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Midterm II - Flashcards

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Class:BIO 001 - Contemporary Biology
Subject:Biological Sciences
University:University of California-Merced
Term:Spring Semester 2010
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Which of the following designates a normal human female? XX
Autosomes An autosome is a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
karyotype is a visual display of chromosomes arranged according to size
Hunington Disease - is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition. -results in progressive deterioration of the nervous system. -often does not show any symptoms until after the child-bearing years. -is caused by an expansion mutation.
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chromosomal abnormality A chromosome anomaly, abnormality or aberration reflects an atypical number of chromosomes or a structural abnormality in one or more chromosomes. Chromosome anomalies usually occur when there is an error in cell division following meiosis or mitosis. There are many types of chromosome anomalies. They can be organized into two basic groups, numerical and structural anomalies.
F2 phenotypic ratio of a dihybrid cross 9:3:3:1
homozygous recessive for both traits aabb-all lower case on punit square
Who proposed the law of independent assortment? Mendel
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incomplete dominance - one allele is not dominant to another allele. - the genotype can be determined by the phenotype. - the heterozygote is somewhat intermediate to the two homozygotes. - the intermediate phenotype may be the result of enzyme insufficiency.
pleiotropic gene Pleiotropy occurs when a single gene influences multiple phenotypic traits.
Linkage group Two genes are on the same chromosome
Sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction is characterized by processes that pass a combination of genetic material to offspring, resulting in increased genetic diversity.
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Essence of meiosis each gamete receives one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes and haploid gametes are formed
Homologous chromosomes -pair up during meiosis. - have alleles for the same characteristics even though the gene expression may not be the same. are in pairs, one chromosome of each pair from the father and one from the mother. - separate from each other during meiosis I.
Sister chromatids 2 identical copies of a chromosome connected by a centromere.
Interphase Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell spends the majority of its time and performs the majority of its purposes including preparation for cell division.
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Prophase Prophase is a stage of mitosis in which the chromatin condenses into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome in which the chromatin becomes visible.
Metaphase Metaphase is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which condensed & highly coiled chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the middle of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.
Anaphase Anaphase is the stage of mitosis when chromosomes separate in a eukaryotic cell.
Telophase Telophase is the end stage in both meiosis and mitosis in a eukaryotic cell.
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Cytokinesis Cytokinesis, is the process in which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell is divided to form two daughter cells.
Meiosis results in Four haploid cells
Polar bodies -are dumping places for excess genetic material. - have no known biological function. - are produced by meiosis.
ATP energy currency of a cell
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what do plants and animals use as their final hydrogen acceptor in cellular respiration oxygen
aerobic respiration Liberates the most energy in the form of ATP
Electron transfer phosphorylation An electron transport chain(ETC) couples a chemical reaction between an electron donor (such as NADH) and an electron acceptor (such as O2) to the transfer of H+ ions across a membrane, through a set of mediating biochemical reactions.
Glycolysis - is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose, C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO + H+. and occurs in the cytoplasm
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How many ATP molecules (net yield) are produced per molecule of glucose degraded during glycolysis? 2
pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis.
mitochondria is where the Krebs cycle takes place
Krebs cycle - is a series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions, which is of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration. - molecules of carbon dioxide are formed. -substrate-level phosphorylation occurs. -oxaloacetate is regenerated. - electrons and H+ are transferred to coenzymes NAD+ and FAD.
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Citrate(in the Krebs cycle) The first intermediate produced after the entry of acetyl-CoA into the Krebs cycle
Oxaloacetate (in the Krebs cycle) The last intermediate produced in the Krebs cycle before the entry of the next acetyl-CoA
electron transfer chain -Located on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. -(ETC) couples a chemical reaction between an electron donor (such as NADH) and an electron acceptor (such as O2) to the transfer of H+ ions across a membrane, through a set of mediating biochemical reactions.
