Koofers

Test 2 - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:BIO 1033 - Drugs and Society
Subject:Biology
University:University of Texas - San Antonio
Term:Spring 2010
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
Uppers stimulate; downers depress; all arounders stimulate or depress but generally Distort Perception
Historically, such diverse substances as have been used and abused. amanita mushrooms, belladonna, marijuana, and peyote
Recently, use of LSD, MDMA, and psychedelic mushrooms has increased
Recently, use of LSD, MDMA, and psychedelic mushrooms has increased
Generated by Koofers.com
The main classes of psychedelics are: 1. Indole psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin) 2. Phenylalkylamines (mescaline, "ecstasy") 3. Anticholinergics (belladonna) 4. Others (PCP, etc.) 5. Cannabinols
The problem in determining effects include the lack of scientific documentation of effects because of the illegal status of psychedelics, the lack of standard doses, contamination or misrepresentation.
Psychedelics ___ the functioning of numerous neurotransmitter systems. Alter
Physical effects include increased pulse rate, blood pressure, sweating, nausea, and sensitivity to sensory stimulation.
Generated by Koofers.com
Emotional/mental effects include illusions (mistaken perceptions), delusions (mistaken ideas or beliefs) and hallucinations (sensory experiences not related to reality).
LSD stands for Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
was the first to synthesize this synthetic form of an ergot fungus toxin. He discovered its hallucinogenic properties in 1943 by accident. Dr. Albert Hoffman
In the early 50ís the ___ onducted mind-control and truth serum experiments in a program code-named ____ CIA MK-ULTRA
Generated by Koofers.com
popularized by ___ in the '60's ("Tune in, turn on, drop out") Dr. Timothy Leary
Made illegal on___ under ___ Feb. 1 1966 Federal Drug Abuse Control Amendments
Most LSD is still manufactured in the___ although recently some labs have sprung up in the midwest San Fransico Bay of California
quantities produced are ___ small
Generated by Koofers.com
The nations annual consumption is 11 lbs
synthesis is tedious and dangerous
crystalline lsd is disolved in alcohol and drops are put on blotter paper, pills, powders, microdots. Each drop usually contains 10 to 50 mg
a major bust of rural kansas lab reduced the U.S. supply by 95% prices jumped from $1 $2 a hit to $20
Generated by Koofers.com
Effects of LSD are dose dependent
A lower doses of LSD (30-50 micrograms) act more as a stimulant with mild euphoria(laughter and giddiness)
Larger doses of LSD (150-300 micrograms) produce true hallucinations
LSD stimulates a specific subset of seotonin recpetors the 5HT2A receptors
Generated by Koofers.com
Effects of lsd beging 15 to 60 min after ingestion and peak at 2 to 4 hours and last 6 to 8 hours
___ to psychedelic effects ___ (within a few days) tolerance occurs rapidly
physical effects inculde rises in heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature and dilated pupils
Mental effects a. Sensory distortion including synesthesia (mixing of the senses) b. Dreaminess, depersonalization c. Altered mood, impaired concentration d. Difficulty in expressing oneself e. Loss of judgment; diminishment of self-preservation instincts
Generated by Koofers.com
usually occur with new users who don't know what it expect or experienced users who take too large a dose. Reactions include anxiety, fear, and paranoia. Bad trips (acute anxiety reactions)
Proponents of its use in psychotherapy claim that LSD-induced insights can provide a shortcut through extended psychotherapy.
T or F It is very unusual for the one-time use of LSD to induce a permanent psychotic or schizophrenic disability; however, users with a pre-existing mental illness could aggravate symptoms, or provoke a relapse. TRUE
___ of a bad trip can be triggered by stress or situations that induce anxiety and fear. Flashbacks
Generated by Koofers.com
is the long-term intermittent experience of visual and perceptual disturbances long after LSD has been is gone from the body. Flashbacks and HPPD are more common in regular heavy abusers and may have a strong hereditary component. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD)
Magic Mushrooms psilocybin and psilocin
the mushrooms were used ___ in pre-columbian america and are sill used today ceremonially
____ introduced psychedelic mushrooms to americas Life magazine article seeking the magic mushroom in 1957
Generated by Koofers.com
about ___ species of mushrooms in which the strength varies from plant to plant. 75
Doses of 10 mg to 60 mg prodice sensory distortions that can last for 3 to 6 hours
Mushrooms effects include initially nausea then changes in visceral sensations, changes in sight, hearing, taste, and touch and altered states of consciousness, sensations similar to LSD but with less disassociation and panic.
Sources of mushrooms include home growing kits and the potentially dangerous practice of harvesting wild mushrooms
Generated by Koofers.com
is produced by the African Tabernanthe iboga shrub. It is a long- acting psychedelic in high doses and a stimulant in low doses. It is used in western and central Africa. Ibogaine
contain a mild LSD-like substance, but several hundred seeds are needed to obtain an effect. Today the seeds are dipped in a toxic substance when sold commercially. Morning glory seeds (ololiuqui
is a naturally occurring psychedelic found in South American trees, vines, and shrubs (yopo beans). Stomach acid destroys it so the plant material is dried, chopped and snorted or smoked to produce short-term (30 minute) hallucinations. The venom of the Sonoran Desert toad also contains a variant of DMT. DMT (dimethyltryptamine)
is psychedelic drink made from an Amazonian vine. It produces a dreamlike state lasting up to 10 hrs. yage
Generated by Koofers.com
Phenylalkylamine Psychedelics This class is chemically related to adrenalin and amphetamines, and their effects take longer to appear then LSD or other indole psychedelics.
is the active component of Peyote and San Pedro cacti Mescaline(peyote)
In the 1800ís its use spread to North American tribes and___ still use it today Comanche, Kiowa and Ute
Derived from the tops ("buttons") of the peyote cactus cut at ground level. About 2 million buttons are harvested each year for use by the Native American Church of North America.
Generated by Koofers.com
Effects of Mescaline a. Seven to eight buttons is average dose b. Effects last twelve hours and are similar to LSD. Very colorful visions and hallucinations are common. c. Each use is accompanied by severe vomiting.
Designer psychedelics (MDA, MDMA, 2c-B, 2c-T-7, 2c-T-2, etc.) These classes of synthetic drugs are VARIANTS OF THE AMPHETAMINE MOLECULE They produce feelings of well-being, euphoria and stimulatory effects. Over 150 have been synthesized to date.
