglobinuria the presence of hemoglobin in the urine.
Pyuria the presence of WBC’s or other pus constituents in the urine.
Ketonuria the presence of ketone bodies, (products of fat metabolism), in excessive amounts in the urine.
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Normal Constituentes of Urine  
—Normal : in order of decreasing concentration
—water, urea,sodium, potassium
—phosphate
—sulfate ions (creatinine and uric acid)
—Abnormal:  Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, and leukocytes.
Parietal Plura is attached to the thoracic wall.
Plueral Cavity contains a lubricating fluid. This cavity is very important for respiration (the pressure is always sub atm
Visceral Plueral Covers the lungs
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Surfacant

reduces surface tension in the alveoli. Also found in the wall are alveolar macrophages and monocytes

 

 

 

The septal cells are interspersed and produce this substance

Surfacant a phospholipid released by septal cells - reduces the surface tension of alveoli
Atelecasis the elasticity of alveoli would cause the collapse of air sacs and perhaps the lung
Intraplural pressure this pressure is always negative
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Compliance  

is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic walls expand. This depends on elastic fibers and

surface tension
Expiration  

This is the reverse of inspiration but is passive. Respiratory muscles relax - thoracic cavity is reduced in size.

Pressure increases - air goes from higher pressure to lower and leaves the lungs.

Diaphragm  

which flattens out and the external intercostal muscles which raises

the ribs and pushes the sternum out. In forced inspiration other muscles also participate
Inspiration in order to breath, one must inhale (or inspire) - which is the process of getting air into the lungs.
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Atmospheric pressure is 760 mmHg
Total Lung Capacity maximum amount of air contained in the lung after a maximum inhalation.  = RV + ERV + TV + IRV or = RV + VC
Inspiratory Reserve Volume The amount of air inhaled or above normal quiet inspiration.About 3300ml.
Expiratory Reserve Volume the amount of air exhaled after a normal quiet expiration.
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Residual Volume the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a complete exhalation. The air remains in the airways and air spaces of the lungs.
Expiratory Reserve Volume = FRC - RV
Inspiratory Reserve Volume = IC -- TV
Depolarization of AP  

Voltage gated sodium channels open

Sodium flows in towards its equilibrium potential

about +40mV

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Repolarization of AP  

slowly opens another set of voltage gated potassium channels

they let potassium out and rapidly hyperpolarise the cell - there is so much potassium flooding out that it actually takes it past -70mv and hyperpolarises it in the overshoot.

Resting Membrance Potential Eventually both sets of voltage dependent channels shut and you are back to this
Carbonic acid bicarbonate Buffering system maintains physiological blood pH.  (~7.2)
Alkalosis

 Blood too basic

[H+] too low in plasma

 

 

H2CO3  ->        H+ + HCO3-

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Acidosis

 Blood too acidic

H+] too high in plasma

 

H+ + HCO3-  ->        H2CO3

Acidosis Due to hypoventilation
Alkalosis Due to hyperventilation
Chloride Shift is a process which occurs in a cardiovascular system and refers to the exchange of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and chloride (Cl-) across the membrane of red blood cells
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Sarcomere  is the basic unit of a muscle
Glycosuria can be caused by excessive carbohydrates in the system or pathologically by uncontrolled diabetes.
Albuminuria Can be caused by excessive exertion, pregnancy, or high protein intake into the body system or pathologically by kidney trauma due to blows, ingestion of heavy metals, bacteria toxins, hypertension and glomerulonephritis.
Bilirubinuria This indicates liver pathology such as hepatitis or cirrhosis.
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Casts  are findings with pyelonephritis and RBC are findings with glomerulonephritis.
Hematuria Infection or trauma to the urinary organs is a major cause.
Hemoglobinuria Results from fragmentation or hemolysis of RBC’s. Pathological conditions include: burns, renal disease , hemolytic anemias and blood transfusion reactions.
Pyuria Indicative of urinary tract inflammation
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Ketonuria This is indicative of abnormal metabolism resulting in acidosis and its complications
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Atrioventricular Valve (mitral and tricuspid valves)prevent backflow of blood into the atrium during ventricular contraction. The closure of these valves is softer and slower than that of the semilunar valves
 Semilunar Valves (aortic and pulmonaryprevent backflow of blood from the aorta to the ventricle and snap shut at the end of ventricular contraction. Since the ejection velocity of blood during ventricular contraction is large, the valves close much more rapidly than the AV valves
 Fibrillationrapid uncoordinated heart contractions. Makes the heart useless as a pump
 Bradycardiais a heart rate below 60 ( decrease in heart rate) . Individuals feels loss of energy, fainting and weakness.
 Tachycardiaa heart rate greater than 100 (increase heart rate). Individuals feels breathlessness and lightheadedness.
 P waveAtrial depolarization
 QRS ComplexVentricular Depolarization
 T WaveVentricular Repolarization
 sphygmomanometerBlood Pressure Cuff
 Systolic Pressurethe pressure that corresponds to the hearts contraction
 Diastolic Pressurethe pressure when the heart’s ventricles are relaxed between beats and are filled with blood
 Isometric Contractions 
stabilize some joints as others are moved.
Important for maintaining posture and for supporting objects in a fixed position.
 Isotonic Contractionsare used for body movements and for moving external objects.
 Concentric isotonic contraction

muscle shortens and pull on another structure such as tendon to produce movement and to reduce the angle at a joint

 

Ex. Involving the biceps brachii muscle in the arm

 Eccentric isotonic contraction

when the overall length of a muscle increases during a contraction.

