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Evolution Test 2 - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 412 - Evolutionary Biology
Subject:Biology
University:University of Kansas
Term:Spring 2013
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Studying Evo Patterns and Processes in Evolution

Patterns - identifying the Order in Nature
Process -  Determining or inferring the Mechanisms of evolution

***Patterns result from processes

Pattern of relationships - Ex = coloration of beattles
----Transition from Green to Brown (caused by mutation/genetic drift)
Process
**Biological Evolution = ∆ in Pops/Time**
Natural Selection and Genetic Drift lead to Bio Evo = Processes

Speciation = cause 

Bacteria have Rapidly Evolved Resistance to Clinical Antiobiotics
----Nat Sel = Probable Process
----2 years for resistance in Bacteria to arise = Pattern
Patterns from Processes - The Mice Coloration of Mice in Gulf Coast
---White tend to be in coastal region (beaches)
---Brown tend to be more inland

Processes - Nat Sel, Genetic Drift,
  • Sun Bleaching of Hair --> Environment induced trait
Natural Selection
Consequence of 3 conditions being met within a population
  1. There has to be Genetic Variation
  2. Phenotypes Have to be heritable (w/in Pop)
  3. Differential Success - Survival or Reproducing
-------------More Offspring produced that can survive
-------------More individuals that can survive

In mouse example - gene = environmentally induced, not necessarily heritable
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Variation within the Population Mice of same phenotype more likely to breed with each other due to some isolation of environments

Can infer that Phenotypic Variation does occur w/in this population

Coat Color Coat Color is Heritable 
----Phaeomelanin (light pigment) produced in light colored mice

----Different signal transduction occurs with presence of lots of light and w/out lots of light

Mutation in Mc1R and Agouti --> shows inheritability 
--- prevents MSH binding  ,  increases ASP expression
Genes Usually can't investigate Actual Genes and mutations in those Genes

Do Parents resemble Offspring?
---Way of Determining Inheritability ---Environment
---Control for Environment in Lab

Mid-Offspring vs Mid-Parent Values --> If 0 then NO heritability
Closer to 1 --> high heritability, Offspring close relationship to parents

Look at Survival Rates of Coat Color in Diff Environments
Adaptation An Inherited trait that makes an Organism more fit in its Environment

And Has arisen by Direct Action of Natural Selection for its Primary Function
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Nat Sel vs Bio Evo Natural Selection Acts on INDIVIDUALS

Evolution occurs W/In  POPULATIONS
  • Frequency property of Populations
  • ∆ in ƒ of alleles or phenotypes
  • Individuals may ∆ developmentally but do NOT experience Biological Evolution
Constraints on Natural Selection Natural Selection DOES NOT Lead to Perfection
  • Elephants can't have skinny legs or run 60mph, etc.

Natural Selection is NONRANDOM but is NOT Progressive
Genetic Variation Terms to Know
  • Allele
  • Genotype
  • Phenotype
  • Locus
  • Gene( ƒx unit of heredity)
  • Gene (Molecular)
Genetic Variation Mutation = ULTIMATE Source of All heritable Genetic Variation

But New allelic combos can be intro'd by 
  1. Recombination (only in Diploids sexually reproducing)
  2. Migration (aka Gene Flow in and out of populations)
  3. Lateral Gene Transfer (bacterial Systems) - conjugation, viruses,
Generated by Koofers.com
Mutation Heritable ∆ in DNA
  • Evolutionary Speaking --> mutations in Germ-Line
  • Somatic Mutations are NOT passed on

Plants and clonal animals = exception to germ/soma distinction because somatic tissues/cells give rise to germ line 
Germ-Line is Not sequestered early in development
Mutations Synonymous - base ∆ that does not change the Amino Acid
Non-synonymous - base ∆ that Does change the Amino Acid
Chromo Duplications - section of chromo is duplicated --> ∆ in ploidy
Deletions - Frameshift, throw off sequence of codon readings
Translocations - section of one chromo moves to another chromo


Genetic Variation can be detected from DNA to Phenotype
Mutation Effects Neutral or nearly Neutral - having NO or Negligible effects on survival and/or Repro
Deleterious (disadvantageous) - Reducing Survival and/or Repro
Beneficial (Advantageous) - Increasing survival and/or Repro

