Koofers

Diseases of the systems - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 1259 - Bacteriology
Subject:Biology
University:University of North Carolina - Charlotte
Term:Fall 2011
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Tinea Pedis

*ringworm of the foot. 

 

*blisters between the toes that rupture and crust over.

 

*due to wet/sweaty feet in shoes.

 

*Cause-- Dermatophytes (fungi)

Tinea Unguium

*Ringworm of the nail

 

*white patches in nail bed

 

*thickening, darkening & distortion of the nails

 

*Cause-- dermatophytes (fungi)

Causative agent of gonorrhea

 

 

 

Neiserria gonorrheae-- a gram negative diplococci

Symptoms of Gonorrhea

-- urethritis characterized by dysuria and yellow discharge in males

 

-- dysuria and bloody discharge in females.  infects cervical cellls

 

-- some cases asymptomatic.  10% males and 50% females

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1st stage of syphillis -- lesion "chancre" on mucus membrane in females and on penis in males
2nd stage of syphillis

-- rash on body and palms of hands

 

-- have systemic infection by this time

3rd/final stage of syphillis
Causative agent of syphillis -- Treponema palidum -- a spirochete
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Congenital syphillis

-- passed to fetus across placenta

 

-- most common if pregnancy occurs during latent period or if female becomes infected furing 2nd or 3rd trimester

 

-- consequences range from mild to miscarriage or still birth

Symptoms of congenital syphillis

-- early "snuffles" -- inflammation and discharge from nose

 

-- hutchinson's teeth -- later in life with adult teeth

Herpes Symptoms

-- initial infection may be asymptomatic (more often in females) or may produce fluid-filled vesicles which are painful to the touch

 

-- others include fever, malaise and groin swelling

Causative agents of herpes
  • HHV-1 -- above the waist
  • HHV-2 -- below the waist
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Hepatitis C
  • RNA virus
  • silent epidemic
  • 75-85% of cases become chronic
  • 25% of cases cause cancer
  • kills more people than aids

 

  • transmitted through blood contact
Signs/symptoms of Hep B and C
  • fever
  • chills
  • malaise
  • abdominal pain/discomfort
  • diarrhea
  • nausea
  • may progress to involve kidneys and/or arterial inflammation.
  • may become chronic leading to CA and cirrhosis
Hepatitis B
  • DNA virus
  • transmitted by blood, semen, vaginal secretions, saliva or breast milk

 

Hepatitis A
  • GI infection
  • RNA virus
  • transmitted fecal-oral route
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Signs/symptoms of Hep A
  • often subclinical in children
  • symptoms are usually mild
  • darkened urine often seen

 

Trichamonas as cause of vaginitis
  • sexually transmitted
  • treated with antiprotozoan meds
Symptoms of trich
Treatment of tetanus
  • preformed antitoxin (TIG)
  • breathing assistance if needed
  • antibiotics
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Signs/symptoms of tetanus
  • blocks signals to relax muscles after contraction
  • 1st symptom is usually lock jaw/clenching of jaw
  • death most often occurs due to resp failure
Causative agent of tetanus Clostridium tetani-- a gram postive endospore former
Signs/symptoms of C-diff
  • diarrhea is most common symptom.
  • others may include fever and abdominal cramps
C-diff
  • found as normal flora of intestines
  • occurs as opportunistic infection
  • colon becomes inflamed and patches (pseudomembranes) slough off
  • treatment is antibiotics
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Causative agent of c-diff
  • Clostridium difficle
  • It causes pseudomembrane colitis
Staph aureus as food poisoning cause
  • foods become contaminated during or after preparation and are left at room temp or warmer for a few hours
Symptoms of staph aureus food poisoning
  • begin within approx 1-6 hours of ingestion
  • cramping
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
Cause/Transmission of staph aureus as food poisoning associated with custards, sauces, cream pastires, processed meats, chicken salad, or ham
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Bacillus cereus as food poisoning cause-- vomiting disease symptoms
  • 1-6 hr incubation period
  • vomiting
  • nausea
  • abdominal cramps
Bacillus cereus as food poisoning cause-- vomiting disease cause
  • most often associated with fried rice kept warm for long periods of time

 

Bacillus cereus as food poisoning cause-- diarrheal disease cause
  • cooked meats or veggies kept warm

 