MDA (methylene-dioxyamphetamine) was the first of these compounds to be used and abused in the late 1960ís to early 1980ís. MDMA has taken over as the drug of choice.
MDMA or 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, (street name "ecstasy") Has been manufactured illegally since it was banned as a Schedule I drug in 1988.
Generated by Koofers.com
When it was legal the manufacture sold ___ a week 50,000 tablets
In 2006, a Dutch trafficker was sentenced to 20 years for smuggling 1.7 million tablets into the US
Stimulant effects resemble those of amphetamines and begin in about 30 minutes. Higher doses increase the physical effects. 1. increased heart rate and respiration 2. sweating 3. hyperactivity 4. bruxism (clenching of the teeth) As users become tolerant to the mental effects, they begin taking higher doses. High doses lead to more serious problems: malignant hyperthermia, water toxicity, seizure activity.
Stimulant mental effects Effects last 3 to 4 hours and include feelings of happiness, increased empathy, more self-awareness, heightened self-esteem, clarity, and mild distortions of perception, but no illusions or hallucinations.
Generated by Koofers.com
MDMA works by causes a massive release of serotonin from pre-synaptic vesicles. After serotonin supplies are depleted, taking more ecstasy produces limited mental effects. It can take a week to restore serotonin levels to normal and users report feelings of depression and confusion the day after use.
Neurotoxicity Experiments in rats and monkeys have shown damage to the axon terminals of serotonergic neurons after high dosages and the damage remained for 12 to 18 months.
Anti-cholinergic Psychedelics Belladonna, henbane, mandrake, datura used in magic sorcery witchcraft and religion as a poison and even a beauty aid induced delirium and hallucinations and deep sleep worked by acetylcholine recpetors Jimson weed contains similar anti-cholinergic chemicals and grows wild in U.S. It has been tried by some teenagers leading to emergency room visits
Ketamine (Special-K) animal and human anesthetic.
Generated by Koofers.com
Phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, "peep," "KJ," "Shermans,") 1. Once used as a human and veterinary anesthetic, its use was discontinued due to toxic side effects. 2. It is now illegal and is only manufactured in street labs. 3. It can be smoked, snorted, swallowed or injected.
Effects of phencyclidine (pcp) Mental effects include sensory deprivation and "mind-body" separation Does not impart super human strength, but does reduce response to painful stimuli and users fight violently because their paranoid state leads them to believe people want to kill them. Not widely used because of bad trips, but it is often sold as THC or mescaline.
Salvia Divinorum 1. It is a member of the sage family and has been used for centuries by medicine men of the Sierra Madre in northeastern Mexico. 2. Active ingredient is salvinorum A. 3. Hallucinogenic effects last 7 to 10 minutes when smoked.
Marijuana Smoked or eaten Potency of street vatieties in '90's is greater then it was in the '60's in 2005 14.6 million were using it on a monthly basis 360 different chemicals
Generated by Koofers.com
Recent scientific discoveries with pot In 1995 the first endogenous neurotransmitter that binds these receptors was discovered and named ANANDAMIDE. Other compounds have been identified and all of the chemicals that bind THC receptors are classified as ENDOCANNABINOIDS Recent research has identified two receptor subtypes. CB1 RECEPTORS are found mostly in the brain in areas that regulate SHORT TERM MEMORY (HIPPOCAMPUS), oneís sense of NOVELTY (amygdala), and the SENSORY APPEAL OF FOOD (hypothalamus). CB2 receptors are found in the IMMUNE SYSTEM.
Botany: a. There are three species of the plant, the most common of which is Cannabis sativa. Cannabis indica is a shorter, bushier plant and a variety of this is sometimes called "skunk weed" because of its strong odor. Cannabis ruderalis grows in Siberia and contains very little THC. b. The sinsemilla (without seeds) growing technique, increases the THC content since unfertilized female buds produce more resin. Male plants are removed from growing area. c. In the '60's and '70's, the concentration of THC was 1-3%, now it can be 14-18%. d. In India leaves, stems, and flowers are used to produce different potencies. Bhang is made from leaves and stems with lowest potency Ganja is made from stronger leaves and flowering tops Hashish is made from the resin and is the richest in THC
drug testing Drug tests for THC metabolites are usually set to detect 50ng/ml in urine. Someone who is not a frequent user would test negative 24-72 hours after smoking a joint. It would take chronic users a month to pass the test and another month to get to 0 metabolites in urine.
Synthetic THC in a pill is marketed as Marinol, is used in medicines to reduce nausea and stimulate appetite. It also reduces intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients.
Generated by Koofers.com
Physical Effects of THC Sedation, bloodshot eyes, increase in appetite, increase in heart rate, loss of muscular coordination and decreased tracking ability. Smoking it damages lungs and breathing passages and increases risk of lung cancer, bronchitis, and emphysema.
Mental Effects of THC In moderate doses it produces a sense of detachment from the environment, feelings of dÈj‡ vu, giddiness, and increased alertness. These feelings are often followed by quiet introspection, hunger, and sedation. Very strong doses can produce feelings of movement under the feet, visual illusions, sensory distortion, and feelings of paranoia. Effects are very dependent on mood and surroundings. Marijuana exaggerates the emotional state of the user. A loss of a sense of time can make repetitive jobs go by faster
Marijuana and Learning a. Slows learning and disrupts concentration. b. Impairs short-term memory; no effect on long-term memory. c. Can delay or impede emotional development since users avoid solving life problems and become ìstonedî to counteract emotional pain. d. Called "the mirror that magnifies" because it exaggerates natural or habitual tendencies in the user, such as not really wanting to study
Tolerance and Withdrawl a. Tolerance increases rapidly b. Chronic users experience withdrawal symptoms but the onset is delayed for 3 to 7 days. Symptoms include craving, irritability, insomnia, decreased appetite and inability to concentrate.
Generated by Koofers.com
Addiction Because of increased potency and compulsive use patterns, the addictive potential is being reevaluated.
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 73 Print
 