Few are beneficial
Fitness of Mutations Fitness depends on environment

Fitness effect of given mutation ≠ fixed
-------depends on environment

Allelic Variation / DNA Mutations -->
Protein Sequence / Regulation (Genotype) --> 
Phenotypic Variation
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Measuring Genetic Variation Allelic Diversity at locus in population determines Genotype of Individuals at that locus

Genotype can be determined from:
  • Phenotypic Data (of some Loci)
  • Molecular Data (proteins and DNA)
H-W H-W equilibrium = NULL hypothesis

In absence of Evo processes acting w/in pops 
  • allele freqs do NOT ∆ over time
  • equilibrium genotype frequencies can be predicted from allele frequencies

If it can be Rejected then you can determine what Process is Occurring and that Evo IS Ocurring
H-W Requirements
  1. Natural Selection is NOT Occuring
  2. Individuals have to have RANDOM Mating
  3. No Mutation is Occurring
  4. No Migration aka NO Gene Flow
  5. Infinitely Large Population
H-W Simulation If Allele Frequencies DONT ∆ from generation to generation

Then Determine Genotype Frequencies & Allele ƒ in Pop


Example = PrP gene in Humans
  • M vs V allele
  • M = Methionine
  • V = Valine
Generated by Koofers.com
H-W Use 1 Degree of Freedom in Chi Squared Test to reject or Accept Null Hypothesis of H-W

Prp Gene = Resp for Prion Disease
  • Spread infection in Pops
  • Mad Cow Disease
PrP-Sen (normal) and PrP-Res (disease causing)
PrP gene Cont.d PrP-Res
  • Converts good Proteins to Bad Proteins
  • Amyloid Fibers --> Resistant to Heat Denaturation & Digestion
  • Destroys Nervous Tissue
Astrocytes digest dead neural Tissue
Kuru Disease Shaking disease --> Cannibalistic Practices

Consuming the Dead --> Women and Children eat dead relatives
Women would eat brain, men would eat muscle tissues

Women tend to have the Kuru disease because of eating brain tissue
PrP locus
Genetic Drift Migration / Gene Flow = Synonymous

Genetic Drift = ∆ in allele Frequency from 1 Generation to next

Colored Lizard from Ozarks example
live on rocky outcroppings
Need Fires to spread them to new outcroppings b/c wont migrate
Generated by Koofers.com
Genetic Drift Alleles in Lizards might become Fixed and Variation in allele Freqs 

Allele ƒ fluctuate at RANDOM in Populations due to Random allele contributions to the next generation (recombination and cross over)

Genotype and allele ƒ in any generation represent a Sample of alleles from previous generation
Genetic Drift Proceeds FASTER in Smaller Populations
SLOWER in Larger Populations

The Average Time to Fixation = 4N generations where N = # indivs

At Any Time, allele's probability of becoming Fixed = its Frequency

Low Genetic Diversity --> Susceptibility to disease --> Extinction
NEED Genetic Variation 4 sustainability of a population
Genetic Drift vs Gene Flow Genetic Drift leads to Heterozygosity and Fixation of alleles

Gene Flow leads to Homozygosity and increases genetic diversity


ALL Pops experience Drift because All Pops are FINITE
Patterns of Genetic Drift Founder Effect - location changes and establishes new "colony"

Bottleneck - location doesnt ∆ but is IMMEDIATE Genetic Drift
  • Decrease in Population size
Generated by Koofers.com
Natural Selection Not Acting on Alleles

Acts on Phenotypes of individuals (aka genotypes AA, Aa, aa)

If the AVERAGE Rel. Fitness ≠ 1.0 then Selection is Occurring
If the Average Rel. Fitness = 1.0 then Selection is NOT Occurring
Directional Selection Dominance and Allele ƒ interact to determine the RATE of Evo by NatSel

Directional Selection:
  • One allele Consistently Favored
  • That Allele may be Dominant or Recessive
  • Eventually that Allele becomes Fixed
Environment interacts w/ Phenotype to determine Fitness
Overdominance Heterozygous Advantage

Heterozygotes have higher fitness than homozygotes

STABLE Equilibrium is reached that Maximizes Mean Fitness
Underdominance Heterozygous Disadvantage

Heterozygotes have Lower fitness than homozygotes

UNSTABLE Equilibrium is reached, Locally Maximizing Mean Fitness of Population

Sex Determination of Honey Bees --> Haploid-Diploidy
Homozygous = Lethal,  Males are Haploid, Females = Diploid hetero
Generated by Koofers.com
Trends Directional Selection = mean fitness will go to 1.0

