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Exam 1 - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 1403 - Biology I
Subject:BIOLOGY
University:Texas Tech University
Term:Fall 2011
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Ribosome (general) an organelle found within eukaryotic cells.  The ribosomes contain rRNA which helps the ribosome to translate mRNA into proteins.  These come in two forms: bound and free; which are described in other slides
Nucleolus a non-membrane bound structure found in the nucleus that produces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that associates with the ribosome to aid in translation.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER) Portion of the Endoplasmic Reticulum with bound ribosomes which translate mRNA to proteins.  Most of these proteins are secretory proteins in the form of glycoproteins.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth ER) Portion of the ER that does not have ribosomes.  It has various processes based on the cell type including: synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and poisons, and storage of calcium ions.  Some contain very useful enzymes in the synthesis of steroidal sex hormones, so cells near reproductive areas are rich in smooth ER.  It also contains enzymes important in detoxification.
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Free Ribosomes Ribsosomes that are not attached to an organelle/membrane and translate proteins for use inside of the cell
Bound Ribosomes Ribosomes attached to an organelle/membrane that translate proteins for use either in membranes or outside of the cell. These are typically found on the Rough ER
Golgi Bodies an organelle consisting of cisternae (flattened membranous sacs).  There are two sides to the Golgi Apparatus with different sizes and molecular composition: the cis face and the trans face. The cis face is the face that vesicles leaving the ER bind to, the membrane fragments forming the vesicle become a part of the membrane of the Golgi.  The trans face is the face where vesicles again can pinch off and join other sites.  Proteins mature and fold and receive markers on them (usually phosphate groups) that act as "zip codes" to ship the protein to it's destination.
Vacuole Storage organelles
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Lysosome Organelle that contains enzymes which will lyse and digest damaged organelles within the cells
Mitochondria Organelles containing inner and outer membranes where the Krebs Cycle and Glycolysis takes place, thus turning glucose into ATP for use.  It has it's own DNA and thus can replicate itself.
Chloroplasts Organelles found in organisms obtaining energy via photosynthesis.
Microtubules A component of the Cytoskeleton made up of the protein tubulin.  They are created by Microtubule Organizing Centers throughout the cell that collect tubulin and synthesize microtubules.  These are used to move organelles/molecules across the cell via motor proteins attached to receptor proteins.
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Basal Bodies Centrioles multiply and anchor themselves just beneath the plasma membrane.  These Basal Bodies grow into microtubules which can be used later as flagella or cilia through the use of motor proteins walking along adjacent sets of microtubules, thus causing the motion of cilia and flagella.
Cortex the outer cytoplasmic with a semisolid composition (comparable to a gel)
Microfilaments the thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton which provide tension to the cell. They can interact with myosin to contract muscle cells or to help the motility of a cell by contracting and providing tension.
Intermediate Filaments inbetween microfilaments and microtubules in size, the intermediate filaments are consisting of a protein much like keratin, that holds together the shape of the cell as well as the position of organelles.  These are very durable and will often persist even after the death of a cell.
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 Ribosome (general)an organelle found within eukaryotic cells.  The ribosomes contain rRNA which helps the ribosome to translate mRNA into proteins.  These come in two forms: bound and free; which are described in other slides
 Nucleolusa non-membrane bound structure found in the nucleus that produces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that associates with the ribosome to aid in translation.
 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)Portion of the Endoplasmic Reticulum with bound ribosomes which translate mRNA to proteins.  Most of these proteins are secretory proteins in the form of glycoproteins.
 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth ER)Portion of the ER that does not have ribosomes.  It has various processes based on the cell type including: synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and poisons, and storage of calcium ions.  Some contain very useful enzymes in the synthesis of steroidal sex hormones, so cells near reproductive areas are rich in smooth ER.  It also contains enzymes important in detoxification.
 Free RibosomesRibsosomes that are not attached to an organelle/membrane and translate proteins for use inside of the cell
 Bound RibosomesRibosomes attached to an organelle/membrane that translate proteins for use either in membranes or outside of the cell. These are typically found on the Rough ER
 Golgi Bodiesan organelle consisting of cisternae (flattened membranous sacs).  There are two sides to the Golgi Apparatus with different sizes and molecular composition: the cis face and the trans face. The cis face is the face that vesicles leaving the ER bind to, the membrane fragments forming the vesicle become a part of the membrane of the Golgi.  The trans face is the face where vesicles again can pinch off and join other sites.  Proteins mature and fold and receive markers on them (usually phosphate groups) that act as "zip codes" to ship the protein to it's destination.
 VacuoleStorage organelles
 LysosomeOrganelle that contains enzymes which will lyse and digest damaged organelles within the cells
 MitochondriaOrganelles containing inner and outer membranes where the Krebs Cycle and Glycolysis takes place, thus turning glucose into ATP for use.  It has it's own DNA and thus can replicate itself.
 ChloroplastsOrganelles found in organisms obtaining energy via photosynthesis.
 MicrotubulesA component of the Cytoskeleton made up of the protein tubulin.  They are created by Microtubule Organizing Centers throughout the cell that collect tubulin and synthesize microtubules.  These are used to move organelles/molecules across the cell via motor proteins attached to receptor proteins.
 Basal BodiesCentrioles multiply and anchor themselves just beneath the plasma membrane.  These Basal Bodies grow into microtubules which can be used later as flagella or cilia through the use of motor proteins walking along adjacent sets of microtubules, thus causing the motion of cilia and flagella.
 Cortexthe outer cytoplasmic with a semisolid composition (comparable to a gel)
 Microfilamentsthe thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton which provide tension to the cell. They can interact with myosin to contract muscle cells or to help the motility of a cell by contracting and providing tension.
 Intermediate Filamentsinbetween microfilaments and microtubules in size, the intermediate filaments are consisting of a protein much like keratin, that holds together the shape of the cell as well as the position of organelles.  These are very durable and will often persist even after the death of a cell.
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