Front
Back
 Uppers stimulate; downers depress; all arounders stimulate or depress but generallyDistort Perception
 Historically, such diverse substances as have been used and abused. amanita mushrooms, belladonna,
marijuana, and peyote
 Recently, use of LSD, MDMA, and psychedelic mushrooms has increased
 Recently, use of LSD, MDMA, and psychedelic mushrooms has increased
 The main classes of psychedelics are:1. Indole psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin)
2. Phenylalkylamines (mescaline, "ecstasy")
3. Anticholinergics (belladonna)
4. Others (PCP, etc.)
5. Cannabinols
 The problem in determining effects includethe lack of scientific documentation
of effects because of the illegal status of psychedelics, the lack of standard doses,
contamination or misrepresentation.
  Psychedelics ___ the functioning of numerous neurotransmitter systems. Alter
 Physical effectsinclude increased pulse rate, blood pressure, sweating,
nausea, and sensitivity to sensory stimulation.
 Emotional/mental effects includeillusions (mistaken perceptions), delusions
(mistaken ideas or beliefs) and hallucinations (sensory experiences not related to
reality).
 LSD stands forLysergic Acid Diethylamide
 was the first to synthesize this synthetic form of an ergot fungus toxin. He discovered its hallucinogenic properties in 1943 by accident. Dr. Albert Hoffman
 In the early 50ís the ___ onducted mind-control and truth serum experiments in a program code-named ____CIA
MK-ULTRA
 popularized by ___ in the '60's ("Tune in, turn on, drop out") Dr. Timothy Leary
 Made illegal on___ under ___Feb. 1 1966
Federal Drug Abuse Control
Amendments
 Most LSD is still manufactured in the___ although recently some labs have sprung up in the midwestSan Fransico Bay of California
 quantities produced are ___ small
 The nations annual consumption is11 lbs
 synthesis is tedious and dangerous
 crystalline lsd isdisolved in alcohol and drops are put on blotter paper, pills, powders, microdots. Each drop usually contains 10 to 50 mg
 a major bust of rural kansas lab reduced the U.S. supply by95%
prices jumped from $1 $2 a hit to $20
 Effects of LSD aredose dependent
 A lower doses of LSD (30-50 micrograms) act more as a stimulant with mild euphoria(laughter and giddiness)
 Larger doses of LSD (150-300 micrograms)produce true hallucinations
 LSD stimulates a specific subset of seotonin recpetors the 5HT2A receptors
 Effects of lsd beging15 to 60 min after ingestion and peak at 2 to 4 hours and last 6 to 8 hours
 ___ to psychedelic effects ___ (within a few days)tolerance
occurs rapidly
 physical effects inculde rises in heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature and dilated pupils
 Mental effectsa. Sensory distortion including synesthesia (mixing of the senses)
b. Dreaminess, depersonalization
c. Altered mood, impaired concentration
d. Difficulty in expressing oneself
e. Loss of judgment; diminishment of self-preservation instincts

