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Exam #2 - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 1402 - Biology of Animals
Subject:BIOLOGY
University:Texas Tech University
Term:Fall 2011
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Karyotyping an ordered display of magnified images of an individual's chromosomes arranged in pairs, starting with the longest; show chromosomes condensed and doubled; determines if a person has abnormal number of chromosomes
Pedigree Analysis a family tree representing the occurrence of heritable traits in parents and offspring across a number of generations; determines if a gene is dominant/recessive, and on the X/ or on autosome
Down Syndrome person with an extra copy of chromosome 21; a trisome of chromosome 21; facial changes and mental retardation
Turner Syndrome affecting females in which all or part of one of the X chromosomes is absent; 1X & 0Y; female sterile and no puberty
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Klinefelter Syndrome affecting males in which they have an extra X chromosome; making is XXY; 2X 1Y; male, sterile and abnormal puberty

Nondisjunction a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate at anaphase
Deletion loss of one or more nucleotides from a gene by mutation; loss of a fragment of a chromosome
Inversion change in a chromosome resulting from reattachment of a chromosome fragment to the original chromosome, but in a reverse direction
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Translocation change in a chromosome resulting from a chromosome fragment attaching to a nonhomogolous chromosome
Carrier individual who is heterozygous for a recessive inherited disorder and who therefore does not show symptoms of the disorder but may pass on the recessive allele to offspring
Cystic fibrosis have two copies of a certain recessive allele; excessive secretion of mucus and vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated
Achondroplasia human dwarfism caused by a single dominant allele; homozygous condition is lethal
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Huntington's Disease caused by a dominant allele; uncontrollable body movement and degeneration of nervous system; fatal 10-20years after onset of symptoms
Alzheimer's Disease age related dementia characterized by confusion, memory loss, and other symptoms
Aminocentesis technique for diagnosing genetic defects while the fetus is in the uterus; sample of amniotic fluid, obtained by a need inserted into the amnion, is analyzed for telltale chemicals and defective fetal cells; determines if an embryo has a birth defect
Chorionic Villa Sampling technique for diagnosing genetic defects while fetus is in early development stage within the uterus; small sample of the fetal portion of the placenta is removed and analyzed; determines if an embryo has a birth defect
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Ultrasound technique for examining fetus in the uterus; sound waves echoing off fetus are used to produce an image of the fetus
Heredity passing of traits to offspring; inheritability of traits
Genetics science of heredity and variation in living organisms; figuring out inheritance
Blending alleles blend their traits in the phenotype
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Particulate Theory traits are inherited like particles = genes
Self-fertilization fusion of sperm and egg produced by the same individual organism
Cross Fertilization fusion of sperm and egg derived from two different individuals
Pure-Breeding Strain homozygous always; cross between identical homozygotes
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hybrid offspring of two different species; individual that is heterozygous for one or more pairs of genes; heterozygous individual
P generation parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance
F1 generation offspring of 2 parental individuals; first filial
F2 generation offspring of F1 generation; second filial
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Allele alternative version of a gene; version of a gene; ex; long/short
gene discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA; particle that transmits traits from 1 generation to heritor
Locus particular site where gene is found on a chromosome
dominant  the allele that determines the phenotype of a gene when the individual is heterozygous for that gene
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recessive allele that has no noticeable effect on the phenotype of a gene when the individual is heterozygous for that gene
homozygous have two identical alleles for a given gene; same version
heterozygous having two different alleles for a given gene; different versions
Punnett square diagram used in the inheritance to show the result of random fertilization
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Genotype genetic makeup of a organism, determines phenotype, outside square
Phenotype expressed traits of an organism, inside square
Allele Segregation a sperm/egg carries only 1 allele for each inherited character because allele pairs separate from each other during the production of gametes; separate 2 alleles
Independent assortment each pair of alleles segregates independently of other pairs of alleles during gamete formation
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monohybrid cross experimental mating of individuals differing at one genetic locus; one trait that comes in two versions
Dihybrid cross experimental mating of individuals differing at two genetic loci; two traits at a time
testcross mating between an individual of unknown genotype for a particular characteristic and an individual that is homozygous recessive for that same characteristic; allows you to identify genotype of an unknown parent
3:1 Ratio two heterozygous alleles form 3 dominant phenotypes and 1 recessive monohybrid cross
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9:3:3:1 Ratio dihybrid cross/ each parent will produce 4 different types of gametes
incomplete dominance type of inheritance in which the phenotype of a heterozygote is intermediate between the phenotypes of the 2 types of homozygotes
codominance

