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Bio 20C final winter 2012 - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 20C - Ecology & Evolution
Subject:Biology: Molecular Cell & Dev
University:University of California-Santa Cruz
Term:Spring 2011
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Ecology

Oikos: house

Logos= study of

Study of how organisms interact with environment

 

Abiotic vs biotic environment

abiotic=non-living

biotic=living

 

abiotic vs biotic interactions

abiotic interactions: between organisms and non-living environment

Biotic interaction: between organisms

 

4 levels of ecology

1) Organismal

2)Population

3) ecosystem

4) community

 

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Organismal ecology

interaction beteen individuals and environment

 

population ecology

understand mechanisms regulating pop growth

Focus: population

 

 

Ecosystem

expands to include both abiotic and biotic interactions

Focus: nutrient cycles and energy flow

 

Community Ecology

all the organisms interact within an area

Focus: 1) interspecific interactions, 2) community structure, 3) community response to disturbance

 

 

 

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Define Climate and weather and compare them

Climate: prevailing long term weather conditions

Weather: short term atmospheric/aquatic conditions

Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get

 

Causes of global variation in climate(temp vs precipitation)

temp: is driven largely by solar radiation, @ equator hits at 90 degrees=warm weather, angle becomes more shallower towards poles=cooler weather

 

Precipitation: influenced by temp and air circulation, hadley cell

 

Hadley Cell

formed by temp and air circulation

Steps to form hadley cell:

-air heats at equator

-warm air holds more moisture

-rising air cools and causes rain

-cool air flows north and south

-cool air sinks

-warm as it descend, picks up moisture from land

 

Ferrell Cell

north and south of hadley cell, similar process to hadley cell

 

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Polar cell

north and south of ferrell cell, at extreme ends of globe

 

Seasonality

caused by 23 degree tilt of earths axis and revolution of earth around sun

Results in : bureal and austral summers/winter, transitional fall/spring, more pronounced with latitude

 

Causes of regional variation in climate

Caused by topographical feature (mountains and oceans)

Mountains: causes air to rise, cool, and release moisture, slope facing H2O =wet side, opposite side is drier=rain shadow

Oceans: modify temp due to high specific heat of H2O, and results in cooler summers, warmer winters

Key abiotic factors regulating ecosystems

Terrestrial: temp and precipitation

Aquatic: sunlight and nutrients

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Terrestrial ecosystems

soil retains nutrients, large regions characterized by distinct vegitation types, each has distinct temp and participation regime

 

6 Major types of terrestrial biomes

1) Tundra

2) Taiga(boreal forest)

3) Temperate deciduous Forest

4) Temperate grasslands

5) Sub-tropical desert

6) Tropical wet forest

 

Aquatic ecosystem

nutrients easily lost to sinking, productivity limited to regions of adequate light, functionality of depth and H2O clarity (1% of light hitting surface)

 

Major freshwater ecosystems

Lentic system: Still or slowly flowing H2O (lakes, bogs, pond, swamp, marshes)

Lotic System: Rapid flowing H2O (streams such as river or creek)

 

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Horizontal structure(lake/ponds)

Littoral zone= shallow enough for rooted vegitation

Limnetic zone=too deep for rooted vegitation

 

Vertical structure (lake/ponds)

Photic Zone= enough light for photosynthesis

Aphotic zone=not enough light for photosynthesis

 

 

Benthic Zone

bottom of lake/pond

 

 

What is the difference between marshes and swamps?

Marshes lack woody plants and swamps have trees

 

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Bogs

Stagnant and highly acidic due to decomposition

 

Streams

River=big stream

Creek=little stream

 

Linear progression of a Lotic System

Early: Low temp, low nutrients, high oxygen

Mid= warmer temp, more nutrients, lower oxygen

Late: warmest temp, highest nutrients, lowest oxygen

 

Estuaries

formed where river meets ocean, mix of fresh and salt H20

 

Generated by Koofers.com
Horizontal zones(marine ecosystems)

Intertidal= covered and uncovered by tide

neritic=portion of ocean over continental shelf

oceanic-portion off continental shelf

 

Vertical zones(marine ecosystem)

Photic zone= supports photosynthesis

Aphotic zone= does not support photosynthesis

 

Behavioral Ecology Study of the ecological basis for animal behavior that is triggered by a stimulus
Innate vs. learned behavior

innate= present at birth (sneezing)

learned= acquired via life experience(smile)

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Stereotyped vs. flexible

stereotyped= it is done the same way every time

flexible= variable depending on condition

 

What is a FAP?

