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Ch. 4 - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 140 - Organization/Function of Cell
Subject:Biology
University:University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Term:Spring 2010
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Cell Theory Was the 1st unifying theory of biology, cells are the funamental units of life, all organisms are composed of cells, all cells come from preexisiting cells.
Surface area-to-volume ratio Cells are small because they need this to be high. Volume determines the amount of chemical activity in the cell per unit time, surface area determines the amount of substances that can pass the cell boundary per unit time
Plasma membrane Made up of phospholipid bilayer, allows cells to maintain constant internal environment, a selectively permeable barrier, is important in communication and receiving signals, often has protein for binding with adjacent.
Prokaryotes Don't have organelles, are very successful, individuals are single cells, are very small, enclosed by a plasma membrane, the DNA is contained in the nucleoid, cytoplasm consists of cytosol (water and dissolved material) and suspended particles, ribosomes-site of protein synthesis, have a rigid cell wall
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Pili hair like structures projecting from the surface. They help bacteria adhere to other cells
Flagella Help the prokaryotes swim
Organelles A particle that has a specific task IN the eukaryotic cell
Eukaryotic Cell UP to 10 times larger than prokaryotes, have organelles,
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Compartmentalization Allowed eukaryotic cells to specialize-forming tissues and organs into multicellular organisms
Nucleus largest organelle, contains the DNA, site of DNA replication, site of genetic control of cell activities, the nucleolous begins assembly of ribosomes
Nuclear envelope 2 membranes that surround the nucleus.
Nuclear pores In the envelope control passage of molecules. Large molecules such as proteins need a signal-a certain sequence of amino acids-to pass through.
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Chromatin formed wihen DNA combines with proteins. Before cell division, chromatin aggregates to form chromosomes.
Endomembrane system Includes the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. The outer membrane of the nuclear envelope is continuous with the endomembrane system.
Edoplasmic reticulum (ER) A network of interconnected membranes-large surface area
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) More tubular, no ribosomes, chemically modifies small molecules such as drugs and pesticides, hydrolysis of glycogen in animal cells, synthesis of lipids and steroids.
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Rough Endoplasmic reticulum (RER) Ribosomes are attached, segregates newly made proteins-they enter the human and can be modified and transported.
The Golgi Apparatus Carry material for cell wall, receives proteins from the ER-can further modify them, concentrates packages and sorts proteins, in plant cells, polysaccharides for cell walls are synthesized.
Cis region Receives vesicles (a piece of the ER that buds off) from the ER
Trans region Vesicles bud off from the golgi apparatus and are moved to the plasma membrane
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Lysosomes Originate in the Golgi apparatus, contain digestive enzymes-macromolecules are hydrolyzed into monomers.
Phagocytosis Digest enzyemes. A phagosome is formed which fuses with a primary lysosome, forming a secondary lysosome.
Mitochondira Energy in fuel molecules is transformed to the bonds of energy-rich ATP; cellular respiration. Cells that require a lot of energy have a lot of mitochondria. Not in prokaryotes
Centrioles NOT in plant cells; only in animal
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Plastids Occur only in plant and some protists
Chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis-light energy is conveted to the energy of chemical bonds. Have a double membrane
Chromoplasts Contain red, organe, and yellow pigments, give color to plower. Type of plastids
Leucoplasts Store starches and fats. A type of plastid
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Peroxisomes Catalysts break down h202 which gives H and O. Collect toxic bybroducts of metabolism
Glyoxysomes Only in plants, lipids are converted to carbs for growth
Vacuoeles Store waste products and toxic compounds-may deter herbivores, provide structure for plant cells-turgor, store anthocyanins (pink and blue pigments) in flowers and fruits, digestion in seeds-vaccuoles have enzymes to hydrolyze store food for early growth,
Cytoskeleton Supports and maintains shape, allows some types of movement, positions organelles, some fibers act as support for motor proteins, interacts with extracellular strucutres to hold cell in place. Has 3 components: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubles
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Microfilaments Under membranes, help a cell or parts of a cell to move, determine cell shape, made from the protein actin, actin has + and - ends and polymerizes to form long helical chains (reversible)
Intermediate filaments Many different kinds, made of fibrous proteins of the keratin family, stabilize cell structure and resist tension
Microtubles Form rigid internal skeleton in some cells, act as tracks along with motor proteins move, made from protein tubulin-a dimer, have + and - ends, can change length rapidly by adding or losing dimers
Cilia Short, usually many present, move with still power stroke and felxible recovery stroke
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Flagella Longer, usually one or two present, movement is snake like
Dynein Binds to microtuble doublets and allows them to slide past eachother. Grabs down and picks up movement
Kinesin Binds to a vesicle and "walks" it along by changing shape. Walks where it goes
Extracellular matrix Holds, cells together in tissues, contributes to properties of bone, cartiliage, skin, orient cell movements in development and tissue repair, plays a role in chemical signaling
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 Cell Theory Was the 1st unifying theory of biology, cells are the funamental units of life, all organisms are composed of cells, all cells come from preexisiting cells.