Bacillus cereus as food poisoning cause-- diarrheal disease symptoms
  • 6 hr incubation period
  • nausea
  • diarrhea
  • abdominal cramps
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Signs/symptoms of Vaginitis
  • vaginal itching
  • burning
  • discharge varies on causative agent
Causative agents of vaginitis
  • Candida albicans
  • trichamonas
Candida albicans as cause of vaginitis
  • yeast infection
  • always opportunistic
  • treated with antifungal meds
Symptoms of candida albicans
  • severe itching
  • distinguished by white curd-like discharge that grows on vaginal wall

 

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Giardia
  • cause of chronic diarrhea which lasts than longer than 14 days
  • outbreaks associated with stream water sources ("beaver fever"), day care centers and contaminated food
Signs/symptoms of giardia
  • severe watery diarrhea
  • abdomial pain
  • flatulence
  • stools with rotten egg smell

 

  • usually NO fever
Cause of giardia protozoa
toxoplasmosis
  • associated with raw/undercooked meat
  • associated with unhygenic handling of cats or inhalation through cat feces
  • treatment is antiprotozoan drugs
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causative agent of toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii (flagellated protozoan)
signs of toxoplasmosis

-- in normal healthy adult-- infection generally unnoticed

 

-- at risk (immunocompromised and fetus) -- severe and fatal.  can cause miscarriage

rabies
  • bullet shaped virus
  • zooonitc disease with resiviors animals with most often skunks and racoons
treatment of rabies preformed antibodies (HRIG) and vaccine which takes 4 weeks to enter CNS
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symptoms/signs of rabies
  • fever, nausea, vomit, HA, fever, etc
  • 1st signs of neuro are agitation, seizures and disorientation
  • progresses to painful spasms in neck and throat (hydorphobia)
  • ultimately leads to encephalitis, coma and death from cardiac and resp distress
signs/symptoms of shigella
  • frequent watery stools
  • fever and abdominal pain
  • nausea and vomiting are common
  • blood is often found in stools (dysentery) along with mucus

 

causative agent of shigella
  • fecal oral-route
  • eating fecally contaminated foods

 

 

 

Signs/symptoms of salmonella
  • range from mild (vomiting, diarrhea and mucosal inflammation)
  • to severe (fever and septicemia)
  • can lead to typhoid fever that leads to septicemia
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causative agent/transmission
  • involves animal products (meat, milk, etc.) that become contaminated during slaughter and processing
congenital rubella
  • virus transmitted in utero
  • injury avires iwth time of infection, but most dangerous during first trimester
  • commmon defects include congenital abnormalities, caridac abnormalities, ocular lesion, deafness & phyical & mental effects in varying combination
signs of Rubella
  • minor flat rash on face, chest and abdomen
cause of rubella rubella virus
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shingles
  • latent chicekn pox virus that reactivates
  • stimuli such as x-ray, stress, trauma, surgery, CA and immunosuppression activate it
cause of chicken pox herpes zoster virus
signs of chicken pox
  • 10-20 days following exposure: develop rash and fever that eventually develops into "fluid-filled" vesicles that eventually crust over
  • infectious from 2 days befor rash til all vesicles crust over
SSSS causative agent

staph aureus

-- virulence factor is exfoliative toxin that enters the blood

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Signs of SSSS

-- redness of the skin to wrinkled tissue paper  texture to large blisters that peel

 

-- most often affects infants or newborns

signs of impetigo

characteristic lesions around the mouth that are itchy

 

cutaneous ifnection

causative agents of impetigo

--staph aureus-- virulence factors of exfoliative toxin (cytotoxin) and coagulase

 

-- strep pyogenes-- virulence factors of M protein and hyaluronidase

listerosis

associated with dairy, poultry and meat

 

resistant to heat, cold, salt, bile, pH extremes

 

treatment abx started immediately

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signs/symptoms of listeriosis

adults-- mild, nonspecific symptoms

 

at risk-- affects brain and meningies and causes septicemia

causative agent of listeriosis listeria monocytogenes
Pneumococcal meningitis causative agent strep pneumoniae (gram positive cocci)
pneumococcal meningitis

associated with individuals suffering from PNE, sinusitis, otitis media, or trauma/surgery

 

treatment-- abx such as penicillin

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Meningococcal meningitis

-- meningococcemia may occur and may experience vascular damage/rash called petechiae

 

-- experiences normal meninigial symptoms in addition to sore throat, vomiting and confulsions

 

-- treatment is penicillin G or other abx

causative agent of meningococcal meningitis Neisseria meningitidis (gram negative diplococci)
diagnosis of TB
  • PPD skin test injected then checked 24-72 hours later
  • positive result indicates past infection or disease
  • if positive, CXR is performed
Signs of primary TB

typically asymptomatic. 