Overdominance = mean fitness will reach stable eq. point 0<x<1
closer to .8
Generated by Koofers.com

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 Studying EvoPatterns and Processes in Evolution

Patterns - identifying the Order in Nature
Process -  Determining or inferring the Mechanisms of evolution

***Patterns result from processes

Pattern of relationships - Ex = coloration of beattles
----Transition from Green to Brown (caused by mutation/genetic drift)
 Process
**Biological Evolution = ∆ in Pops/Time**
Natural Selection and Genetic Drift lead to Bio Evo = Processes

Speciation = cause 

Bacteria have Rapidly Evolved Resistance to Clinical Antiobiotics
----Nat Sel = Probable Process
----2 years for resistance in Bacteria to arise = Pattern
 Patterns from Processes - The MiceColoration of Mice in Gulf Coast
---White tend to be in coastal region (beaches)
---Brown tend to be more inland

Processes - Nat Sel, Genetic Drift,
  • Sun Bleaching of Hair --> Environment induced trait
 Natural Selection
Consequence of 3 conditions being met within a population
  1. There has to be Genetic Variation
  2. Phenotypes Have to be heritable (w/in Pop)
  3. Differential Success - Survival or Reproducing
-------------More Offspring produced that can survive
-------------More individuals that can survive

In mouse example - gene = environmentally induced, not necessarily heritable
 Variation within the PopulationMice of same phenotype more likely to breed with each other due to some isolation of environments

Can infer that Phenotypic Variation does occur w/in this population

 Coat ColorCoat Color is Heritable 
----Phaeomelanin (light pigment) produced in light colored mice

----Different signal transduction occurs with presence of lots of light and w/out lots of light

Mutation in Mc1R and Agouti --> shows inheritability 
--- prevents MSH binding  ,  increases ASP expression
 GenesUsually can't investigate Actual Genes and mutations in those Genes

Do Parents resemble Offspring?
---Way of Determining Inheritability ---Environment
---Control for Environment in Lab

Mid-Offspring vs Mid-Parent Values --> If 0 then NO heritability
Closer to 1 --> high heritability, Offspring close relationship to parents

Look at Survival Rates of Coat Color in Diff Environments
 AdaptationAn Inherited trait that makes an Organism more fit in its Environment

And Has arisen by Direct Action of Natural Selection for its Primary Function
 Nat Sel vs Bio EvoNatural Selection Acts on INDIVIDUALS

Evolution occurs W/In  POPULATIONS
  • Frequency property of Populations
  • ∆ in ƒ of alleles or phenotypes
  • Individuals may ∆ developmentally but do NOT experience Biological Evolution
 Constraints on Natural SelectionNatural Selection DOES NOT Lead to Perfection
  • Elephants can't have skinny legs or run 60mph, etc.

Natural Selection is NONRANDOM but is NOT Progressive
 Genetic VariationTerms to Know
  • Allele
  • Genotype
  • Phenotype
  • Locus
  • Gene( ƒx unit of heredity)
  • Gene (Molecular)
 Genetic VariationMutation = ULTIMATE Source of All heritable Genetic Variation

But New allelic combos can be intro'd by 
  1. Recombination (only in Diploids sexually reproducing)
  2. Migration (aka Gene Flow in and out of populations)
  3. Lateral Gene Transfer (bacterial Systems) - conjugation, viruses,
 MutationHeritable ∆ in DNA
  • Evolutionary Speaking --> mutations in Germ-Line
  • Somatic Mutations are NOT passed on

Plants and clonal animals = exception to germ/soma distinction because somatic tissues/cells give rise to germ line 
Germ-Line is Not sequestered early in development
 MutationsSynonymous - base ∆ that does not change the Amino Acid
Non-synonymous - base ∆ that Does change the Amino Acid
Chromo Duplications - section of chromo is duplicated --> ∆ in ploidy
Deletions - Frameshift, throw off sequence of codon readings
Translocations - section of one chromo moves to another chromo


Genetic Variation can be detected from DNA to Phenotype
 Mutation EffectsNeutral or nearly Neutral - having NO or Negligible effects on survival and/or Repro
Deleterious (disadvantageous) - Reducing Survival and/or Repro
Beneficial (Advantageous) - Increasing survival and/or Repro

Few are beneficial
 Fitness of MutationsFitness depends on environment

Fitness effect of given mutation ≠ fixed
-------depends on environment

Allelic Variation / DNA Mutations -->
Protein Sequence / Regulation (Genotype) --> 
Phenotypic Variation
 Measuring Genetic VariationAllelic Diversity at locus in population determines Genotype of Individuals at that locus