 

Ex. produces muscle damage and soreness

 UrochromeUrine is generally clear and pale yellow due to this pigment metabolite
 Glycosuriathe presence of glucose in the urine greater than 100mg/100ml of blood; .
 Albuminuriathe presence of albumin in the urine.
 Bilirubinuriathe presence of bile pigments, (bilirubin), in the urine.
 Castspresence of hardened cell fragments in urine.
 Hematuriathe presence of RBC’s in the urine.
 Hemoglobinuriathe presence of hemoglobin in the urine.
 Pyuriathe presence of WBC’s or other pus constituents in the urine.
 Ketonuriathe presence of ketone bodies, (products of fat metabolism), in excessive amounts in the urine.
 Normal Constituentes of Urine 
—Normal : in order of decreasing concentration
—water, urea,sodium, potassium
—phosphate
—sulfate ions (creatinine and uric acid)
—Abnormal:  Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, and leukocytes.
 Parietal Plurais attached to the thoracic wall.
 Plueral Cavitycontains a lubricating fluid. This cavity is very important for respiration (the pressure is always sub atm
 Visceral PlueralCovers the lungs
 Surfacant

reduces surface tension in the alveoli. Also found in the wall are alveolar macrophages and monocytes

 

 

 

The septal cells are interspersed and produce this substance

 Surfacanta phospholipid released by septal cells - reduces the surface tension of alveoli
 Atelecasisthe elasticity of alveoli would cause the collapse of air sacs and perhaps the lung
 Intraplural pressurethis pressure is always negative
 Compliance 

is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic walls expand. This depends on elastic fibers and

surface tension
 Expiration 

This is the reverse of inspiration but is passive. Respiratory muscles relax - thoracic cavity is reduced in size.

Pressure increases - air goes from higher pressure to lower and leaves the lungs.

 Diaphragm 

which flattens out and the external intercostal muscles which raises

the ribs and pushes the sternum out. In forced inspiration other muscles also participate
 Inspirationin order to breath, one must inhale (or inspire) - which is the process of getting air into the lungs.
 Atmospheric pressureis 760 mmHg
 Total Lung Capacitymaximum amount of air contained in the lung after a maximum inhalation.  = RV + ERV + TV + IRV or = RV + VC
 Inspiratory Reserve VolumeThe amount of air inhaled or above normal quiet inspiration.About 3300ml.
 Expiratory Reserve Volumethe amount of air exhaled after a normal quiet expiration.
 Residual Volumethe amount of air remaining in the lungs after a complete exhalation. The air remains in the airways and air spaces of the lungs.
 Expiratory Reserve Volume= FRC - RV
 Inspiratory Reserve Volume= IC -- TV
 Depolarization of AP 

Voltage gated sodium channels open

Sodium flows in towards its equilibrium potential

about +40mV

 Repolarization of AP 

slowly opens another set of voltage gated potassium channels

they let potassium out and rapidly hyperpolarise the cell - there is so much potassium flooding out that it actually takes it past -70mv and hyperpolarises it in the overshoot.

 Resting Membrance PotentialEventually both sets of voltage dependent channels shut and you are back to this
 Carbonic acidbicarbonate Buffering system maintains physiological blood pH.  (~7.2)
 Alkalosis

 Blood too basic

[H+] too low in plasma

 

 

H2CO3  ->        H+ + HCO3-

 Acidosis

 Blood too acidic

H+] too high in plasma

 

H+ + HCO3-  ->        H2CO3

 AcidosisDue to hypoventilation
 AlkalosisDue to hyperventilation
 Chloride Shiftis a process which occurs in a cardiovascular system and refers to the exchange of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and chloride (Cl-) across the membrane of red blood cells
 Sarcomere is the basic unit of a muscle
 Glycosuriacan be caused by excessive carbohydrates in the system or pathologically by uncontrolled diabetes.
 AlbuminuriaCan be caused by excessive exertion, pregnancy, or high protein intake into the body system or pathologically by kidney trauma due to blows, ingestion of heavy metals, bacteria toxins, hypertension and glomerulonephritis.
 BilirubinuriaThis indicates liver pathology such as hepatitis or cirrhosis.
 Casts are findings with pyelonephritis and RBC are findings with glomerulonephritis.
 HematuriaInfection or trauma to the urinary organs is a major cause.
 HemoglobinuriaResults from fragmentation or hemolysis of RBC’s. Pathological conditions include: burns, renal disease , hemolytic anemias and blood transfusion reactions.
 PyuriaIndicative of urinary tract inflammation
 KetonuriaThis is indicative of abnormal metabolism resulting in acidosis and its complications
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