 

possible mild fever

 

defensive response results in developmet of small tubercules

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signs of secondary TB

surviing cells  escape from tubercule

 

violent cough with green/bloody sputum, low grade fever, weight loss, night sweats, CP and fatigue

signs of dissemented TB organisms spread to other organs
cause of TB Mycobacterium tuberculosis (acid-fast organism)
Meningitis inflammation of the meninges
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Symptoms of meningitis fever, HA, painful or stiff neck, and usually increased number of WBCs in CSF
causative agents of meningitis

neiserria meninigitis

 

strep pneumoniae

 

signs of Gastrointeritis nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetitie, abdominal pain and cramps
causative agents/associations of gastroenteritis contaminated food or water and poor living conditions
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causative agent of periodontal disease depends on organisms that make up biofilm on teeth.  other factors include behavior, genetics and tooth postion
Gingivitis swelling of gums, loss of normal contour, rednes, increased bleeding, pockets b/w tooth and gum
Periodontitis characterized by deeper pockets and bone repsorption
signs of the common cold

sneezing, scrattchy throat, runny nose, congestion and malaise

 

usually start 2-5 ays after infection

 

fever not usually symptom

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casuative agents of common cold

over 200 viruses can cause.  symptoms same no matter what.  most common are rhinovirusews and coronaviruses

genital warts symptoms most occur on outside tissues of gential area for both sexes
cause of gential warts

HPV.  it is the most concerning

 

if virus infects cervical cells it can lead to CA.  (HPV-16 & HPV-18)

males can also get CA, just less common

 

infected for life

AIDS

target cell is Th or CD4

 

retrovirus

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signs of AIDS

intiital symptoms are vague and soon disappear.  may include weight loss, fatigue, diarrhea and increase in in opportunitist infecions

 

latent period of 2-15 years and by now number of Th cells decreased

 

symptoms worsen as Th count is decreasing

treatment of AIDS

reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors given. 

 

HAART-- highly active anti retroviral therapy.  up to 40 pills per day

rocky mtn spotted fever causative agent Rickettsia rickettsii
rocky mtn spotted fever symptoms

1st begin approx 2-4 days following tick bite and include fever, chills, HA and muscle pain

 

a rash forms on palms and sles approx 2-4 days after initial symptoms

 

more life threating concern is cardiac disruption

 

signs of neuro damge include delerium, convlusions, tremors and coma

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dental caries

-- most common infectious diseases  of humans

 

-- metabolic activity of mcrobes within a biofilm destroy tooth enamel

 

-- most common cause are species of strep

Lower GI defense and NF

defense= IgA.  bile of stomach

 

NF= large numbers.  strep, clostridium, escheria, enterobacter, candida

lyme disease signs/symptoms

nonfatal, but often progresses and causes arthritis

 

first distinctive symptom is a bulls eye rash that develops at site of rash

 

early symptoms are fever, stiff neck, HA, and dizziness

 

2nd stage are cardiac and neuro symptoms

cause of lyme disease

tick bite

 

Borrelia burgdorferi (a spirochete)

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septicemia occurs when organisms are actively multiplying in blood
cause of septicemia often gram negative cells, but can sometimes be gram postiive or fungi
symptoms of septicemia fever, shaking chills, increased breathing and HR, and low BP
upper GI defense and NF

defenese= IgA.  pH of stomach

 

NF= sparse

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signs of mono sore throat, high fever, swollen lymph nodes, gray/white exudate in throat, skin rash, enlarged liver/spleen & fatigue
causative agent of mono Epstein-barr virus  (herpes virus family)
Conjunctivitis symptoms white yellow discharge, inflammation of conjunctiva, redness, swelling or eyelid, and gritty sensation
conjunctivitis causative agents

1.  neonatal:  chlamydia trichomatis and neisseria gonorroeae

2. staph and strep species

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Tinea cruris

ringworm of the groin or "jock itch"

 

thrive under moisture and humidity

tinea corporis

ringworm of the body

 

scaly, reddish rings on face, trunk, hip, arm or neck

 

cause-- dermatophytes (fungi)

tinea captitis

ringowrm of the scalp

 

scaly patches on scalp to complete hair loss

TORCH

Most common infections of fetus and newborn.