It stands for Fixed Action Patterns and is highly innate and stereotyped behavior and is set off by releaser stimuli that respond to threatening situations

 

3 distinct characteristics of FAP's

1) once initated, run to completion

2) inflexible

3) species specific

Learning and 6 types of learning

change in behavior as a result if specific life experiences

6 types:

conditioning, imprinting, life history modified learning, spatial, mistake-based, and cognition

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Conditioning

A type of simple learning

ex: pavlov's dog,

-unconditional response: food/salivation

-Conditional response: metronome/salvation

 

Imprinting

fast and irreversible, occurs during a critical time window

Ex: geese and penguins

 

Life history modified learning

demonstrates a spectrum of complexity along both behavioral axis

 

Mistake-based

ex: when birds eat monarch butterflies and get sick and learn to eat different colored butterflies

 

Generated by Koofers.com
cognition

recognition and manipulation of facts about the world, ability to form concept and gain insight

Ex: octupus and observational learning to open jar

 

Communication

signal from one individual modifies behavior of another

 

Signal information containing behavior
4 methods of communication

1) visual(colors, eye contact)

2) tactile(poking, handshake, bee dance)

3) olfactory

4) Auditory(birdsong, language)

 

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Deception in communication

to persist it must be rare

EX: viceroy butterfly looks like bad tasting butterfly, some fireflies flash courtship signal of another species and eats males that respond

Orientation

movement that results in a change of position

 

Taxis and four types

simple orientation

4 types:

1) Photo=towards light

2) phono=towards sound

3) Geo= towards or away from gravity

4)Chemo= towards chemical

 

Migration

Long distance movement

 

 

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3 types of navigation

1)piloting

2) compass navigation

3) true(bi-coordinate) navigation

 

Piloting

use of physical landmarks

Ex: gray whales migrating south along california coast

 

Compass navigation use of stars, sun, and magnetic field
True(bi-coordinate) navigation use of compass navigation and knowledge of where you are
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Altruism behavior that impacts a cost to self and benefit to another
Kin Selection altruism occurs if cost is less than benefit due to relatedness
Hamilton's Rule

rB>C

r=coefficient of relatedness

B=benefit

C=cost

 

Eusociality

altruism in social groups that have sterile individuals, common in insects (ants, bees)

 

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Haplodiploidy

males=haploid

female=diploid

females all share same father, more closely related to each other than offspring and more likely to engage in altruism for sister than offspring

Reciprocal altruism

self- sacrificing behavior with unrelated individuals, more common with individuals with past history

ex: vampire bats

Ecosystems

all species within an area plus abiotic environment, characterized by flow of energy and matter


 

4 basic components of an ecosystem

1) abiotic environment

2) producers

3) consumers

4) decomposers

 

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Energy vs. Matter

matter= cycles in ecosytems

energy= flows through ecosystems

 

Producers/Autotrophs

-self-feeders

-able to produce own food

-fix carbon(inorganic to organic)

-most (not all) photosynthesize

-most energy goes to respiration

 

Consumers/heterotrophs eat other organisms, include herbivores, predators and parasites
Decomposers consume non-living organic material, play key role in recycling matter
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Food Chain vs. Food webs

food web= all possible paths of energy flow in an ecosystem

Food chain= one possible path of energy flow in an ecosystem

strata of a food chain=trophic levels

 

Example of food chain

diatoms    -------->                 Krill             -------------> whales

primary producers  ------>primary consumers ---->secondary consumer

Grazing food web

Energy flow:

primary producer ---> Herbivore ----> carnivore

Herbivore=primary consumer

Carnivore=secondary consumer

 

Decomposing food web

Energy Flow:

dead orgs/waste -----> primary consumers(=detritivores) ---> secondary etc.

 

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Energy Transfer (Production efficiency and Trophic transfer(ecological) efficiency)

Production efficiency: % of assimilated material that becomes new biomass, (Net productivity/biomass assimilated) x 100, varies greatly between taxa

 

Trophic transfer(ecological) efficiency: overall transfer from 1 trophic level to the next, typically around 10%

 

Eltonian pyramids

Depicts flow of matter/energy through food chains, graphic representation of trophic transfer energy.

Pyramids can be constructed by:

-abundance

-biomass

-energy production per unit area

 

Population

Group of individuals of the same species that live in a localized area and utilize a common pool of resources

 

population ecology a population size change over time
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Population parameters

1) density: number per unit area or volume

2) dispersion: distribution withing that area/volume

3) reproductiove strategy: how and when you reproduce

 

Dispersion types Clumped, uniform, random
Clumped dispersion

aggregated around resource

Ex: oasis in desert

Uniform dispersion

evenly distributed in space, usually results from competition

 

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Random dispersion lacking any discernable pattern
Semelparity

breed once and die, one reproductive cycle

Ex: salmon

Iteoparity

Multiple breedings in lifetime

2 types:

1) seasonal: only a certain period they can breed per year(elephant seals)

2) Continuous: year round breeding (humans)

Demography Study of factors that influence population size and structure over time
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4 main components that influencing size

1) births=increase

2)deaths= decrease

3) immigration= increase

4) Emigration= decrease

 

Factors needed to predict population growth

--> How many individuals alive now?

--> How many likely to survive? = survivorship

--> How many offspring will be produced? =fecundity

---> Immigration/ emigration rates- important but difficult to measure

----> time form birth to first reproduction= generation time

 

Survivorship

Proportion surviving newborns to a particular age class (survival age X)

--> individuals born in same period= cohort

--> survivorship curves= log(survivorship)

 

3 types of survivorship curves

Type I: young survivorship high, old low

*K-selected 

ex: homo sapiens

Type II: survivorship constant through life=uniform rate of decline

*limited by ecological influences like competition

ex: american robin, lizards

Type III: young survivorship low, old high=huge decline in young

*r-selected, limited to maturational effects

ex: dandelions, marine inverts 

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Survival rate

Proportion of individuals of age X who survive to age (X+1)

 

Mortality rate

proportion of individuals of age X who die before the age of (X+1)

 