 Surface area-to-volume ratioCells are small because they need this to be high. Volume determines the amount of chemical activity in the cell per unit time, surface area determines the amount of substances that can pass the cell boundary per unit time
 Plasma membraneMade up of phospholipid bilayer, allows cells to maintain constant internal environment, a selectively permeable barrier, is important in communication and receiving signals, often has protein for binding with adjacent.
 Prokaryotes Don't have organelles, are very successful, individuals are single cells, are very small, enclosed by a plasma membrane, the DNA is contained in the nucleoid, cytoplasm consists of cytosol (water and dissolved material) and suspended particles, ribosomes-site of protein synthesis, have a rigid cell wall
 Pilihair like structures projecting from the surface. They help bacteria adhere to other cells
 FlagellaHelp the prokaryotes swim
 OrganellesA particle that has a specific task IN the eukaryotic cell
 Eukaryotic CellUP to 10 times larger than prokaryotes, have organelles,
 CompartmentalizationAllowed eukaryotic cells to specialize-forming tissues and organs into multicellular organisms
 Nucleuslargest organelle, contains the DNA, site of DNA replication, site of genetic control of cell activities, the nucleolous begins assembly of ribosomes
 Nuclear envelope2 membranes that surround the nucleus.
 Nuclear poresIn the envelope control passage of molecules. Large molecules such as proteins need a signal-a certain sequence of amino acids-to pass through.
 Chromatinformed wihen DNA combines with proteins. Before cell division, chromatin aggregates to form chromosomes.
 Endomembrane systemIncludes the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. The outer membrane of the nuclear envelope is continuous with the endomembrane system.
 Edoplasmic reticulum (ER)A network of interconnected membranes-large surface area
 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)More tubular, no ribosomes, chemically modifies small molecules such as drugs and pesticides, hydrolysis of glycogen in animal cells, synthesis of lipids and steroids.
 Rough Endoplasmic reticulum (RER)Ribosomes are attached, segregates newly made proteins-they enter the human and can be modified and transported.
 The Golgi Apparatus Carry material for cell wall, receives proteins from the ER-can further modify them, concentrates packages and sorts proteins, in plant cells, polysaccharides for cell walls are synthesized.
 Cis regionReceives vesicles (a piece of the ER that buds off) from the ER
 Trans regionVesicles bud off from the golgi apparatus and are moved to the plasma membrane
 LysosomesOriginate in the Golgi apparatus, contain digestive enzymes-macromolecules are hydrolyzed into monomers.
 PhagocytosisDigest enzyemes. A phagosome is formed which fuses with a primary lysosome, forming a secondary lysosome.
 MitochondiraEnergy in fuel molecules is transformed to the bonds of energy-rich ATP; cellular respiration. Cells that require a lot of energy have a lot of mitochondria. Not in prokaryotes
 CentriolesNOT in plant cells; only in animal
 PlastidsOccur only in plant and some protists
 ChloroplastsSite of photosynthesis-light energy is conveted to the energy of chemical bonds. Have a double membrane
 ChromoplastsContain red, organe, and yellow pigments, give color to plower. Type of plastids
 LeucoplastsStore starches and fats. A type of plastid
 PeroxisomesCatalysts break down h202 which gives H and O. Collect toxic bybroducts of metabolism
 GlyoxysomesOnly in plants, lipids are converted to carbs for growth
 VacuoelesStore waste products and toxic compounds-may deter herbivores, provide structure for plant cells-turgor, store anthocyanins (pink and blue pigments) in flowers and fruits, digestion in seeds-vaccuoles have enzymes to hydrolyze store food for early growth,
 CytoskeletonSupports and maintains shape, allows some types of movement, positions organelles, some fibers act as support for motor proteins, interacts with extracellular strucutres to hold cell in place. Has 3 components: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubles
 MicrofilamentsUnder membranes, help a cell or parts of a cell to move, determine cell shape, made from the protein actin, actin has + and - ends and polymerizes to form long helical chains (reversible)
 Intermediate filamentsMany different kinds, made of fibrous proteins of the keratin family, stabilize cell structure and resist tension
 MicrotublesForm rigid internal skeleton in some cells, act as tracks along with motor proteins move, made from protein tubulin-a dimer, have + and - ends, can change length rapidly by adding or losing dimers
 CiliaShort, usually many present, move with still power stroke and felxible recovery stroke
 FlagellaLonger, usually one or two present, movement is snake like
 DyneinBinds to microtuble doublets and allows them to slide past eachother. Grabs down and picks up movement
 KinesinBinds to a vesicle and "walks" it along by changing shape. Walks where it goes
 Extracellular matrixHolds, cells together in tissues, contributes to properties of bone, cartiliage, skin, orient cell movements in development and tissue repair, plays a role in chemical signaling
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