Which ions accumulate in the outer compartment of the mitochondria during electron transport phosphorylation? Hydrogen
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What do bacteria that live in hot springs use as their final hydrogen acceptor? Sulfate
Photoautotrophs -They are responsible for the first concentration of free oxygen in the atmosphere. -They are responsible for an early extinction of most anaerobic organisms. -They are carbon-rich food baskets for heterotrophs. - They are responsible for the red iron deposits on the seafloor.
What happened when free oxygen increased in the early atmosphere? -most anaerobic organisms perished. - anaerobic chemotrophs survived in seafloor sediments. - some chemotrophs began to make their living at hydrothermal vents on the seafloor. - some anaerobic organisms survived in soil.
Heterotrophs (Greek for another nutrition) is an organism that uses organic carbon for growth.
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Animals obtain their energy and carbon from? Compounds produced by autotrophs
Which colors of light has the shortest wavelength? Blue
Chlorophyll reflects which color of light? Green
Photosynthesis - is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight. - Donation of an electron from a photosystem to an acceptor is the first event.
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Thylakoid A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, where chlorophyll can be found in a plant cell.
allosteric activation In biochemistry, allosteric regulation is the regulation of an enzyme or other protein by binding an effector molecule at the protein's allosteric site (that is, a site other than the protein's active site).
first law of thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics, an expression of the principle of conservation of energy, states that energy can be transformed (changed from one form to another), but cannot be created or destroyed, the energy of a system may increase if there is a corresponding decrease in energy elsewhere in the universe, the amount of energy in the universe is constant.
Endergonic reaction In chemical thermodynamics, an endergonic reaction is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.
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Enzyme organic molecules that have special shapes that control their activities that are very specific, that catalyze (increase the rates of) chemical reactions.
Active site of an enzyme is a groove or crevice in the structure of the enzyme complementary to the substrate.
Unsaturated tails of lipids have kinks in them and lessen the interaction between adjacent fat molecules.
Hydrophilic (greek for water friendship) refers to a physical property of a molecule that can transiently bond with water (H2O) through hydrogen bonding.
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Hydrophobic (Greek for water fear) is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is repelled from a mass of water.
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 Which of the following designates a normal human female? XX
 Autosomes An autosome is a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
 karyotypeis a visual display of chromosomes arranged according to size
 Hunington Disease- is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition.
-results in progressive deterioration of the nervous system.
-often does not show any symptoms until after the child-bearing years.
-is caused by an expansion mutation.
 chromosomal abnormalityA chromosome anomaly, abnormality or aberration reflects an atypical number of chromosomes or a structural abnormality in one or more chromosomes. Chromosome anomalies usually occur when there is an error in cell division following meiosis or mitosis. There are many types of chromosome anomalies. They can be organized into two basic groups, numerical and structural anomalies.
 F2 phenotypic ratio of a dihybrid cross9:3:3:1
 homozygous recessive for both traitsaabb-all lower case on punit square
 Who proposed the law of independent assortment?Mendel
 incomplete dominance- one allele is not dominant to another allele.
- the genotype can be determined by the phenotype.
- the heterozygote is somewhat intermediate to the two homozygotes.
- the intermediate phenotype may be the result of enzyme insufficiency.
 pleiotropic genePleiotropy occurs when a single gene influences multiple phenotypic traits.
 Linkage groupTwo genes are on the same chromosome
 Sexual reproductionSexual reproduction is characterized by processes that pass a combination of genetic material to offspring, resulting in increased genetic diversity.
 Essence of meiosiseach gamete receives one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes and haploid gametes are formed
 Homologous chromosomes-pair up during meiosis.
- have alleles for the same characteristics even though the gene expression may not be the same.
are in pairs, one chromosome of each pair from the father and one from the mother.
- separate from each other during meiosis I.
 Sister chromatids2 identical copies of a chromosome connected by a centromere.
 Interphase Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell spends the majority of its time and performs the majority of its purposes including preparation for cell division.
 ProphaseProphase is a stage of mitosis in which the chromatin condenses into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome in which the chromatin becomes visible.
 MetaphaseMetaphase is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which condensed & highly coiled chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the middle of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.
 AnaphaseAnaphase is the stage of mitosis when chromosomes separate in a eukaryotic cell.
