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Exam Review ch. 1,2,3 - Flashcards

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Class:EDUC 215 - Human Development and Learning
Subject:Education (EDUC)
University:Southwestern Michigan College
Term:Spring 2011
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Independent Variable Variable that researchers manipulate in the experiment.
Dependent Variable Variable that researchers measure in an experiment and expect to change as a result of the experimental manipulation.
Control Group The group not exposed to the treatment variable being studied
Experimental Group Exposed to the treatment variable being studied.
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Longitudinal The behavior of one or more study participants is measured as they age.
Correlational Research that seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists.
Cross-sectional Research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time.
Experimental

Research designed to discover causal relationships between various factors.


 

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Survey Type of study where a group of people chosen to represent some larger population are asked questions about their attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic.
Physical Development The body's physical make-up.
Social Development Involves the way in which an individual's interactions and social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life.
Personality Development Involves the ways that the enduring characteristic that differentiate one person from another over the life span.
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Behavioral Theory (perspective) Suggests the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment.
Social-Cognitive Learning Theory Learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model.
Humanistic Perspective The theory contending that people have a natural capcity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior.
Socio-Cultural Theory Emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture.
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Infertility the inability to concieve after 12 to 18 months of trying to become pregnant.
Multiple Births (what causes them?) Fertility drugs
Age: Older women are more likely to have multiple births.

Who determines sex of child and how?

Who: The father

 

How: If the sperm contributes an X chromosome it will be a girl. If the sperm contributes a Y chromose it will be a boy.

Birth Defects/ What causes them Fetal Alcohol Syndrome caused by alcohol
HIV/ AIDS passed on


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Teratogens an environmental agent that produces a birth defect.
Metabolic Disorder Unable to metabolize phenyalenine (PKU)
Temperament Patterens of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual.
Down Sydrome A disorder produced by the presence of an extra chromosome on the 21st pair once referred to as mongolism.
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APGAR

A: appearance

P: pulse

G: grimace

A: activity

R: respiration

* A normal score is 7-10 pts.

Low birthweight Any weight under 5 and half pounds

very low under 2 and a half pounds
Postmature Infants still unborn 2 weeks after the mother's due date.
Premature Born earlier then mothers due date.
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Infant Reflexes

The sucking and the swallowing reflex allows newborns to begin to ingest food immediately after birth


The rooting reflex involves turning in the direction of a source of stimulation( such as a ligh touch) near the mouth, is also related to eating.


Grasping

Operant Conditioning

A form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its association with positive or negative consequences.


 

Habituation The more times you're exposed to something it lessens your response.
Amniocentesis The process of identifying genetic defects by examining a sample of fetal cells drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn fetus.
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Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) A test used to find genetic defects that involves taking samples of hair-like material that surrounds the embryo.
Maternal blood sampling Taking blood from the mother.
Ultrasound sonography a process in which high- frequency sound waves scan the mother's womb to produce an image of the unborn baby, whose size and shape can be assessed.
Trust vs. Mistrust Positive: feelings of trust from environmental support

Negative: fear and concern regarding others
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Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Positive: self-sufficiency if exploration is encouraged

Negative: doubts about self, lack of independence
Initiative vs. Guilt Positive: discovery of ways to initiate actions

Negative: guilt from actions and thoughts
Industry vs. Inferiority Positive: development of sense of competence

Negative: feelings of inferiority, no sense of mastery
Identity vs. role diffusion Positive: awareness of uniqueness of self, knowledge of role to be followed.

Negative: inability to identify appropriate roles in life
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Intimacy vs. isolation Positive: development of loving, sexual relationships and close friendships

Negative: fear of relationships with others
Generativity vs. Stagnation Positive: sense of contribution to the continuity of life

Negative: trivialization of one's activities

Ego-integrity vs. Despair Positive: sense of unity in life's accomplishments

Negative: regret over lost opportunities in life
Germinal (stage of birth) the first- and shortest- stage of the prenatal period, which takes place during the first 2 weeks following conception.(zygote begins to divide and grow in complexity) 
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Embryonic (stage of birth)
The period from 2 to 8 weeks following fertilization during which significant growth occurs in the major orans and body systems.
 

Fetal (stage of birth) the stage that begins at about 8 weeks after conception and continues until birth.( child becomes easily recognizable) 
Classical conditioning A type of learning in which an organism responds in a particualar way to a neutral stimulus that normallly does not bring about that type of response. 
Monozygotic twins

Genetically identical

.