Most serious complications include miscarriage, congenital abnormalities, brain damage, prematurity and still birth

 

T-- toxoplasmosis

O-- other (syphillis, varicella zoster, chlymadia, HIV)

R-- rubella

C-- cytomegalovirus

H-- herpes simplex (HHV)

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Herpetic whitlows

inflamed blister due to HHV 1 or 2 entering a break or cut in skin  of finger

 

hazard for children who suck thumb or those working in gynecology, obstetrics, dentistry or respiratory care

 

infection where virus has entered skin

Herpes of newborn

characteristic symptom is cigarette burn looking lesions

 

almost always fatal if it attacks the nervous system

 

can cross plascenta during birth or transmitted before birth or during birth by contact with lesions

 

more damaging if woman gets herpes for 1st time, esp during 1st trimester

endocarditis inflammation of the endocardium and usually refers to infection of heart valves
signs of endocarditis fatigue, weight loss, murmur, joint pain, night sweats, SOB, and possible splinter/ pin-point hemmorrhages
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acute endocarditis causative agents staph aureus, strep pyogenes, strep pneumoniae, or neisseria gonorrhea
Subacute endocarditis causative agent strep species of low pathogencity usually assocaited with mouth
septicemia presenece of bacteria in blood that are proliferating or increasing in number
botulism

associated with eating poorly presesrved foods

 

adult intoxication-- ingest the toxin that is made in the food

infant infection-- ingest endospore and it makes toxin in GI tract

 

treatment-- preformed antixoin and respiratory assitance if needed

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signs of botulism

flaaccid paralysis (blocks signal for contraction)

 

1st symptoms are double vision, difficulty swwallowing and dizzieness

 

death ususally a result due to resp failure

 

causative agent of botulism clostridium botulinum (gram postive endospore former)
oral cavity defense and NF

defenses= IgA. saliva with lysosome

 

NF= streptococcus, candida and haemophilus  

PNE inflammatory condition where fluid fills the alveoli of the lungs
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Signs of PNE

beginw ith upper resp symptoms including runny nose, congestion, HA and fever

 

lung symptoms include CP, fever, SOB, painful breathing, cough with discolored sputum

causative agent of PNE strep pneumoniae, legionella pneumophilia, mycoplasma pneumoniae, hantavirus, SARS, histoplasm capsulitis.
pyelonephrtis

UTI involving the kidneys

 

symptoms are severe back pain, side pain, fever exceeding 102, vomiting, and symptoms of cystitis

UTI

E. coli is most often cause

 

different classes

 

more often among women

 

most often nosocomial infection associated with catheters where men and women are equally susceptible

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cystitis

infeciton of bladder

classic UTI

 

symptoms are pain in pubic area, frequency, dysuria, and urine may be cloudy, hematuria.

 

slight fever and naueas often occur

urethritis UTI limited to urethra
antigenic drift mistakes made in RNA synthesis due to lack of spell check in RNA polymerase
antigenic shift combination of infection (in swine) creating a new infection
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influenza cauative agent haemophilus influenzae virus
flu symptoms/signs

1-4 day incubation

 

HA, chills,dry cough, body aches, fever, stuffy nose and Sore throat

 

extreme faigue lasting few days to weeks

 

suscpetible to 2ndary infections

 

swine flu of 09-- not all had fever, many had GI distress

complications of untreated strep throat

scarlet fever-- only occurs if strep can produce erythrogenic toxin.  bacterial cell must be lysogenized.  sandpaper rash, fever and strawberry tongue are symptoms

 

rheumatic fever-- autoimmune dz where abx made against strep pyogenes binds to heart valves

trachoma signs dishcarge, inflammation, pebbled appearce, layer forms over cornea
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causative agent of trachoma Chlymadia trachomatis
acute diarrhea

most cases are self limiting and do not requre abx

 

defined as 3 or more loose stools in 24 hours

 

biggest conern is dehydration

 

multiple causative agents

 

ridding pathosgens through vomiting and diarrhea

 

pharyngitis causative agents

viral agents-- reddened mucosa, swollen tonsils and often foul breath

 

strep pyogenes-- more painful and associated with fever, HA, and nausea.  also above symptoms and has patches of adhering pus and scattered tiny hemorrhages

acute otitis media

organisms access to middle ear from eustachian tube

 

fluid build up & places pressure on ear drum

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signs of otitis media

fullness or pain in ear and loss of hearing

 

young children may be irritable, fussy, have trouble sleeping or eating or hearing, or may pull at ears

causative agent of otitis media most common is strep pneumoniae or haeophilus influenzae in unvaccinated
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 Tinea Pedis

*ringworm of the foot. 

 

*blisters between the toes that rupture and crust over.