inheritance pattern in which the heterozygote expresses the distinct trait of both alleles

 

Wiki:
 refers to a relationship between two alleles of a gene.

pleitropy control of more than one phenotypic characteristic by a single gene
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epistasis one gene suppresses or "dominates" a different gene, rather than an allele
polygenic trait addictive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic characteristic
mosaicism trait of female mammals due to inactivation of one X chromosome in every cell
dosage compensation a trick for equalizing the "dose" of X genes in XX v XY individuals
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crossing over exchange of segments between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during synapsis in prophase 1 of meiosis
parental phenotypes physical traits the parents exhibit
recombinant phenotypes traits the parent carry by dont exhibit
linkage genes located near each other on the same chromosomes that tend to be inherited together
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chromosome map image that shows all the chromosomes paired with their respective partner
sex chromosomes chromosomes that determines whether an individual is male or female
autosomes chromosomes not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism
criss-cross inheritance how sex-linked (X chromosomes) genes are passed from mom to son
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mutant allele relatively new modification
wild-type allele considered "normal" for the organism in question
pyrimidines any group of organic compounds having a 6 member ring in which the 1st and 3rd are nitrogen and the rest are carbon. includes bases, cytosince, thymine, and uracil; i ring C or T
purines contains 2 fused rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms. 1 ring= 6 members, 2nd= 5 members and each has 2 nitrogens; 2 ring A or G
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DNA double stranded helical nucleic acid. Has thymine as one of the bases, unlike RNA
RNA type of nucleic acid. uracil is one of the bases unlike DNA, functions as protein synthesis
transcription conversion of info on DNA to RNA
translation conversion of info on mRNA to protein
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complementary of or relating to a group of genees that act in concert to produce a specific phenotype
template strand of DNA/RNA that serves as a pattern for the synthesis of a complementary strand of nucleic acid or protein
unwinding H bonds break; strands separate
pairing free bases pair with compartments
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joining enzymatic formation of backbone links
DNA polymerase an enzyme that assembles DNA nucleotides into poly-nucleotides using a preexisting strand of DNA as a template 
RNA polymerase an enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription; using DNA strand as a template
Ribosome structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunites and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
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promoter a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA located at the state of a gene that is the binding site for RNA polymerase and the place where transcription begins
terminator special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene; signals RNA polymerase to release the new made RNA moecule and then to depart from the gene
triplet code set of 3 nucleotide long "words" that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains
codon 3 nucleotide sequence in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or polypeptide termination signal; the base unit of the genetic code
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anticodon on a tRNA molecule, a specific sequence of 3 nucleotides that is complementary to a condon triplet on mRNA
elongation the process of growing or increasing in length
termination the release of newly mad RNA molecule, by RNA polymerase
genetic code set of rules that dictates the correspondence between RNA codons in an mRNA molecule and amino acids in protein
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mRNA type of RNA that encodes genetic information from DNA and converts it to ribosomes, where information is translated into amino acid sequences
tRNA type of RNA that functions as an interpreter in translation
rRNA type of RNA that, together with proteins, makes up ribosomes; the most abundant type of RNA in most cells
mutation change in nucleotide sequence of an organisms DNA; ultimate source of genetic diversity
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mutagen chemical or physical agen that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
Sickle-Cell Anemia  a chronic anemia (energy loss due to lack of oxygen) that occurs in those of African descent who are homozygous for the gene controlling hemoglobin S and that is characterized by destruction of red blood cells and by episodic blocking of blood vessels by the adherence of sickle cells to the vascular endothelium which causes the serious complications of the disease (as organ failure)
Missense Mutation base substitution which converts one amino acid into another 
Frameshift mutation base insertion or deletion, which shifts the reading frame
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gene expression the process whereby genetic information flows from genes to proteins; the flow of genetic information from the genotype to the phenotype 
cellular differentiation  the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.
operon a unit of genetic regulation common in prokaryotes; a cluster of genes with related functions, along with the promoter and transcribing the genes of the operon
repressor a protein that blacks the transcription of a gene or operon
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structual gene DNA which codes for a protein