Fecundity

number of offspring produced, usually limited to number of female offspring produced by female parents

 

Age specific fecundity

average number of females produced by a female of a certain age class

 

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Survivorship vs fecundity

relationship is inverse

low survivorship=high age specific fecundity

high survivorship= low age specific fecundity

Consumption

One species consumes all or part of another(antagonistic interactions)

 

3 types of consumption

1) herbivory= grazing organisms consume plant tissues

ex: herbivores

2) Parasitism= parasite consumes relatively small amounts of tissue from a plant or animal(host))

ex: leeches and mosquitos

3) Predation= when one eats other

ex: shark and seal

 

Defense from consumption

Prey evolve defenses to counter predators

2 basic types:

1) constitutive: always present

2) inducible: produced in response to predator

     a)camoflouge: blend into backgroud

     b) Schooling: safety in #'s (fish)

    c) Weaponry: fighting back (porcupine and lion)

 

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Advertised defenses Aposematism: warning colorations that advertise defenses (ex: tree frogs, caterpillars)
Mimicry and two types

constituitive defenses have led to 2 type of mimicry

1) mullerian

2) batesian

 

Mullerian Mimicry

species with similar defenses resemble each other

ex: wasp, bumblebee, honeybees

 

Batesian Mimicry

species without defenses resemble those with defenses

ex: hornet, hoverfly

 

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Inducible defenses

-variable responses, triggered by presence of predators, defense represents a fitness cost, inducible defense minimizes fitness cost

 

Top-down control of predator/prey interactions

predators control prey abundance

ex: har and lynx pop, lynk population lags behind hare population

Bottom-up control of predator/ prey interaction

amount of prey regulates predator abundance

 

Mutualistic interactions +/+

both organisms benefit, not cooperative or altruistic

ex: ants and acacia tree= tree provides food and shelter, ant provides protection

 

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indirect interactions

-2 species that do not directly interact exert influence on each other (fitness rise of fall)

-influence is indirect

-consequence of interaction with other species

**look at trophic cascade graphic on website

Keystone species

species with effects on communities that are disproportionate to their biomass

Ex: small part of ecosyste but big impact, tend to be top level predators.

 

Species diversity

Key features in community, can be measured in 2 ways:

1) species richness

2) species diversity

Species richness total number of species
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Species diversity weighted measure that includes both species number and abundance,
Global patterns of species diversity many terrestrial ecosystems show patterns of decreasing diversity w/latitude
Productivy hypothesis high productivy supports more species
Area Hypothesis

large area supports more species, tropics only area with adjacent north and south hemisphere regions

more area=more species

 

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Intermediate disturbance hypothesis

frequent disturbance= few species

     --> r selected species dominate

Rare disturbance= few species

    ----> K selected species dominate

Intermediate disturbance

      ----> r and K selected species mix

 

Net Primary Productivity (Community Productivity)

AKA NPP, amount of plant material available to herbivores and decomposers

 

Community Stability (2 measurements)

1) resistance: measures how much disturbance affects community

2) Resiliance: measure of how quickly a community recovers from a disturbance

 

Community Dynamics (Clements vs. Gleason)

Frederick Clements: saw communities as superorganisms

---> species worked cooperatively

 

Henry Gleason: commuities= collection of individuals with unique physiological tolerancce

  --->individualistic view of community dynamics

 

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Succession

recovery of a community after disturbance

 

Primary succession

all species and soil/propagules removed

ex: lava flow/glaciers

 

Secondary Succession

Some or all species removed but soil/propagules left intact

ex: fire/strong storm

 

Sequence of succession

Early successional community: pioneer species, r-selected, ecosystem rebuilding ---> high dispersal, fast growing, short lives

 

Late successional community: K-selected, out-compete pioneer species ---> mid to long range lifespans, slow growing, superior competitors

 

Climax community: stable, persistant community

 

 

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Net primary productivity in ecosystem productivity

-amount of biomass available for grazers/decomposers

-NPP varies between ecosystems

-NPP clue to photosynthesis in most ecosystems

 

4 things needed for photosynthesis

1) sunlight

2) temperature

3) H2O

4) nutrients

 

Terrestrial Ecosystems

main regulatory factors: temperature and water

soil acts to retain nutrients

 

Aquatic ecosystems

Main regulatory factors: light and nutrients

nutrients tend to sink out of system

 

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Biogeochemical cycles

-Energy flows 1 way in ecosystems

-matter cylces in ecosystems

-includes: H2O, C,N,P,S

-Biogeochemical: Bio=biotic, Geo-geological, chemical=free matter(air, water, soil)

-Cycles can be local(ex: nutrients) or global(H2O)

 

Factors affecting biogeochemical cycles

-types and size of reserves

-rate of movement between reserves

-interaction between different cycles

 

Nutrient Cycles

Nutrients: N, P , vitamins and trace metals

-cycle between living tissue and inorganic forms

-often regenerated by decomposers

-cycles different in terrestrial vs. aquatic systems

Global Cycles (N,H20, C, P)

Broad in scale

-involve exchange between atmosphere and rest of ecosystem  (Exception: phosphorous)

-unite ecosystems into giant interconnected biosphere

 

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Ecosystem service

-intact ecosystems provide direct and indirect benefitts= ecosystem service

-Reduction in ecosystem biodiversity can decrease ecosystem service

 