 

*due to wet/sweaty feet in shoes.

 

*Cause-- Dermatophytes (fungi)

 Tinea Unguium

*Ringworm of the nail

 

*white patches in nail bed

 

*thickening, darkening & distortion of the nails

 

*Cause-- dermatophytes (fungi)

 Causative agent of gonorrhea

 

 

 

Neiserria gonorrheae-- a gram negative diplococci

 Symptoms of Gonorrhea

-- urethritis characterized by dysuria and yellow discharge in males

 

-- dysuria and bloody discharge in females.  infects cervical cellls

 

-- some cases asymptomatic.  10% males and 50% females

 1st stage of syphillis-- lesion "chancre" on mucus membrane in females and on penis in males
 2nd stage of syphillis

-- rash on body and palms of hands

 

-- have systemic infection by this time

 3rd/final stage of syphillis 
 Causative agent of syphillis-- Treponema palidum -- a spirochete
 Congenital syphillis

-- passed to fetus across placenta

 

-- most common if pregnancy occurs during latent period or if female becomes infected furing 2nd or 3rd trimester

 

-- consequences range from mild to miscarriage or still birth

 Symptoms of congenital syphillis

-- early "snuffles" -- inflammation and discharge from nose

 

-- hutchinson's teeth -- later in life with adult teeth

 Herpes Symptoms

-- initial infection may be asymptomatic (more often in females) or may produce fluid-filled vesicles which are painful to the touch

 

-- others include fever, malaise and groin swelling

 Causative agents of herpes
  • HHV-1 -- above the waist
  • HHV-2 -- below the waist
 Hepatitis C
  • RNA virus
  • silent epidemic
  • 75-85% of cases become chronic
  • 25% of cases cause cancer
  • kills more people than aids

 

  • transmitted through blood contact
 Signs/symptoms of Hep B and C
  • fever
  • chills
  • malaise
  • abdominal pain/discomfort
  • diarrhea
  • nausea
  • may progress to involve kidneys and/or arterial inflammation.
  • may become chronic leading to CA and cirrhosis
 Hepatitis B
  • DNA virus
  • transmitted by blood, semen, vaginal secretions, saliva or breast milk

 

 Hepatitis A
  • GI infection
  • RNA virus
  • transmitted fecal-oral route
 Signs/symptoms of Hep A
  • often subclinical in children
  • symptoms are usually mild
  • darkened urine often seen

 

 Trichamonas as cause of vaginitis
  • sexually transmitted
  • treated with antiprotozoan meds
 Symptoms of trich 
 Treatment of tetanus
  • preformed antitoxin (TIG)
  • breathing assistance if needed
  • antibiotics
 Signs/symptoms of tetanus
  • blocks signals to relax muscles after contraction
  • 1st symptom is usually lock jaw/clenching of jaw
  • death most often occurs due to resp failure
 Causative agent of tetanusClostridium tetani-- a gram postive endospore former
 Signs/symptoms of C-diff
  • diarrhea is most common symptom.
  • others may include fever and abdominal cramps
 C-diff
  • found as normal flora of intestines
  • occurs as opportunistic infection
  • colon becomes inflamed and patches (pseudomembranes) slough off
  • treatment is antibiotics
 Causative agent of c-diff
  • Clostridium difficle
  • It causes pseudomembrane colitis
 Staph aureus as food poisoning cause
  • foods become contaminated during or after preparation and are left at room temp or warmer for a few hours
 Symptoms of staph aureus food poisoning
  • begin within approx 1-6 hours of ingestion
  • cramping
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
 Cause/Transmission of staph aureus as food poisoningassociated with custards, sauces, cream pastires, processed meats, chicken salad, or ham
 Bacillus cereus as food poisoning cause-- vomiting disease symptoms
  • 1-6 hr incubation period
  • vomiting
  • nausea
  • abdominal cramps
 Bacillus cereus as food poisoning cause-- vomiting disease cause
  • most often associated with fried rice kept warm for long periods of time

 

 Bacillus cereus as food poisoning cause-- diarrheal disease cause
  • cooked meats or veggies kept warm

 

 Bacillus cereus as food poisoning cause-- diarrheal disease symptoms
  • 6 hr incubation period
  • nausea
  • diarrhea
  • abdominal cramps
 Signs/symptoms of Vaginitis
  • vaginal itching
  • burning
  • discharge varies on causative agent
 Causative agents of vaginitis
  • Candida albicans
  • trichamonas
 Candida albicans as cause of vaginitis
  • yeast infection
  • always opportunistic
  • treated with antifungal meds
 Symptoms of candida albicans
  • severe itching
  • distinguished by white curd-like discharge that grows on vaginal wall