inducer sugar molecule (lactose) which binds repressor protein
enhancer DNA sequence the helps stimulate the transcription of a gene at some distance from it. functions by means of a transcription factor called an activator, which binds to it and then to the rest of the transcription apparatus
histon  a small protein molecule associated with DNA and important in DNA packing in the eukaryotic chromosome
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nucleosome the bead-like unit of DNA packaging in the eukaroytic cell; consists of DNA wound around a protein core made up of eight histone molecules
exon a coding portion of the gene
intron a nonexpressed portion of a gene that is excised from the RNA transcript
splicing to join segments of DNA and RNA together
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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) a technique used to obtain many copies of a DNA molecule or part of a DNA molecule. A small amount of DNA mixed with a heat resistant DNA polymerase, DNA nucleotides, and a few other ingredients replicates repeatedly in a test tube; amplfy DNA @ crime scene
DNA fingerprinting a procedure that analyzes DNA fragments to determine whether they come from a specific individual
follicle a cluster of cells that surround, protect, and nourish a developing egg cell in the ovary- also secretes estrogen-
corpus luteum a small body of endocrine tissue that develops from an ovarian follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone and estrogen during pregnancy
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Bartholin's gland two glads located slightly below and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina in women; they secrete mucus to provide vaginal lubrication
epididymis a long coiled tube into which sperm pass from the testes and are stored until mature and ejaculated; storage chamber

Vas Deferens is part of the male anatomy of many vertebrates; they transport sperm from the epididymis in anticipation of ejaculation.
seminal vesicle a gland in males that secretes a fluid component of semen that lubricates and nourishes sperm in order for sperm to survive
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prostate gland a gland in males that secretes an acid-neutralizing component of semen; secretes alkaline fluid that neutralizes acidity of trymod
Bulbourethral gland a pair of glands near the base of the penis that secrete fluid that lubricates and neutralizes acids in the urethra during sex
seminiferous tubule a coiled sperm-producing tube in the testes
ducts tubes
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glands tissues that secrete fluids, including hormones
interstitial cells secretes testosterone
releasing hormone A releasing hormone or releasing factor is a hormone whose main purpose is to control the release of another hormone.
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) produced by the pituitary gland; in women helps control the menstrual cycle and production of eggs. in men, helps control the production of sperm
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LH (luteinizing hormone) a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; in female, and acute rise of LH triggers ovulation; in male it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone 
progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
morphogenesis shaping
differentiation process of cellular specialization
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cleavage the succession of rapid cell divisions without cell growth that converts the animal zygotes into a ball of cels
gastrulation phase of the embryonic development that transforms the lastula into gastrula; adds more cells to the embryo and sorts the cells into distinct cell layers
neurulation is the stage of organogenesis in vertebrate embryos, during which the neural tube is transformed into the primitive structures that will later develop into the central nervous system.
blastula  is a hollow sphere of cells formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals .
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blastocoel a central fluid-filled cavity in blastula
Blastopore  is an opening into the archenteron during the embryonic stages of an organism.
blastocyst a mammalian embryo make up of a hollow ball of cells that results from cleavage and that implants in the mothers endometrium
morula stage of cleavage when an embryo can be split into twins or fused into "chimeras"
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ectoderm  is one of the three primary germ cell layers in the very early embryo.
mesoderm middle layer of 3 embryonic cell layers; gives rise to muscles, bones, and other organs
endoderm innermost of 3 embryonic cell layers in gastrula; innermost linings of digestive tract and other organs
notochord The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. located between digestive tract and nerve cord
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neural plate In human embryology, formation of neural plate is the first step of neurulation.
neural tube gives rise to the brain and spinal cord formed from ectoderm after gastrulation
inner cell mass
is the mass of cells inside the primordial embryo that will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus.
trophoblast the outer portion of the blastocyst
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chorion becomes the mammalian embryo's part of the placenta
endometrium the inner lining of the uteris