Direct benefits

-New drugs(bioprospecting)- penecillan

-pollination- bees

-flood control- wetlands/swamps/ barrier islands

-bioremediation- DDT flushing into ocean or because of wetlands

 

Indirect Benefits

-Climate regulations: diomethylsulfide helps clouds form and i produced by plankton

-Nutrient cycles= prevent export of nutrients and enhance local retention

Carrying Capacity (K)

max number of individuals that can be sustained in a given habitat

-function of abiotic and biotic factors

-K varies with habitat

 

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Logistic Growth Equation

dN/dt= rmax N [(K-N)/K]

-If N is small, r is close to rmax

-as N increases, r decreases

- as N approaches K, r goes to 0(zero)

 

Factors limiting population growth

density independent:not affected by population size

ex: natural disaster

density dependent: becomes more pronounced with increasing density

ex: disease ecology

r vs. K selected species

r selected species:

-r refers to intrinsic growth rate

-rapid growth

-good dispersal, short life span (ex: dandelion)

K selected species:

-K refers to carrying capacity

-slow growth, long life span

ex: acorn nut, oak tree

Community ecology

Community: interacting species within a given area

Population<community<biome

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Species interactions

-interaction between 2 species

-affects fitness of both species

-fitness affect: +, -, or 0

 

5 basic types of species interactions

1) commensalism(+/0)

2) competition (-/-)

3) consumption (+/-)

4) Mutualism(+/+)

5) amensalism(-/0)

Commensalism (+/0) one species gains in fitness, other species unaffected
Competition (-/-) both species experience fitness decrease
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Niche

sum total resources used by a species, range of conditions it can tolerate

 

-species with overlapping niches compete with each other

Competitive exclusion principle Gause hypothesized that 2 species with same niche cannot coexist
2 types of competition

Symmetric: each species experiences the same decrease in fitness

Assymmetric: one species has greater fitness decrease than other

 

*assymmetry more coomon than symmetric

Fundamental vs. realized niche

Fundamental Niche: total possible use of the environment by a species

Realized niche: actual observed use of the environment by a species (usually smaller than fundamental)

 

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2 categories for competitive interactions

Interference competition: species interfere with another's use of a resource EX: barnacles

 

Exploitation competition: species both utilize a resource, most efficient consumer wins (ex: trees)

 

Life tables used for demographic analyses
Required info for life tables

-initial number born in a cohort (N)

- number that survive to each age class (l_x)

-average fecundity for each age class (m_x)

 

Calculating population growth (if you consider only females)

--> L_x = age specific survivorship

--> m_x = age specific fecundity

-->( L_x) x (m_x) = number of female offspring produced by an individual female year class

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Net productive rate (R_0)

sigma(L_x * m_x)= (R_0)= net productive rate (growth rate for generation)

 

--> if R_0 > 1, then population is growing

---> If R_0 <1, population is shrinking

---> if R_0 = 1, population stays same

Per capita rate of increase

R_0= generational growth rate

r= per capita growth rate(aka instantaneous growth rate)

Calculating r

growth of population=change in number over change in time(dN/dt)

If not immigration/emigration: dN/dt=N(b-d) where

----> b= per capita birth rate

----> d= per capita death rate

---> r= b-d=per capita growth rate

Intrinsic rate of increase

r can be +,-,0

rmax=intrinsic rate of increase

rmax is highest possible r for a species

determined by biological constraints

different species have different rmax

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Discrete vs Continuous Growth

-population with distinct breeding season demonstrate discrete growth (steps)

-populations that reproduce year round demonstrate continuous growth(exponential curve)

Discrete growth

N_0= population size at time 0

N_1=population size at time 1

discrete growth rate= lamba = N_1/N_0

N_1=N_0(lambda) or N_t=N_0(Lambda)^t

Continuous Growth

lambda is like an interest rate(growth rate over a discrete period of time)

r=per capita growth at any particular instant

simple relationship between lamda and r

R_0 vs r

R_0= generational growth rate

r= per capita or instantaneous growth rate

r=ln(R_0/g) where g=generation time

 

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Definition of symbols for discrete and continuous growth

L_x= age specific survivorship

m_x = age specific fecundity

sigma(L_x * m_x)=R_0= net productive rate

N_1/N_0= lambda=finite rate of increase

N_t=N_0 (lambda)^t

r=per capita rate of increase

rmax=intrinsic rate of increase

N_t=N_0*e^(rt)

Exponential vs Logistic Growth

Exponential growth: r constant over time, r doesnt change with density (density independent)

 

Logistic growth: r changes as a function of density, r decreases with increasing density (density dependent)

2 views of biodiversity and ecosystem service

1)Redundancy hypothesis:

Niche overlap permits loss of species from same functional group

 

2)Rivet hypothesis:

Individual species important but loss of a few can be tolerated, however, a few species are key environment and loss of one is extremely detrimental

Species interactions during succession

Facilitation: One species makes conditions more tolerable for another species

 

Inhibition: One species prevents the establisment of another

 

Tolerance: Existing species do not influence the arrival of new species

 

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Modern views of succession

Outcome of succession depends on 3 components:

1) traits of species involved: who can live there

2) species interactions: who does what to whom

3) environmental circumstances: what happened before or next door

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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Ecology

