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Chapter 1, 2, 3 - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 1010 - Biology I and Lab
Subject:Biology
University:Roane State Community College
Term:Fall 2014
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What are the seven properties that define life? What are the seven properties that define life?
Cell Lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life. 
Prokaryotic Cells Smaller
Less complex
lacks nucleus
lacks membrane
Eukaryotic Cells Larger
More Complex
has nucleus
has membrane

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3 domains of life Bacteria, Archae, Eukarya
What type of organisms belong to bacteria? Prokaryotes
What types of organisms belong to archea? Bacteria; Prokaryotes
What types of organisms belong to Eukarya? Plants, Animals, fungi, protists: Eukaryotes
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How does energy flow in an ecosystem? Producers convert energy from sunlight to chemical energy, some are passed. 
Theory VS. Hypothesis Theory - Broader in scope then a hypothesis

Hypothesis - Educated guess for a set of observation and must be testable 
taxonomy Branch of biology that names and classifies species into a group of increasing breadth
Natural selection + Examples Natural Selection: Organisms that best adapt to their environment and are most likely to survive and reproduce. 
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Positive vs. Negative Feedback Positive: An end product speeds up its own production

Negative: is the end product that slows down the production 
Qualitative Vs. Quantitative data Quantitative - recorded measurements 

Qualitative - descriptions 
Atomic number The number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus

Mass number number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus 
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Isotope Two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons



4 elements that make up 96% of human body weight
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen 
Polar covalent Bonding One atom is more electronegative, and the atoms do not share the electron equally 
Non Polar Covalent Bonding the atoms share the electron equally 
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Does the chemical behavior of an atom depend on the electron in the outermost shell or the shell closest to the atomic nucleus? Why or Why not? What is the outermost shell called? Because if it is filled up, the element is chemically stable and will not bond. 

The outermost shell has the highest potential energy, so electrons are more likely to be involved in bond formation. 

valence shell
What is the chemical equilibrium in a cell? it is reached when the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal.
If the valence shell is complete is the atom reactive or non-reactive? Non-reactive because the shell is full 
Potential energy Vs. kinetic energy What's the difference? Potential: stored energy because of it's structure or location

Kinetic: energy of motion

Difference: Kinetic is continued in moving object, potential exists in stored form. Kinetic is always doing work, potential is ready for release. 
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Ionic bonding and what causes it to happen? Ionic bonding: an attraction between an anion and cation

Through ionic compound or salt 
Cation Vs. Anion Cation: positively charged ion
Anion: negatively charged ion
Elements Vs. Compounds Elements: Element is made of only one kind of atom.

Compound: Contains the atoms of two ore more elements
How does electronegativity effect interactions between water molecules? The hydrogen bonds are weak and constantly break and reform 
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What type of bonding occurs between water molecules? Hydrogen bonding ----> polar covalent bonds 
How does water dissolve ionic substances? Look at figure 3.7 be able to describe in words Because H2o is polar, the ionic compounds cations and anions break apart and bond to the opposite water charge 

The oxygen region of the H2o molecule are (-) charged and attracted to positive cations. The hydrogen regions are (+) charged and attracted to the anions, which separates ions and shields them from each other forming hydration shell 
Heat Vs. Temperature heat: total of all kinetic energy in a substance

Temperature: average of all kinetic energy in a  substance 
Colloid a stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid 
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What property of water allows some insects to "stand or walk" on water High surface tension 
What does acid and bases do in solutions? (think in terms of hydrogen ions) Acid: Hydrogen ion donors, they release H+ 

Bases: Hydrogen ion acceptors, they take up H+
how does a buffer minimize changes in the pH of a solution? Because they are composed of an acid and base pair. 
Why is ice able to float on water? because hydrogen bonds in ice are more ordered, making ice less dense. As a solid, (H2o) is less dense 
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Adhesion Vs. Cohesion Examples? A: the attraction of h2o to something other than itself. 