induction during embryonic development, the influence of one group of cells on another group of cells
chorionic gonadotropin  is a glycoprotein hormone produced during pregnancy that is made by the developing embryo after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta)..
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oxytocin  is a mammalian hormone that acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain.
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Karyotypingan ordered display of magnified images of an individual's chromosomes arranged in pairs, starting with the longest; show chromosomes condensed and doubled; determines if a person has abnormal number of chromosomes
 Pedigree Analysisa family tree representing the occurrence of heritable traits in parents and offspring across a number of generations; determines if a gene is dominant/recessive, and on the X/ or on autosome
 Down Syndromeperson with an extra copy of chromosome 21; a trisome of chromosome 21; facial changes and mental retardation
 Turner Syndromeaffecting females in which all or part of one of the X chromosomes is absent; 1X & 0Y; female sterile and no puberty
 Klinefelter Syndromeaffecting males in which they have an extra X chromosome; making is XXY; 2X 1Y; male, sterile and abnormal puberty

 Nondisjunctiona pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate at anaphase
 Deletionloss of one or more nucleotides from a gene by mutation; loss of a fragment of a chromosome
 Inversionchange in a chromosome resulting from reattachment of a chromosome fragment to the original chromosome, but in a reverse direction
 Translocationchange in a chromosome resulting from a chromosome fragment attaching to a nonhomogolous chromosome
 Carrierindividual who is heterozygous for a recessive inherited disorder and who therefore does not show symptoms of the disorder but may pass on the recessive allele to offspring
 Cystic fibrosishave two copies of a certain recessive allele; excessive secretion of mucus and vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated
 Achondroplasiahuman dwarfism caused by a single dominant allele; homozygous condition is lethal
 Huntington's Diseasecaused by a dominant allele; uncontrollable body movement and degeneration of nervous system; fatal 10-20years after onset of symptoms
 Alzheimer's Diseaseage related dementia characterized by confusion, memory loss, and other symptoms
 Aminocentesistechnique for diagnosing genetic defects while the fetus is in the uterus; sample of amniotic fluid, obtained by a need inserted into the amnion, is analyzed for telltale chemicals and defective fetal cells; determines if an embryo has a birth defect
 Chorionic Villa Samplingtechnique for diagnosing genetic defects while fetus is in early development stage within the uterus; small sample of the fetal portion of the placenta is removed and analyzed; determines if an embryo has a birth defect
 Ultrasoundtechnique for examining fetus in the uterus; sound waves echoing off fetus are used to produce an image of the fetus
 Hereditypassing of traits to offspring; inheritability of traits
 Geneticsscience of heredity and variation in living organisms; figuring out inheritance
 Blendingalleles blend their traits in the phenotype
 Particulate Theorytraits are inherited like particles = genes
 Self-fertilizationfusion of sperm and egg produced by the same individual organism
 Cross Fertilizationfusion of sperm and egg derived from two different individuals
 Pure-Breeding Strainhomozygous always; cross between identical homozygotes
 hybridoffspring of two different species; individual that is heterozygous for one or more pairs of genes; heterozygous individual
 P generationparent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance
 F1 generationoffspring of 2 parental individuals; first filial
 F2 generationoffspring of F1 generation; second filial
 Allelealternative version of a gene; version of a gene; ex; long/short
 genediscrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA; particle that transmits traits from 1 generation to heritor
 Locusparticular site where gene is found on a chromosome
 dominant the allele that determines the phenotype of a gene when the individual is heterozygous for that gene
 recessiveallele that has no noticeable effect on the phenotype of a gene when the individual is heterozygous for that gene
 homozygoushave two identical alleles for a given gene; same version
 heterozygoushaving two different alleles for a given gene; different versions
 Punnett squarediagram used in the inheritance to show the result of random fertilization
 Genotypegenetic makeup of a organism, determines phenotype, outside square
 Phenotypeexpressed traits of an organism, inside square
 Allele Segregationa sperm/egg carries only 1 allele for each inherited character because allele pairs separate from each other during the production of gametes; separate 2 alleles
 Independent assortmenteach pair of alleles segregates independently of other pairs of alleles during gamete formation
 monohybrid crossexperimental mating of individuals differing at one genetic locus; one trait that comes in two versions
 Dihybrid crossexperimental mating of individuals differing at two genetic loci; two traits at a time
 testcrossmating between an individual of unknown genotype for a particular characteristic and an individual that is homozygous recessive for that same characteristic; allows you to identify genotype of an unknown parent
 3:1 Ratiotwo heterozygous alleles form 3 dominant phenotypes and 1 recessive monohybrid cross
 9:3:3:1 Ratiodihybrid cross/ each parent will produce 4 different types of gametes
 incomplete dominancetype of inheritance in which the phenotype of a heterozygote is intermediate between the phenotypes of the 2 types of homozygotes
 codominance