 
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Genotype the underlying combination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism. 
Dizygotic twins Produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time.
Phenotype An observable trait; the trait that is actually seen.
Polygenetic traits
combination of multiple gene pairs to create a particular trait or characteristic.
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 Independent VariableVariable that researchers manipulate in the experiment.
 Dependent VariableVariable that researchers measure in an experiment and expect to change as a result of the experimental manipulation.
 Control GroupThe group not exposed to the treatment variable being studied
 Experimental GroupExposed to the treatment variable being studied.
 LongitudinalThe behavior of one or more study participants is measured as they age.
 CorrelationalResearch that seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists.
 Cross-sectionalResearch in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time.
 Experimental

Research designed to discover causal relationships between various factors.


 

 SurveyType of study where a group of people chosen to represent some larger population are asked questions about their attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic.
 Physical DevelopmentThe body's physical make-up.
 Social DevelopmentInvolves the way in which an individual's interactions and social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life.
 Personality DevelopmentInvolves the ways that the enduring characteristic that differentiate one person from another over the life span.
 Behavioral Theory (perspective)Suggests the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment.
 Social-Cognitive Learning TheoryLearning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model.
 Humanistic PerspectiveThe theory contending that people have a natural capcity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior.
 Socio-Cultural TheoryEmphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture.
 Infertilitythe inability to concieve after 12 to 18 months of trying to become pregnant.
 Multiple Births (what causes them?)Fertility drugs
Age: Older women are more likely to have multiple births.

 Who determines sex of child and how?

Who: The father

 

How: If the sperm contributes an X chromosome it will be a girl. If the sperm contributes a Y chromose it will be a boy.

 Birth Defects/ What causes themFetal Alcohol Syndrome caused by alcohol
HIV/ AIDS passed on


 Teratogensan environmental agent that produces a birth defect.
 Metabolic DisorderUnable to metabolize phenyalenine (PKU)
 TemperamentPatterens of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual.
 Down SydromeA disorder produced by the presence of an extra chromosome on the 21st pair once referred to as mongolism.
 APGAR

A: appearance

P: pulse

G: grimace

A: activity

R: respiration

* A normal score is 7-10 pts.

 Low birthweightAny weight under 5 and half pounds

very low under 2 and a half pounds
 PostmatureInfants still unborn 2 weeks after the mother's due date.
 PrematureBorn earlier then mothers due date.
 Infant Reflexes

The sucking and the swallowing reflex allows newborns to begin to ingest food immediately after birth


The rooting reflex involves turning in the direction of a source of stimulation( such as a ligh touch) near the mouth, is also related to eating.


Grasping

 Operant Conditioning

A form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its association with positive or negative consequences.


 

 HabituationThe more times you're exposed to something it lessens your response.
 AmniocentesisThe process of identifying genetic defects by examining a sample of fetal cells drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn fetus.
 Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)A test used to find genetic defects that involves taking samples of hair-like material that surrounds the embryo.
 Maternal blood samplingTaking blood from the mother.
 Ultrasound sonographya process in which high- frequency sound waves scan the mother's womb to produce an image of the unborn baby, whose size and shape can be assessed.
 Trust vs. MistrustPositive: feelings of trust from environmental support

Negative: fear and concern regarding others
 Autonomy vs. Shame and DoubtPositive: self-sufficiency if exploration is encouraged

Negative: doubts about self, lack of independence
 Initiative vs. GuiltPositive: discovery of ways to initiate actions

Negative: guilt from actions and thoughts
 Industry vs. InferiorityPositive: development of sense of competence

Negative: feelings of inferiority, no sense of mastery
 Identity vs. role diffusionPositive: awareness of uniqueness of self, knowledge of role to be followed.

Negative: inability to identify appropriate roles in life
 Intimacy vs. isolationPositive: development of loving, sexual relationships and close friendships

Negative: fear of relationships with others
 Generativity vs. StagnationPositive: sense of contribution to the continuity of life

Negative: trivialization of one's activities

 Ego-integrity vs. DespairPositive: sense of unity in life's accomplishments

Negative: regret over lost opportunities in life
 Germinal (stage of birth)the first- and shortest- stage of the prenatal period, which takes place during the first 2 weeks following conception.(zygote begins to divide and grow in complexity) 
 Embryonic (stage of birth)
The period from 2 to 8 weeks following fertilization during which significant growth occurs in the major orans and body systems.
 

 Fetal (stage of birth)the stage that begins at about 8 weeks after conception and continues until birth.( child becomes easily recognizable) 
 Classical conditioningA type of learning in which an organism responds in a particualar way to a neutral stimulus that normallly does not bring about that type of response. 
 Monozygotic twins

Genetically identical

.


 
 Genotypethe underlying combination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism. 
 Dizygotic twinsProduced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time.
 PhenotypeAn observable trait; the trait that is actually seen.
 Polygenetic traits
combination of multiple gene pairs to create a particular trait or characteristic.
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