Oikos: house

Logos= study of

Study of how organisms interact with environment

 

 Abiotic vs biotic environment

abiotic=non-living

biotic=living

 

 abiotic vs biotic interactions

abiotic interactions: between organisms and non-living environment

Biotic interaction: between organisms

 

 4 levels of ecology

1) Organismal

2)Population

3) ecosystem

4) community

 

 Organismal ecology

interaction beteen individuals and environment

 

 population ecology

understand mechanisms regulating pop growth

Focus: population

 

 

 Ecosystem

expands to include both abiotic and biotic interactions

Focus: nutrient cycles and energy flow

 

 Community Ecology

all the organisms interact within an area

Focus: 1) interspecific interactions, 2) community structure, 3) community response to disturbance

 

 

 

 Define Climate and weather and compare them

Climate: prevailing long term weather conditions

Weather: short term atmospheric/aquatic conditions

Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get

 

 Causes of global variation in climate(temp vs precipitation)

temp: is driven largely by solar radiation, @ equator hits at 90 degrees=warm weather, angle becomes more shallower towards poles=cooler weather

 

Precipitation: influenced by temp and air circulation, hadley cell

 

 Hadley Cell

formed by temp and air circulation

Steps to form hadley cell:

-air heats at equator

-warm air holds more moisture

-rising air cools and causes rain

-cool air flows north and south

-cool air sinks

-warm as it descend, picks up moisture from land

 

 Ferrell Cell

north and south of hadley cell, similar process to hadley cell

 

 Polar cell

north and south of ferrell cell, at extreme ends of globe

 

 Seasonality

caused by 23 degree tilt of earths axis and revolution of earth around sun

Results in : bureal and austral summers/winter, transitional fall/spring, more pronounced with latitude

 

 Causes of regional variation in climate

Caused by topographical feature (mountains and oceans)

Mountains: causes air to rise, cool, and release moisture, slope facing H2O =wet side, opposite side is drier=rain shadow

Oceans: modify temp due to high specific heat of H2O, and results in cooler summers, warmer winters

 Key abiotic factors regulating ecosystems

Terrestrial: temp and precipitation

Aquatic: sunlight and nutrients

 Terrestrial ecosystems

soil retains nutrients, large regions characterized by distinct vegitation types, each has distinct temp and participation regime

 

 6 Major types of terrestrial biomes

1) Tundra

2) Taiga(boreal forest)

3) Temperate deciduous Forest

4) Temperate grasslands

5) Sub-tropical desert

6) Tropical wet forest

 

 Aquatic ecosystem

nutrients easily lost to sinking, productivity limited to regions of adequate light, functionality of depth and H2O clarity (1% of light hitting surface)

 

 Major freshwater ecosystems

Lentic system: Still or slowly flowing H2O (lakes, bogs, pond, swamp, marshes)

Lotic System: Rapid flowing H2O (streams such as river or creek)

 

 Horizontal structure(lake/ponds)

Littoral zone= shallow enough for rooted vegitation

Limnetic zone=too deep for rooted vegitation

 

 Vertical structure (lake/ponds)

Photic Zone= enough light for photosynthesis

Aphotic zone=not enough light for photosynthesis

 

 

 Benthic Zone

bottom of lake/pond

 

 

 What is the difference between marshes and swamps?

Marshes lack woody plants and swamps have trees

 

 Bogs

Stagnant and highly acidic due to decomposition

 

 Streams

River=big stream

Creek=little stream

 

 Linear progression of a Lotic System

Early: Low temp, low nutrients, high oxygen

Mid= warmer temp, more nutrients, lower oxygen

Late: warmest temp, highest nutrients, lowest oxygen

 

 Estuaries

formed where river meets ocean, mix of fresh and salt H20

 

 Horizontal zones(marine ecosystems)

Intertidal= covered and uncovered by tide

neritic=portion of ocean over continental shelf

oceanic-portion off continental shelf

 

 Vertical zones(marine ecosystem)

Photic zone= supports photosynthesis

Aphotic zone= does not support photosynthesis

 

 Behavioral EcologyStudy of the ecological basis for animal behavior that is triggered by a stimulus
 Innate vs. learned behavior

innate= present at birth (sneezing)

learned= acquired via life experience(smile)

 Stereotyped vs. flexible

stereotyped= it is done the same way every time

flexible= variable depending on condition

 

 What is a FAP?

It stands for Fixed Action Patterns and is highly innate and stereotyped behavior and is set off by releaser stimuli that respond to threatening situations

 

 3 distinct characteristics of FAP's

1) once initated, run to completion

2) inflexible

3) species specific

 Learning and 6 types of learning

change in behavior as a result if specific life experiences

6 types:

conditioning, imprinting, life history modified learning, spatial, mistake-based, and cognition

 Conditioning

A type of simple learning

ex: pavlov's dog,

-unconditional response: food/salivation

-Conditional response: metronome/salvation

 

 Imprinting

fast and irreversible, occurs during a critical time window

Ex: geese and penguins

 

 Life history modified learning

demonstrates a spectrum of complexity along both behavioral axis

 

 Mistake-based

ex: when birds eat monarch butterflies and get sick and learn to eat different colored butterflies

 

 cognition

recognition and manipulation of facts about the world, ability to form concept and gain insight

Ex: octupus and observational learning to open jar

 