 

 Giardia
  • cause of chronic diarrhea which lasts than longer than 14 days
  • outbreaks associated with stream water sources ("beaver fever"), day care centers and contaminated food
 Signs/symptoms of giardia
  • severe watery diarrhea
  • abdomial pain
  • flatulence
  • stools with rotten egg smell

 

  • usually NO fever
 Cause of giardiaprotozoa
 toxoplasmosis
  • associated with raw/undercooked meat
  • associated with unhygenic handling of cats or inhalation through cat feces
  • treatment is antiprotozoan drugs
 causative agent of toxoplasmosisToxoplasma gondii (flagellated protozoan)
 signs of toxoplasmosis

-- in normal healthy adult-- infection generally unnoticed

 

-- at risk (immunocompromised and fetus) -- severe and fatal.  can cause miscarriage

 rabies
  • bullet shaped virus
  • zooonitc disease with resiviors animals with most often skunks and racoons
 treatment of rabiespreformed antibodies (HRIG) and vaccine which takes 4 weeks to enter CNS
 symptoms/signs of rabies
  • fever, nausea, vomit, HA, fever, etc
  • 1st signs of neuro are agitation, seizures and disorientation
  • progresses to painful spasms in neck and throat (hydorphobia)
  • ultimately leads to encephalitis, coma and death from cardiac and resp distress
 signs/symptoms of shigella
  • frequent watery stools
  • fever and abdominal pain
  • nausea and vomiting are common
  • blood is often found in stools (dysentery) along with mucus

 

 causative agent of shigella
  • fecal oral-route
  • eating fecally contaminated foods

 

 

 

 Signs/symptoms of salmonella
  • range from mild (vomiting, diarrhea and mucosal inflammation)
  • to severe (fever and septicemia)
  • can lead to typhoid fever that leads to septicemia
 causative agent/transmission
  • involves animal products (meat, milk, etc.) that become contaminated during slaughter and processing
 congenital rubella
  • virus transmitted in utero
  • injury avires iwth time of infection, but most dangerous during first trimester
  • commmon defects include congenital abnormalities, caridac abnormalities, ocular lesion, deafness & phyical & mental effects in varying combination
 signs of Rubella
  • minor flat rash on face, chest and abdomen
 cause of rubellarubella virus
 shingles
  • latent chicekn pox virus that reactivates
  • stimuli such as x-ray, stress, trauma, surgery, CA and immunosuppression activate it
 cause of chicken poxherpes zoster virus
 signs of chicken pox
  • 10-20 days following exposure: develop rash and fever that eventually develops into "fluid-filled" vesicles that eventually crust over
  • infectious from 2 days befor rash til all vesicles crust over
 SSSS causative agent

staph aureus

-- virulence factor is exfoliative toxin that enters the blood

 Signs of SSSS

-- redness of the skin to wrinkled tissue paper  texture to large blisters that peel

 

-- most often affects infants or newborns

 signs of impetigo

characteristic lesions around the mouth that are itchy

 

cutaneous ifnection

 causative agents of impetigo

--staph aureus-- virulence factors of exfoliative toxin (cytotoxin) and coagulase

 

-- strep pyogenes-- virulence factors of M protein and hyaluronidase

 listerosis

associated with dairy, poultry and meat

 

resistant to heat, cold, salt, bile, pH extremes

 

treatment abx started immediately

 signs/symptoms of listeriosis

adults-- mild, nonspecific symptoms

 

at risk-- affects brain and meningies and causes septicemia

 causative agent of listeriosislisteria monocytogenes
 Pneumococcal meningitis causative agentstrep pneumoniae (gram positive cocci)
 pneumococcal meningitis

associated with individuals suffering from PNE, sinusitis, otitis media, or trauma/surgery

 

treatment-- abx such as penicillin

 Meningococcal meningitis

-- meningococcemia may occur and may experience vascular damage/rash called petechiae

 

-- experiences normal meninigial symptoms in addition to sore throat, vomiting and confulsions

 

-- treatment is penicillin G or other abx

 causative agent of meningococcal meningitisNeisseria meningitidis (gram negative diplococci)
 diagnosis of TB
  • PPD skin test injected then checked 24-72 hours later
  • positive result indicates past infection or disease
  • if positive, CXR is performed
 Signs of primary TB

typically asymptomatic. 