inheritance pattern in which the heterozygote expresses the distinct trait of both alleles

 

Wiki:
 refers to a relationship between two alleles of a gene.

 pleitropycontrol of more than one phenotypic characteristic by a single gene
 epistasisone gene suppresses or "dominates" a different gene, rather than an allele
 polygenic traitaddictive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic characteristic
 mosaicismtrait of female mammals due to inactivation of one X chromosome in every cell
 dosage compensationa trick for equalizing the "dose" of X genes in XX v XY individuals
 crossing overexchange of segments between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during synapsis in prophase 1 of meiosis
 parental phenotypesphysical traits the parents exhibit
 recombinant phenotypestraits the parent carry by dont exhibit
 linkagegenes located near each other on the same chromosomes that tend to be inherited together
 chromosome mapimage that shows all the chromosomes paired with their respective partner
 sex chromosomeschromosomes that determines whether an individual is male or female
 autosomeschromosomes not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism
 criss-cross inheritancehow sex-linked (X chromosomes) genes are passed from mom to son
 mutant allelerelatively new modification
 wild-type alleleconsidered "normal" for the organism in question
 pyrimidinesany group of organic compounds having a 6 member ring in which the 1st and 3rd are nitrogen and the rest are carbon. includes bases, cytosince, thymine, and uracil; i ring C or T
 purinescontains 2 fused rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms. 1 ring= 6 members, 2nd= 5 members and each has 2 nitrogens; 2 ring A or G
 DNAdouble stranded helical nucleic acid. Has thymine as one of the bases, unlike RNA
 RNAtype of nucleic acid. uracil is one of the bases unlike DNA, functions as protein synthesis
 transcriptionconversion of info on DNA to RNA
 translationconversion of info on mRNA to protein
 complementaryof or relating to a group of genees that act in concert to produce a specific phenotype
 templatestrand of DNA/RNA that serves as a pattern for the synthesis of a complementary strand of nucleic acid or protein
 unwindingH bonds break; strands separate
 pairingfree bases pair with compartments
 joiningenzymatic formation of backbone links
 DNA polymerasean enzyme that assembles DNA nucleotides into poly-nucleotides using a preexisting strand of DNA as a template 
 RNA polymerasean enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription; using DNA strand as a template
 Ribosomestructure consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunites and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
 promotera specific nucleotide sequence in DNA located at the state of a gene that is the binding site for RNA polymerase and the place where transcription begins
 terminatorspecial sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene; signals RNA polymerase to release the new made RNA moecule and then to depart from the gene
 triplet codeset of 3 nucleotide long "words" that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains
 codon3 nucleotide sequence in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or polypeptide termination signal; the base unit of the genetic code
 anticodonon a tRNA molecule, a specific sequence of 3 nucleotides that is complementary to a condon triplet on mRNA
 elongationthe process of growing or increasing in length
 terminationthe release of newly mad RNA molecule, by RNA polymerase
 genetic codeset of rules that dictates the correspondence between RNA codons in an mRNA molecule and amino acids in protein
 mRNAtype of RNA that encodes genetic information from DNA and converts it to ribosomes, where information is translated into amino acid sequences
 tRNAtype of RNA that functions as an interpreter in translation
 rRNAtype of RNA that, together with proteins, makes up ribosomes; the most abundant type of RNA in most cells
 mutationchange in nucleotide sequence of an organisms DNA; ultimate source of genetic diversity
 mutagenchemical or physical agen that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
 Sickle-Cell Anemia a chronic anemia (energy loss due to lack of oxygen) that occurs in those of African descent who are homozygous for the gene controlling hemoglobin S and that is characterized by destruction of red blood cells and by episodic blocking of blood vessels by the adherence of sickle cells to the vascular endothelium which causes the serious complications of the disease (as organ failure)
 Missense Mutationbase substitution which converts one amino acid into another 
 Frameshift mutationbase insertion or deletion, which shifts the reading frame
 gene expressionthe process whereby genetic information flows from genes to proteins; the flow of genetic information from the genotype to the phenotype 
 cellular differentiation the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.
 operona unit of genetic regulation common in prokaryotes; a cluster of genes with related functions, along with the promoter and transcribing the genes of the operon
 repressora protein that blacks the transcription of a gene or operon
 structual geneDNA which codes for a protein