C: the attraction of h2o to itself 

Ex: traveling against gravity in a tree 
Is water able to interact with non-polar/hydrophobic substances? Why or why not? No, water can't hydrogen bond with non polar substances b/c they don't exhibit a charge 
Study figure 3.10 (pH scale) Acid- 0-6 
neutral - 7
Basic - 8-14 

Understand how hydrogen bonds play a part. Check study guide
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 What are the seven properties that define life?What are the seven properties that define life?
 CellLowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life. 
 Prokaryotic CellsSmaller
Less complex
lacks nucleus
lacks membrane
 Eukaryotic CellsLarger
More Complex
has nucleus
has membrane

 3 domains of lifeBacteria, Archae, Eukarya
 What type of organisms belong to bacteria?Prokaryotes
 What types of organisms belong to archea?Bacteria; Prokaryotes
 What types of organisms belong to Eukarya?Plants, Animals, fungi, protists: Eukaryotes
 How does energy flow in an ecosystem?Producers convert energy from sunlight to chemical energy, some are passed. 
 Theory VS. HypothesisTheory - Broader in scope then a hypothesis

Hypothesis - Educated guess for a set of observation and must be testable 
 taxonomyBranch of biology that names and classifies species into a group of increasing breadth
 Natural selection + ExamplesNatural Selection: Organisms that best adapt to their environment and are most likely to survive and reproduce. 
 Positive vs. Negative FeedbackPositive: An end product speeds up its own production

Negative: is the end product that slows down the production 
 Qualitative Vs. Quantitative dataQuantitative - recorded measurements 

Qualitative - descriptions 
 Atomic numberThe number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus

 Mass numbernumber of protons and neutrons in the nucleus 
 IsotopeTwo atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons



 4 elements that make up 96% of human body weight
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen 
 Polar covalent BondingOne atom is more electronegative, and the atoms do not share the electron equally 
 Non Polar Covalent Bondingthe atoms share the electron equally 
 Does the chemical behavior of an atom depend on the electron in the outermost shell or the shell closest to the atomic nucleus? Why or Why not? What is the outermost shell called?Because if it is filled up, the element is chemically stable and will not bond. 

The outermost shell has the highest potential energy, so electrons are more likely to be involved in bond formation. 

valence shell
 What is the chemical equilibrium in a cell?it is reached when the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal.
 If the valence shell is complete is the atom reactive or non-reactive?Non-reactive because the shell is full 
 Potential energy Vs. kinetic energy What's the difference?Potential: stored energy because of it's structure or location

Kinetic: energy of motion

Difference: Kinetic is continued in moving object, potential exists in stored form. Kinetic is always doing work, potential is ready for release. 
 Ionic bonding and what causes it to happen?Ionic bonding: an attraction between an anion and cation

Through ionic compound or salt 
 Cation Vs. AnionCation: positively charged ion
Anion: negatively charged ion
 Elements Vs. CompoundsElements: Element is made of only one kind of atom.

Compound: Contains the atoms of two ore more elements
 How does electronegativity effect interactions between water molecules?The hydrogen bonds are weak and constantly break and reform 
 What type of bonding occurs between water molecules?Hydrogen bonding ----> polar covalent bonds 
 How does water dissolve ionic substances? Look at figure 3.7 be able to describe in wordsBecause H2o is polar, the ionic compounds cations and anions break apart and bond to the opposite water charge 

The oxygen region of the H2o molecule are (-) charged and attracted to positive cations. The hydrogen regions are (+) charged and attracted to the anions, which separates ions and shields them from each other forming hydration shell 
 Heat Vs. Temperatureheat: total of all kinetic energy in a substance

Temperature: average of all kinetic energy in a  substance 
 Colloida stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid 
 What property of water allows some insects to "stand or walk" on waterHigh surface tension 
 What does acid and bases do in solutions? (think in terms of hydrogen ions)Acid: Hydrogen ion donors, they release H+ 

Bases: Hydrogen ion acceptors, they take up H+
 how does a buffer minimize changes in the pH of a solution?Because they are composed of an acid and base pair. 
 Why is ice able to float on water?because hydrogen bonds in ice are more ordered, making ice less dense. As a solid, (H2o) is less dense 
 Adhesion Vs. Cohesion Examples?A: the attraction of h2o to something other than itself. 

C: the attraction of h2o to itself 

Ex: traveling against gravity in a tree 
 Is water able to interact with non-polar/hydrophobic substances? Why or why not?No, water can't hydrogen bond with non polar substances b/c they don't exhibit a charge 
 Study figure 3.10 (pH scale)Acid- 0-6 
neutral - 7
Basic - 8-14 

Understand how hydrogen bonds play a part. Check study guide
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