 usually occur with new users who don't know what it expect or experienced users who take too large a dose. Reactions include anxiety, fear, and paranoia. Bad trips (acute anxiety reactions)
 Proponents of its use in psychotherapy claim that LSD-induced insights can provide ashortcut through extended psychotherapy.
 T or F It is very unusual for the one-time use of LSD to induce a permanent psychotic or schizophrenic disability; however, users with a pre-existing mental illness could aggravate symptoms, or provoke a relapse. TRUE
 ___ of a bad trip can be triggered by stress or situations that induce anxiety and fear. Flashbacks
 is the long-term intermittent experience of visual and perceptual disturbances long after LSD has been is gone from the body. Flashbacks and HPPD are more common in regular heavy abusers and may have a strong hereditary component. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder
(HPPD)
 Magic Mushrooms psilocybin and psilocin
 the mushrooms were used ___ in pre-columbian america and are sill used todayceremonially
 ____ introduced psychedelic mushrooms to americasLife magazine article seeking the magic mushroom in 1957
 about ___ species of mushrooms in which the strength varies from plant to plant. 75
 Doses of 10 mg to 60 mg prodicesensory distortions that can last for 3 to 6 hours
 Mushrooms effects include initially nausea then changes in visceral sensations,
changes in sight, hearing, taste, and touch and altered states of
consciousness, sensations similar to LSD but with less disassociation and
panic.
 Sources of mushrooms includehome growing kits and the potentially dangerous practice of harvesting wild mushrooms
 is produced by the African Tabernanthe iboga shrub. It is a long- acting psychedelic in high doses and a stimulant in low doses. It is used in western and central Africa. Ibogaine
 contain a mild LSD-like substance, but several hundred seeds are needed to obtain an effect. Today the seeds are dipped in a toxic substance when sold commercially. Morning glory seeds (ololiuqui
 is a naturally occurring psychedelic found in South American trees, vines, and shrubs (yopo beans). Stomach acid destroys it so the plant material is dried, chopped and snorted or smoked to produce short-term (30 minute) hallucinations. The venom of the Sonoran Desert toad also contains a variant of DMT. DMT (dimethyltryptamine)
 is psychedelic drink made from an Amazonian vine. It produces a dreamlike state lasting up to 10 hrs. yage
 Phenylalkylamine Psychedelics This class is chemically related to adrenalin and amphetamines, and their
effects take longer to appear then LSD or other indole psychedelics.
 is the active component of Peyote and San Pedro cactiMescaline(peyote)
 In the 1800ís its use spread to North American tribes and___ still use it todayComanche, Kiowa and Ute
 Derived from the tops ("buttons") of the peyote cactus cut at ground level. About 2 million buttons are harvested each year for use by the Native American
Church of North America.
 Effects of Mescalinea. Seven to eight buttons is average dose
b. Effects last twelve hours and are similar to LSD. Very colorful visions
and hallucinations are common.
c. Each use is accompanied by severe vomiting.
 Designer psychedelics (MDA, MDMA, 2c-B, 2c-T-7, 2c-T-2, etc.) These classes of synthetic drugs are
VARIANTS OF THE AMPHETAMINE MOLECULE
They produce feelings of well-being, euphoria and stimulatory effects. Over 150
have been synthesized to date.