 Communication

signal from one individual modifies behavior of another

 

 Signalinformation containing behavior
 4 methods of communication

1) visual(colors, eye contact)

2) tactile(poking, handshake, bee dance)

3) olfactory

4) Auditory(birdsong, language)

 

 Deception in communication

to persist it must be rare

EX: viceroy butterfly looks like bad tasting butterfly, some fireflies flash courtship signal of another species and eats males that respond

 Orientation

movement that results in a change of position

 

 Taxis and four types

simple orientation

4 types:

1) Photo=towards light

2) phono=towards sound

3) Geo= towards or away from gravity

4)Chemo= towards chemical

 

 Migration

Long distance movement

 

 

 3 types of navigation

1)piloting

2) compass navigation

3) true(bi-coordinate) navigation

 

 Piloting

use of physical landmarks

Ex: gray whales migrating south along california coast

 

 Compass navigationuse of stars, sun, and magnetic field
 True(bi-coordinate) navigationuse of compass navigation and knowledge of where you are
 Altruismbehavior that impacts a cost to self and benefit to another
 Kin Selectionaltruism occurs if cost is less than benefit due to relatedness
 Hamilton's Rule

rB>C

r=coefficient of relatedness

B=benefit

C=cost

 

 Eusociality

altruism in social groups that have sterile individuals, common in insects (ants, bees)

 

 Haplodiploidy

males=haploid

female=diploid

females all share same father, more closely related to each other than offspring and more likely to engage in altruism for sister than offspring

 Reciprocal altruism

self- sacrificing behavior with unrelated individuals, more common with individuals with past history

ex: vampire bats

 Ecosystems

all species within an area plus abiotic environment, characterized by flow of energy and matter


 

 4 basic components of an ecosystem

1) abiotic environment

2) producers

3) consumers

4) decomposers

 

 Energy vs. Matter

matter= cycles in ecosytems

energy= flows through ecosystems

 

 Producers/Autotrophs

-self-feeders

-able to produce own food

-fix carbon(inorganic to organic)

-most (not all) photosynthesize

-most energy goes to respiration

 

 Consumers/heterotrophseat other organisms, include herbivores, predators and parasites
 Decomposersconsume non-living organic material, play key role in recycling matter
 Food Chain vs. Food webs

food web= all possible paths of energy flow in an ecosystem

Food chain= one possible path of energy flow in an ecosystem

strata of a food chain=trophic levels

 

 Example of food chain

diatoms    -------->                 Krill             -------------> whales

primary producers  ------>primary consumers ---->secondary consumer

 Grazing food web

Energy flow:

primary producer ---> Herbivore ----> carnivore

Herbivore=primary consumer

Carnivore=secondary consumer

 

 Decomposing food web

Energy Flow:

dead orgs/waste -----> primary consumers(=detritivores) ---> secondary etc.

 

 Energy Transfer (Production efficiency and Trophic transfer(ecological) efficiency)

Production efficiency: % of assimilated material that becomes new biomass, (Net productivity/biomass assimilated) x 100, varies greatly between taxa

 

Trophic transfer(ecological) efficiency: overall transfer from 1 trophic level to the next, typically around 10%

 

 Eltonian pyramids

Depicts flow of matter/energy through food chains, graphic representation of trophic transfer energy.

Pyramids can be constructed by:

-abundance

-biomass

-energy production per unit area

 

 Population

Group of individuals of the same species that live in a localized area and utilize a common pool of resources

 

 population ecologya population size change over time
 Population parameters

1) density: number per unit area or volume

2) dispersion: distribution withing that area/volume

3) reproductiove strategy: how and when you reproduce

 

 Dispersion typesClumped, uniform, random
 Clumped dispersion

aggregated around resource

Ex: oasis in desert

 Uniform dispersion

evenly distributed in space, usually results from competition

 

 Random dispersionlacking any discernable pattern
 Semelparity

breed once and die, one reproductive cycle

Ex: salmon

 Iteoparity

Multiple breedings in lifetime

2 types:

1) seasonal: only a certain period they can breed per year(elephant seals)

2) Continuous: year round breeding (humans)

 DemographyStudy of factors that influence population size and structure over time
 4 main components that influencing size

1) births=increase

2)deaths= decrease

3) immigration= increase

4) Emigration= decrease

 

 Factors needed to predict population growth

--> How many individuals alive now?

--> How many likely to survive? = survivorship

--> How many offspring will be produced? =fecundity

---> Immigration/ emigration rates- important but difficult to measure

----> time form birth to first reproduction= generation time

 

 Survivorship

Proportion surviving newborns to a particular age class (survival age X)

--> individuals born in same period= cohort

--> survivorship curves= log(survivorship)

 

 3 types of survivorship curves

Type I: young survivorship high, old low

*K-selected 

ex: homo sapiens

Type II: survivorship constant through life=uniform rate of decline

*limited by ecological influences like competition

ex: american robin, lizards

Type III: young survivorship low, old high=huge decline in young

*r-selected, limited to maturational effects

ex: dandelions, marine inverts 

 Survival rate

Proportion of individuals of age X who survive to age (X+1)

 

 Mortality rate

proportion of individuals of age X who die before the age of (X+1)

 

 Fecundity

number of offspring produced, usually limited to number of female offspring produced by female parents

 

