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Chapter 1 Vocabulary - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 2030 - Medical Microbiology
Subject:Biology
University:University of West Georgia
Term:Spring 2010
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Microbiology The study of microorganisms
Pathogens Disease-causing microorganism; such an organism is said to be “pathogenic”
Nonpathogens A microorganism that does not cause disease; such an organism is said to be “nonpathogenic”
Ubiquitous Present everywhere
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Indigenous Microflora Microorganisms that live on and in the healthy body; also called indigenous microbiota; referred to in the past as normal flora.
Opportunistic Pathogens A microbe with the potential to cause disease, but does not do so under ordinary circumstances; may cause disease in susceptible persons with lowered resistance; also called an opportunist.
Decomposers Microorganisms that decompose or break down substances
Saprophyte An organism that lives on dead or decaying organic matter; such an organism is said to be “saprophytic”
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Bioremediation The use of microorganisms to clean up industrial and toxic wastes.
Genetic Engineering The insertion of foreign genes into microorganisms to enable them to be used for other purposes
Microbial Ecology Study of the interrelationships among microbes and the world around them (other microbes, other living organisms, and the nonliving environment)
Plankton Microscopic organisms in the ocean that serve as the starting point of many food chains
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Phytoplankton marine plants and algae that are components of plankton
Biotechnology The use of microorganisms in industry to produce chemicals, antibiotics, foods, beverages, and other products
Antibiotic A substance produced by a microorganism that kills of inhibits the growth of other microorganisms
Infectious Disease Any disease caused by a microorganism that follows colonization of the body by that microorgansim
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Microbial Intoxication A disease that results from ingestion of a toxin that was produced by a pathogen in vitro (outside the body)
Toxin As used in the book, a poisonous substance produced by a microorganism
Abiogenesis The theory that life can arise from nonliving matter; also known as “spontaneous generation”
Biogenesis The theory that life originates only from preexisting life and never from nonliving matter
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Pasteurization A heating process that kills pathogens in milk, wines, and other beverages
Petri Dish A shallow, circular container made of thin glass or clear plastic, with a loosely fitting, overlapping cover; used in microbiology laboratories for cultivation
Pure Culture When only one type of organism is growing on or in a culture medium in the laboratory; no other types of organisms are present
Koch’s Postulates A series of scientific steps, proposed by Robert Koch, that must be fulfilled to prove that a specific microorganism is the cause of a particular disease
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In Vitro In an artificial environment, as in a laboratory setting; used in reference to what occurs outside an organism
In Vivo in reference to what occurs within a living organism
Obligate Intracellular Pathogens A pathogen that must reside within another living cell; examples include viruses, chlamydias, and rickettsias
Fastidious Microorganisms Microorganisms that are difficult to isolate from specimens and grow in the laboratory, owing to their complex nutritional requirements
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Microbiologist One who specializes in the science of microbiology
Bacteriology The study of bactria
Phycology The study on algae
Protozoology The study of protozoa
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Virology The branch of science concerned with the study of viruses
Parasite An organism that lives on or in another living organism (called the host) and derives benefit from the host (usually in the form of nutrients)
Paleomicrobiology The study of ancient microorganisms
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 MicrobiologyThe study of microorganisms
 PathogensDisease-causing microorganism; such an organism is said to be “pathogenic”
 NonpathogensA microorganism that does not cause disease; such an organism is said to be “nonpathogenic”
 UbiquitousPresent everywhere
 Indigenous MicrofloraMicroorganisms that live on and in the healthy body; also called indigenous microbiota; referred to in the past as normal flora.
 Opportunistic PathogensA microbe with the potential to cause disease, but does not do so under ordinary circumstances; may cause disease in susceptible persons with lowered resistance; also called an opportunist.
 DecomposersMicroorganisms that decompose or break down substances
 SaprophyteAn organism that lives on dead or decaying organic matter; such an organism is said to be “saprophytic”
 BioremediationThe use of microorganisms to clean up industrial and toxic wastes.
 Genetic EngineeringThe insertion of foreign genes into microorganisms to enable them to be used for other purposes
 Microbial EcologyStudy of the interrelationships among microbes and the world around them (other microbes, other living organisms, and the nonliving environment)
 PlanktonMicroscopic organisms in the ocean that serve as the starting point of many food chains
 Phytoplanktonmarine plants and algae that are components of plankton
 BiotechnologyThe use of microorganisms in industry to produce chemicals, antibiotics, foods, beverages, and other products
 AntibioticA substance produced by a microorganism that kills of inhibits the growth of other microorganisms
 Infectious DiseaseAny disease caused by a microorganism that follows colonization of the body by that microorgansim
 Microbial IntoxicationA disease that results from ingestion of a toxin that was produced by a pathogen in vitro (outside the body)
 ToxinAs used in the book, a poisonous substance produced by a microorganism
 AbiogenesisThe theory that life can arise from nonliving matter; also known as “spontaneous generation”
 BiogenesisThe theory that life originates only from preexisting life and never from nonliving matter
 PasteurizationA heating process that kills pathogens in milk, wines, and other beverages
 Petri DishA shallow, circular container made of thin glass or clear plastic, with a loosely fitting, overlapping cover; used in microbiology laboratories for cultivation
 Pure CultureWhen only one type of organism is growing on or in a culture medium in the laboratory; no other types of organisms are present
 Koch’s PostulatesA series of scientific steps, proposed by Robert Koch, that must be fulfilled to prove that a specific microorganism is the cause of a particular disease
 In VitroIn an artificial environment, as in a laboratory setting; used in reference to what occurs outside an organism
 In Vivoin reference to what occurs within a living organism
 Obligate Intracellular PathogensA pathogen that must reside within another living cell; examples include viruses, chlamydias, and rickettsias
 Fastidious MicroorganismsMicroorganisms that are difficult to isolate from specimens and grow in the laboratory, owing to their complex nutritional requirements
 MicrobiologistOne who specializes in the science of microbiology
 BacteriologyThe study of bactria
 PhycologyThe study on algae
 ProtozoologyThe study of protozoa
 VirologyThe branch of science concerned with the study of viruses
 ParasiteAn organism that lives on or in another living organism (called the host) and derives benefit from the host (usually in the form of nutrients)
 PaleomicrobiologyThe study of ancient microorganisms
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