 MDA (methylene-dioxyamphetamine)was the first of these compounds to be
used and abused in the late 1960ís to early 1980ís. MDMA has taken over as the
drug of choice.
 MDMA or 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, (street name "ecstasy")Has
been manufactured illegally since it was banned as a Schedule I drug in
1988.
 When it was legal the manufacture sold ___ a week50,000 tablets
 In 2006, a Dutch trafficker was sentenced to 20 years for smuggling1.7 million tablets into the US
 Stimulant effects resemble those of amphetamines and begin in about 30
minutes. Higher doses increase the physical effects.
1. increased heart rate and respiration
2. sweating
3. hyperactivity
4. bruxism (clenching of the teeth)
As users become tolerant to the mental effects, they begin taking higher doses.
High doses lead to more serious problems: malignant hyperthermia,
water toxicity, seizure activity.

 Stimulant mental effectsEffects last 3 to 4 hours and include feelings of happiness, increased empathy,
more self-awareness, heightened self-esteem, clarity, and mild distortions of
perception, but no illusions or hallucinations.
 MDMA works by causes a massive release of serotonin from pre-synaptic
vesicles. After serotonin supplies are depleted, taking more ecstasy produces
limited mental effects. It can take a week to restore serotonin levels to normal and
users report feelings of depression and confusion the day after use.
 NeurotoxicityExperiments in rats and monkeys have shown damage to the axon terminals of
serotonergic neurons after high dosages and the damage remained for 12 to 18
months.
 Anti-cholinergic Psychedelics Belladonna, henbane, mandrake, datura
used in magic sorcery witchcraft and religion as a poison and even a beauty aid
induced delirium and hallucinations and deep sleep
worked by acetylcholine recpetors
Jimson weed contains similar anti-cholinergic chemicals and grows wild in U.S. It has been
tried by some teenagers leading to emergency room visits
 Ketamine (Special-K) animal and human anesthetic.
 Phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, "peep," "KJ," "Shermans,") 1. Once used as a human and veterinary anesthetic, its use was discontinued due to
toxic side effects.