 Age specific fecundity

average number of females produced by a female of a certain age class

 

 Survivorship vs fecundity

relationship is inverse

low survivorship=high age specific fecundity

high survivorship= low age specific fecundity

 Consumption

One species consumes all or part of another(antagonistic interactions)

 

 3 types of consumption

1) herbivory= grazing organisms consume plant tissues

ex: herbivores

2) Parasitism= parasite consumes relatively small amounts of tissue from a plant or animal(host))

ex: leeches and mosquitos

3) Predation= when one eats other

ex: shark and seal

 

 Defense from consumption

Prey evolve defenses to counter predators

2 basic types:

1) constitutive: always present

2) inducible: produced in response to predator

     a)camoflouge: blend into backgroud

     b) Schooling: safety in #'s (fish)

    c) Weaponry: fighting back (porcupine and lion)

 

 Advertised defensesAposematism: warning colorations that advertise defenses (ex: tree frogs, caterpillars)
 Mimicry and two types

constituitive defenses have led to 2 type of mimicry

1) mullerian

2) batesian

 

 Mullerian Mimicry

species with similar defenses resemble each other

ex: wasp, bumblebee, honeybees

 

 Batesian Mimicry

species without defenses resemble those with defenses

ex: hornet, hoverfly

 

 Inducible defenses

-variable responses, triggered by presence of predators, defense represents a fitness cost, inducible defense minimizes fitness cost

 

 Top-down control of predator/prey interactions

predators control prey abundance

ex: har and lynx pop, lynk population lags behind hare population

 Bottom-up control of predator/ prey interaction

amount of prey regulates predator abundance

 

 Mutualistic interactions +/+

both organisms benefit, not cooperative or altruistic

ex: ants and acacia tree= tree provides food and shelter, ant provides protection

 

 indirect interactions

-2 species that do not directly interact exert influence on each other (fitness rise of fall)

-influence is indirect

-consequence of interaction with other species

**look at trophic cascade graphic on website

 Keystone species

species with effects on communities that are disproportionate to their biomass

Ex: small part of ecosyste but big impact, tend to be top level predators.

 

 Species diversity

Key features in community, can be measured in 2 ways:

1) species richness

2) species diversity

 Species richnesstotal number of species
 Species diversityweighted measure that includes both species number and abundance,
 Global patterns of species diversitymany terrestrial ecosystems show patterns of decreasing diversity w/latitude
 Productivy hypothesishigh productivy supports more species
 Area Hypothesis

large area supports more species, tropics only area with adjacent north and south hemisphere regions

more area=more species

 

 Intermediate disturbance hypothesis

frequent disturbance= few species

     --> r selected species dominate

Rare disturbance= few species

    ----> K selected species dominate

Intermediate disturbance

      ----> r and K selected species mix

 

 Net Primary Productivity (Community Productivity)

AKA NPP, amount of plant material available to herbivores and decomposers

 

 Community Stability (2 measurements)

1) resistance: measures how much disturbance affects community

2) Resiliance: measure of how quickly a community recovers from a disturbance

 

 Community Dynamics (Clements vs. Gleason)

Frederick Clements: saw communities as superorganisms

---> species worked cooperatively

 

Henry Gleason: commuities= collection of individuals with unique physiological tolerancce

  --->individualistic view of community dynamics

 

 Succession

recovery of a community after disturbance

 

 Primary succession

all species and soil/propagules removed

ex: lava flow/glaciers

 

 Secondary Succession

Some or all species removed but soil/propagules left intact

ex: fire/strong storm

 

 Sequence of succession

Early successional community: pioneer species, r-selected, ecosystem rebuilding ---> high dispersal, fast growing, short lives

 

Late successional community: K-selected, out-compete pioneer species ---> mid to long range lifespans, slow growing, superior competitors

 

Climax community: stable, persistant community

 

 

 Net primary productivity in ecosystem productivity

-amount of biomass available for grazers/decomposers

-NPP varies between ecosystems

-NPP clue to photosynthesis in most ecosystems

 

 4 things needed for photosynthesis

1) sunlight

2) temperature

3) H2O

4) nutrients

 

 Terrestrial Ecosystems

main regulatory factors: temperature and water

soil acts to retain nutrients

 

 Aquatic ecosystems

Main regulatory factors: light and nutrients

nutrients tend to sink out of system

 

 Biogeochemical cycles

-Energy flows 1 way in ecosystems

-matter cylces in ecosystems

-includes: H2O, C,N,P,S

-Biogeochemical: Bio=biotic, Geo-geological, chemical=free matter(air, water, soil)

-Cycles can be local(ex: nutrients) or global(H2O)

 

 Factors affecting biogeochemical cycles

-types and size of reserves

-rate of movement between reserves

-interaction between different cycles

 

 Nutrient Cycles

Nutrients: N, P , vitamins and trace metals

-cycle between living tissue and inorganic forms

-often regenerated by decomposers

-cycles different in terrestrial vs. aquatic systems

 Global Cycles (N,H20, C, P)

Broad in scale

-involve exchange between atmosphere and rest of ecosystem  (Exception: phosphorous)

-unite ecosystems into giant interconnected biosphere

 

 Ecosystem service

-intact ecosystems provide direct and indirect benefitts= ecosystem service

-Reduction in ecosystem biodiversity can decrease ecosystem service

 