Genotype can be determined from:
  • Phenotypic Data (of some Loci)
  • Molecular Data (proteins and DNA)
 H-WH-W equilibrium = NULL hypothesis

In absence of Evo processes acting w/in pops 
  • allele freqs do NOT ∆ over time
  • equilibrium genotype frequencies can be predicted from allele frequencies

If it can be Rejected then you can determine what Process is Occurring and that Evo IS Ocurring
 H-W Requirements
  1. Natural Selection is NOT Occuring
  2. Individuals have to have RANDOM Mating
  3. No Mutation is Occurring
  4. No Migration aka NO Gene Flow
  5. Infinitely Large Population
 H-W SimulationIf Allele Frequencies DONT ∆ from generation to generation

Then Determine Genotype Frequencies & Allele ƒ in Pop


Example = PrP gene in Humans
  • M vs V allele
  • M = Methionine
  • V = Valine
 H-WUse 1 Degree of Freedom in Chi Squared Test to reject or Accept Null Hypothesis of H-W

Prp Gene = Resp for Prion Disease
  • Spread infection in Pops
  • Mad Cow Disease
PrP-Sen (normal) and PrP-Res (disease causing)
 PrP gene Cont.dPrP-Res
  • Converts good Proteins to Bad Proteins
  • Amyloid Fibers --> Resistant to Heat Denaturation & Digestion
  • Destroys Nervous Tissue
Astrocytes digest dead neural Tissue
 Kuru DiseaseShaking disease --> Cannibalistic Practices

Consuming the Dead --> Women and Children eat dead relatives
Women would eat brain, men would eat muscle tissues

Women tend to have the Kuru disease because of eating brain tissue
PrP locus
 Genetic DriftMigration / Gene Flow = Synonymous

Genetic Drift = ∆ in allele Frequency from 1 Generation to next

Colored Lizard from Ozarks example
live on rocky outcroppings
Need Fires to spread them to new outcroppings b/c wont migrate
 Genetic DriftAlleles in Lizards might become Fixed and Variation in allele Freqs 

Allele ƒ fluctuate at RANDOM in Populations due to Random allele contributions to the next generation (recombination and cross over)

Genotype and allele ƒ in any generation represent a Sample of alleles from previous generation
 Genetic DriftProceeds FASTER in Smaller Populations
SLOWER in Larger Populations

The Average Time to Fixation = 4N generations where N = # indivs

At Any Time, allele's probability of becoming Fixed = its Frequency

Low Genetic Diversity --> Susceptibility to disease --> Extinction
NEED Genetic Variation 4 sustainability of a population
 Genetic Drift vs Gene FlowGenetic Drift leads to Heterozygosity and Fixation of alleles

Gene Flow leads to Homozygosity and increases genetic diversity


ALL Pops experience Drift because All Pops are FINITE
 Patterns of Genetic DriftFounder Effect - location changes and establishes new "colony"

Bottleneck - location doesnt ∆ but is IMMEDIATE Genetic Drift
  • Decrease in Population size
 Natural SelectionNot Acting on Alleles

Acts on Phenotypes of individuals (aka genotypes AA, Aa, aa)

If the AVERAGE Rel. Fitness ≠ 1.0 then Selection is Occurring
If the Average Rel. Fitness = 1.0 then Selection is NOT Occurring
 Directional SelectionDominance and Allele ƒ interact to determine the RATE of Evo by NatSel

Directional Selection:
  • One allele Consistently Favored
  • That Allele may be Dominant or Recessive
  • Eventually that Allele becomes Fixed
Environment interacts w/ Phenotype to determine Fitness
 OverdominanceHeterozygous Advantage

Heterozygotes have higher fitness than homozygotes

STABLE Equilibrium is reached that Maximizes Mean Fitness
 UnderdominanceHeterozygous Disadvantage

Heterozygotes have Lower fitness than homozygotes

UNSTABLE Equilibrium is reached, Locally Maximizing Mean Fitness of Population

Sex Determination of Honey Bees --> Haploid-Diploidy
Homozygous = Lethal,  Males are Haploid, Females = Diploid hetero
 TrendsDirectional Selection = mean fitness will go to 1.0

Overdominance = mean fitness will reach stable eq. point 0<x<1
closer to .8
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