 TelophaseTelophase is the end stage in both meiosis and mitosis in a eukaryotic cell.
 CytokinesisCytokinesis, is the process in which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell is divided to form two daughter cells.
 Meiosis results inFour haploid cells
 Polar bodies-are dumping places for excess genetic material.
- have no known biological function.
- are produced by meiosis.
 ATPenergy currency of a cell
 what do plants and animals use as their final hydrogen acceptor in cellular respirationoxygen
 aerobic respirationLiberates the most energy in the form of ATP
 Electron transfer phosphorylationAn electron transport chain(ETC) couples a chemical reaction between an electron donor (such as NADH) and an electron acceptor (such as O2) to the transfer of H+ ions across a membrane, through a set of mediating biochemical reactions.
 Glycolysis- is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose, C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO + H+. and occurs in the cytoplasm
 How many ATP molecules (net yield) are produced per molecule of glucose degraded during glycolysis?2
 pyruvateis the end product of glycolysis.
 mitochondriais where the Krebs cycle takes place
 Krebs cycle- is a series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions, which is of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration.
- molecules of carbon dioxide are formed.
-substrate-level phosphorylation occurs.
-oxaloacetate is regenerated.
- electrons and H+ are transferred to coenzymes NAD+ and FAD.
 Citrate(in the Krebs cycle)The first intermediate produced after the entry of acetyl-CoA into the Krebs cycle
 Oxaloacetate (in the Krebs cycle)The last intermediate produced in the Krebs cycle before the entry of the next acetyl-CoA
 electron transfer chain-Located on the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
-(ETC) couples a chemical reaction between an electron donor (such as NADH) and an electron acceptor (such as O2) to the transfer of H+ ions across a membrane, through a set of mediating biochemical reactions.
 Which ions accumulate in the outer compartment of the mitochondria during electron transport phosphorylation?Hydrogen
 What do bacteria that live in hot springs use as their final hydrogen acceptor?Sulfate
 Photoautotrophs-They are responsible for the first concentration of free oxygen in the atmosphere.
-They are responsible for an early extinction of most anaerobic organisms.
-They are carbon-rich food baskets for heterotrophs.
- They are responsible for the red iron deposits on the seafloor.
 What happened when free oxygen increased in the early atmosphere?-most anaerobic organisms perished.
- anaerobic chemotrophs survived in seafloor sediments.
- some chemotrophs began to make their living at hydrothermal vents on the seafloor.
- some anaerobic organisms survived in soil.
 Heterotrophs(Greek for another nutrition) is an organism that uses organic carbon for growth.
 Animals obtain their energy and carbon from?Compounds produced by autotrophs
 Which colors of light has the shortest wavelength?Blue
 Chlorophyll reflects which color of light?Green
 Photosynthesis- is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight.
- Donation of an electron from a photosystem to an acceptor is the first event.
 ThylakoidA thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, where chlorophyll can be found in a plant cell.
 allosteric activationIn biochemistry, allosteric regulation is the regulation of an enzyme or other protein by binding an effector molecule at the protein's allosteric site (that is, a site other than the protein's active site).
 first law of thermodynamicsThe first law of thermodynamics, an expression of the principle of conservation of energy, states that energy can be transformed (changed from one form to another), but cannot be created or destroyed, the energy of a system may increase if there is a corresponding decrease in energy elsewhere in the universe, the amount of energy in the universe is constant.
 Endergonic reactionIn chemical thermodynamics, an endergonic reaction is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.
 Enzymeorganic molecules that have special shapes that control their activities that are very specific, that catalyze (increase the rates of) chemical reactions.
 Active site of an enzymeis a groove or crevice in the structure of the enzyme complementary to the substrate.
 Unsaturated tails of lipidshave kinks in them and lessen the interaction between adjacent fat molecules.
 Hydrophilic(greek for water friendship) refers to a physical property of a molecule that can transiently bond with water (H2O) through hydrogen bonding.
 Hydrophobic(Greek for water fear) is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is repelled from a mass of water.
   
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