 Direct benefits

-New drugs(bioprospecting)- penecillan

-pollination- bees

-flood control- wetlands/swamps/ barrier islands

-bioremediation- DDT flushing into ocean or because of wetlands

 

 Indirect Benefits

-Climate regulations: diomethylsulfide helps clouds form and i produced by plankton

-Nutrient cycles= prevent export of nutrients and enhance local retention

 Carrying Capacity (K)

max number of individuals that can be sustained in a given habitat

-function of abiotic and biotic factors

-K varies with habitat

 

 Logistic Growth Equation

dN/dt= rmax N [(K-N)/K]

-If N is small, r is close to rmax

-as N increases, r decreases

- as N approaches K, r goes to 0(zero)

 

 Factors limiting population growth

density independent:not affected by population size

ex: natural disaster

density dependent: becomes more pronounced with increasing density

ex: disease ecology

 r vs. K selected species

r selected species:

-r refers to intrinsic growth rate

-rapid growth

-good dispersal, short life span (ex: dandelion)

K selected species:

-K refers to carrying capacity

-slow growth, long life span

ex: acorn nut, oak tree

 Community ecology

Community: interacting species within a given area

Population<community<biome

 Species interactions

-interaction between 2 species

-affects fitness of both species

-fitness affect: +, -, or 0

 

 5 basic types of species interactions

1) commensalism(+/0)

2) competition (-/-)

3) consumption (+/-)

4) Mutualism(+/+)

5) amensalism(-/0)

 Commensalism (+/0)one species gains in fitness, other species unaffected
 Competition (-/-)both species experience fitness decrease
 Niche

sum total resources used by a species, range of conditions it can tolerate

 

-species with overlapping niches compete with each other

 Competitive exclusion principleGause hypothesized that 2 species with same niche cannot coexist
 2 types of competition

Symmetric: each species experiences the same decrease in fitness

Assymmetric: one species has greater fitness decrease than other

 

*assymmetry more coomon than symmetric

 Fundamental vs. realized niche

Fundamental Niche: total possible use of the environment by a species

Realized niche: actual observed use of the environment by a species (usually smaller than fundamental)

 

 2 categories for competitive interactions

Interference competition: species interfere with another's use of a resource EX: barnacles

 

Exploitation competition: species both utilize a resource, most efficient consumer wins (ex: trees)

 

 Life tablesused for demographic analyses
 Required info for life tables

-initial number born in a cohort (N)

- number that survive to each age class (l_x)

-average fecundity for each age class (m_x)

 

 Calculating population growth (if you consider only females)

--> L_x = age specific survivorship

--> m_x = age specific fecundity

-->( L_x) x (m_x) = number of female offspring produced by an individual female year class

 Net productive rate (R_0)

sigma(L_x * m_x)= (R_0)= net productive rate (growth rate for generation)

 

--> if R_0 > 1, then population is growing

---> If R_0 <1, population is shrinking

---> if R_0 = 1, population stays same

 Per capita rate of increase

R_0= generational growth rate

r= per capita growth rate(aka instantaneous growth rate)

 Calculating r

growth of population=change in number over change in time(dN/dt)

If not immigration/emigration: dN/dt=N(b-d) where

----> b= per capita birth rate

----> d= per capita death rate

---> r= b-d=per capita growth rate

 Intrinsic rate of increase

r can be +,-,0

rmax=intrinsic rate of increase

rmax is highest possible r for a species

determined by biological constraints

different species have different rmax

 Discrete vs Continuous Growth

-population with distinct breeding season demonstrate discrete growth (steps)

-populations that reproduce year round demonstrate continuous growth(exponential curve)

 Discrete growth

N_0= population size at time 0

N_1=population size at time 1

discrete growth rate= lamba = N_1/N_0

N_1=N_0(lambda) or N_t=N_0(Lambda)^t

 Continuous Growth

lambda is like an interest rate(growth rate over a discrete period of time)

r=per capita growth at any particular instant

simple relationship between lamda and r

 R_0 vs r

R_0= generational growth rate

r= per capita or instantaneous growth rate

r=ln(R_0/g) where g=generation time

 

 Definition of symbols for discrete and continuous growth

L_x= age specific survivorship

m_x = age specific fecundity

sigma(L_x * m_x)=R_0= net productive rate

N_1/N_0= lambda=finite rate of increase

N_t=N_0 (lambda)^t

r=per capita rate of increase

rmax=intrinsic rate of increase

N_t=N_0*e^(rt)

 Exponential vs Logistic Growth

Exponential growth: r constant over time, r doesnt change with density (density independent)

 

Logistic growth: r changes as a function of density, r decreases with increasing density (density dependent)

 2 views of biodiversity and ecosystem service

1)Redundancy hypothesis:

Niche overlap permits loss of species from same functional group

 

2)Rivet hypothesis:

Individual species important but loss of a few can be tolerated, however, a few species are key environment and loss of one is extremely detrimental

 Species interactions during succession

Facilitation: One species makes conditions more tolerable for another species

 

Inhibition: One species prevents the establisment of another

 

Tolerance: Existing species do not influence the arrival of new species

 

 Modern views of succession

Outcome of succession depends on 3 components:

1) traits of species involved: who can live there

2) species interactions: who does what to whom

3) environmental circumstances: what happened before or next door

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