 

possible mild fever

 

defensive response results in developmet of small tubercules

 signs of secondary TB

surviing cells  escape from tubercule

 

violent cough with green/bloody sputum, low grade fever, weight loss, night sweats, CP and fatigue

 signs of dissemented TBorganisms spread to other organs
 cause of TBMycobacterium tuberculosis (acid-fast organism)
 Meningitisinflammation of the meninges
 Symptoms of meningitisfever, HA, painful or stiff neck, and usually increased number of WBCs in CSF
 causative agents of meningitis

neiserria meninigitis

 

strep pneumoniae

 

 signs of Gastrointeritisnausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetitie, abdominal pain and cramps
 causative agents/associations of gastroenteritiscontaminated food or water and poor living conditions
 causative agent of periodontal diseasedepends on organisms that make up biofilm on teeth.  other factors include behavior, genetics and tooth postion
 Gingivitisswelling of gums, loss of normal contour, rednes, increased bleeding, pockets b/w tooth and gum
 Periodontitischaracterized by deeper pockets and bone repsorption
 signs of the common cold

sneezing, scrattchy throat, runny nose, congestion and malaise

 

usually start 2-5 ays after infection

 

fever not usually symptom

 casuative agents of common cold

over 200 viruses can cause.  symptoms same no matter what.  most common are rhinovirusews and coronaviruses

 genital warts symptomsmost occur on outside tissues of gential area for both sexes
 cause of gential warts

HPV.  it is the most concerning

 

if virus infects cervical cells it can lead to CA.  (HPV-16 & HPV-18)

males can also get CA, just less common

 

infected for life

 AIDS

target cell is Th or CD4

 

retrovirus

 signs of AIDS

intiital symptoms are vague and soon disappear.  may include weight loss, fatigue, diarrhea and increase in in opportunitist infecions

 

latent period of 2-15 years and by now number of Th cells decreased

 

symptoms worsen as Th count is decreasing

 treatment of AIDS

reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors given. 

 

HAART-- highly active anti retroviral therapy.  up to 40 pills per day

 rocky mtn spotted fever causative agentRickettsia rickettsii
 rocky mtn spotted fever symptoms

1st begin approx 2-4 days following tick bite and include fever, chills, HA and muscle pain

 

a rash forms on palms and sles approx 2-4 days after initial symptoms

 

more life threating concern is cardiac disruption

 

signs of neuro damge include delerium, convlusions, tremors and coma

 dental caries

-- most common infectious diseases  of humans

 

-- metabolic activity of mcrobes within a biofilm destroy tooth enamel

 

-- most common cause are species of strep

 Lower GI defense and NF

defense= IgA.  bile of stomach

 

NF= large numbers.  strep, clostridium, escheria, enterobacter, candida

 lyme disease signs/symptoms

nonfatal, but often progresses and causes arthritis

 

first distinctive symptom is a bulls eye rash that develops at site of rash

 

early symptoms are fever, stiff neck, HA, and dizziness

 

2nd stage are cardiac and neuro symptoms

 cause of lyme disease

tick bite

 

Borrelia burgdorferi (a spirochete)

 septicemiaoccurs when organisms are actively multiplying in blood
 cause of septicemiaoften gram negative cells, but can sometimes be gram postiive or fungi
 symptoms of septicemiafever, shaking chills, increased breathing and HR, and low BP
 upper GI defense and NF

defenese= IgA.  pH of stomach

 

NF= sparse

 signs of monosore throat, high fever, swollen lymph nodes, gray/white exudate in throat, skin rash, enlarged liver/spleen & fatigue
 causative agent of monoEpstein-barr virus  (herpes virus family)
 Conjunctivitis symptomswhite yellow discharge, inflammation of conjunctiva, redness, swelling or eyelid, and gritty sensation
 conjunctivitis causative agents

1.  neonatal:  chlamydia trichomatis and neisseria gonorroeae

2. staph and strep species

 Tinea cruris

ringworm of the groin or "jock itch"

 

thrive under moisture and humidity

 tinea corporis

ringworm of the body

 

scaly, reddish rings on face, trunk, hip, arm or neck

 

cause-- dermatophytes (fungi)

 tinea captitis

ringowrm of the scalp

 

scaly patches on scalp to complete hair loss

 TORCH

Most common infections of fetus and newborn.