2. It is now illegal and is only manufactured in street labs.

3. It can be smoked, snorted, swallowed or injected.
 Effects of phencyclidine (pcp)Mental effects include sensory deprivation and "mind-body" separation
Does not impart super human strength, but does reduce response to
painful stimuli and users fight violently because their paranoid state leads
them to believe people want to kill them.
Not widely used because of bad trips, but it is often sold as THC or mescaline.

 Salvia Divinorum 1. It is a member of the sage family and has been used for centuries by medicine men
of the Sierra Madre in northeastern Mexico.

2. Active ingredient is salvinorum A.

3. Hallucinogenic effects last 7 to 10 minutes when smoked.
 MarijuanaSmoked or eaten
Potency of street vatieties in '90's is greater then it was in the '60's
in 2005 14.6 million were using it on
a monthly basis
360 different chemicals
 Recent scientific discoveries with potIn 1995 the first endogenous neurotransmitter that binds these receptors was
discovered and named ANANDAMIDE. Other compounds have been identified and all
of the chemicals that bind THC receptors are classified as ENDOCANNABINOIDS

Recent research has identified two receptor subtypes. CB1 RECEPTORS are found
mostly in the brain in areas that regulate SHORT TERM MEMORY (HIPPOCAMPUS), oneís sense of NOVELTY (amygdala), and the SENSORY APPEAL OF FOOD
(hypothalamus). CB2 receptors are found in the IMMUNE SYSTEM.

 Botany:a. There are three species of the plant, the most common of which is Cannabis sativa.
Cannabis indica is a shorter, bushier plant and a variety of this is sometimes called
"skunk weed" because of its strong odor. Cannabis ruderalis grows in Siberia and
contains very little THC.

b. The sinsemilla (without seeds) growing technique, increases the THC content since
unfertilized female buds produce more resin. Male plants are removed from growing
area.

c. In the '60's and '70's, the concentration of THC was 1-3%, now it can be 14-18%.

d. In India leaves, stems, and flowers are used to produce different potencies.
Bhang is made from leaves and stems with lowest potency
Ganja is made from stronger leaves and flowering tops
Hashish is made from the resin and is the richest in THC
 drug testingDrug tests for THC metabolites are usually set to detect 50ng/ml in urine. Someone who is
not a frequent user would test negative 24-72 hours after smoking a joint. It would take
chronic users a month to pass the test and another month to get to 0 metabolites in urine.
 Synthetic THC in a pill is marketed as Marinol,is used in medicines to reduce nausea
and stimulate appetite. It also reduces intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients.
 Physical Effects of THCSedation, bloodshot eyes, increase in appetite, increase in heart rate, loss of
muscular coordination and decreased tracking ability.
Smoking it damages lungs and breathing passages and increases risk of lung cancer,
bronchitis, and emphysema.
 Mental Effects of THCIn moderate doses it produces a sense of detachment from the environment, feelings
of dÈj‡ vu, giddiness, and increased alertness. These feelings are often followed by
quiet introspection, hunger, and sedation.
Very strong doses can produce feelings of movement under the feet, visual
illusions, sensory distortion, and feelings of paranoia.
Effects are very dependent on mood and surroundings. Marijuana exaggerates the
emotional state of the user.
A loss of a sense of time can make repetitive jobs go by faster

 Marijuana and Learning a. Slows learning and disrupts concentration.

b. Impairs short-term memory; no effect on long-term memory.

c. Can delay or impede emotional development since users avoid solving life
problems and become ìstonedî to counteract emotional pain.

d. Called "the mirror that magnifies" because it exaggerates natural or habitual
tendencies in the user, such as not really wanting to study
 Tolerance and Withdrawla. Tolerance increases rapidly

b. Chronic users experience withdrawal symptoms but the onset is delayed for 3 to 7
days. Symptoms include craving, irritability, insomnia, decreased appetite and inability to
concentrate.

 AddictionBecause of increased potency and compulsive use patterns, the addictive potential
is being reevaluated.

36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"