Most serious complications include miscarriage, congenital abnormalities, brain damage, prematurity and still birth

 

T-- toxoplasmosis

O-- other (syphillis, varicella zoster, chlymadia, HIV)

R-- rubella

C-- cytomegalovirus

H-- herpes simplex (HHV)

 Herpetic whitlows

inflamed blister due to HHV 1 or 2 entering a break or cut in skin  of finger

 

hazard for children who suck thumb or those working in gynecology, obstetrics, dentistry or respiratory care

 

infection where virus has entered skin

 Herpes of newborn

characteristic symptom is cigarette burn looking lesions

 

almost always fatal if it attacks the nervous system

 

can cross plascenta during birth or transmitted before birth or during birth by contact with lesions

 

more damaging if woman gets herpes for 1st time, esp during 1st trimester

 endocarditisinflammation of the endocardium and usually refers to infection of heart valves
 signs of endocarditisfatigue, weight loss, murmur, joint pain, night sweats, SOB, and possible splinter/ pin-point hemmorrhages
 acute endocarditis causative agentsstaph aureus, strep pyogenes, strep pneumoniae, or neisseria gonorrhea
 Subacute endocarditis causative agentstrep species of low pathogencity usually assocaited with mouth
 septicemiapresenece of bacteria in blood that are proliferating or increasing in number
 botulism

associated with eating poorly presesrved foods

 

adult intoxication-- ingest the toxin that is made in the food

infant infection-- ingest endospore and it makes toxin in GI tract

 

treatment-- preformed antixoin and respiratory assitance if needed

 signs of botulism

flaaccid paralysis (blocks signal for contraction)

 

1st symptoms are double vision, difficulty swwallowing and dizzieness

 

death ususally a result due to resp failure

 

 causative agent of botulismclostridium botulinum (gram postive endospore former)
 oral cavity defense and NF

defenses= IgA. saliva with lysosome

 

NF= streptococcus, candida and haemophilus  

 PNEinflammatory condition where fluid fills the alveoli of the lungs
 Signs of PNE

beginw ith upper resp symptoms including runny nose, congestion, HA and fever

 

lung symptoms include CP, fever, SOB, painful breathing, cough with discolored sputum

 causative agent of PNEstrep pneumoniae, legionella pneumophilia, mycoplasma pneumoniae, hantavirus, SARS, histoplasm capsulitis.
 pyelonephrtis

UTI involving the kidneys

 

symptoms are severe back pain, side pain, fever exceeding 102, vomiting, and symptoms of cystitis

 UTI

E. coli is most often cause

 

different classes

 

more often among women

 

most often nosocomial infection associated with catheters where men and women are equally susceptible

 cystitis

infeciton of bladder

classic UTI

 

symptoms are pain in pubic area, frequency, dysuria, and urine may be cloudy, hematuria.

 

slight fever and naueas often occur

 urethritisUTI limited to urethra
 antigenic driftmistakes made in RNA synthesis due to lack of spell check in RNA polymerase
 antigenic shiftcombination of infection (in swine) creating a new infection
 influenza cauative agenthaemophilus influenzae virus
 flu symptoms/signs

1-4 day incubation

 

HA, chills,dry cough, body aches, fever, stuffy nose and Sore throat

 

extreme faigue lasting few days to weeks

 

suscpetible to 2ndary infections

 

swine flu of 09-- not all had fever, many had GI distress

 complications of untreated strep throat

scarlet fever-- only occurs if strep can produce erythrogenic toxin.  bacterial cell must be lysogenized.  sandpaper rash, fever and strawberry tongue are symptoms

 

rheumatic fever-- autoimmune dz where abx made against strep pyogenes binds to heart valves

 trachoma signsdishcarge, inflammation, pebbled appearce, layer forms over cornea
 causative agent of trachomaChlymadia trachomatis
 acute diarrhea

most cases are self limiting and do not requre abx

 

defined as 3 or more loose stools in 24 hours

 

biggest conern is dehydration

 

multiple causative agents

 

ridding pathosgens through vomiting and diarrhea

 

 pharyngitis causative agents

viral agents-- reddened mucosa, swollen tonsils and often foul breath

 

strep pyogenes-- more painful and associated with fever, HA, and nausea.  also above symptoms and has patches of adhering pus and scattered tiny hemorrhages

 acute otitis media

organisms access to middle ear from eustachian tube

 

fluid build up & places pressure on ear drum

 signs of otitis media

fullness or pain in ear and loss of hearing

 

young children may be irritable, fussy, have trouble sleeping or eating or hearing, or may pull at ears

 causative agent of otitis mediamost common is strep pneumoniae or haeophilus influenzae in unvaccinated
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