 inducersugar molecule (lactose) which binds repressor protein
 enhancerDNA sequence the helps stimulate the transcription of a gene at some distance from it. functions by means of a transcription factor called an activator, which binds to it and then to the rest of the transcription apparatus
 histon a small protein molecule associated with DNA and important in DNA packing in the eukaryotic chromosome
 nucleosomethe bead-like unit of DNA packaging in the eukaroytic cell; consists of DNA wound around a protein core made up of eight histone molecules
 exona coding portion of the gene
 introna nonexpressed portion of a gene that is excised from the RNA transcript
 splicingto join segments of DNA and RNA together
 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)a technique used to obtain many copies of a DNA molecule or part of a DNA molecule. A small amount of DNA mixed with a heat resistant DNA polymerase, DNA nucleotides, and a few other ingredients replicates repeatedly in a test tube; amplfy DNA @ crime scene
 DNA fingerprintinga procedure that analyzes DNA fragments to determine whether they come from a specific individual
 folliclea cluster of cells that surround, protect, and nourish a developing egg cell in the ovary- also secretes estrogen-
 corpus luteuma small body of endocrine tissue that develops from an ovarian follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone and estrogen during pregnancy
 Bartholin's glandtwo glads located slightly below and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina in women; they secrete mucus to provide vaginal lubrication
 epididymisa long coiled tube into which sperm pass from the testes and are stored until mature and ejaculated; storage chamber

 Vas Deferensis part of the male anatomy of many vertebrates; they transport sperm from the epididymis in anticipation of ejaculation.
 seminal vesiclea gland in males that secretes a fluid component of semen that lubricates and nourishes sperm in order for sperm to survive
 prostate glanda gland in males that secretes an acid-neutralizing component of semen; secretes alkaline fluid that neutralizes acidity of trymod
 Bulbourethral glanda pair of glands near the base of the penis that secrete fluid that lubricates and neutralizes acids in the urethra during sex
 seminiferous tubulea coiled sperm-producing tube in the testes
 ductstubes
 glandstissues that secrete fluids, including hormones
 interstitial cellssecretes testosterone
 releasing hormoneA releasing hormone or releasing factor is a hormone whose main purpose is to control the release of another hormone.
 FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)produced by the pituitary gland; in women helps control the menstrual cycle and production of eggs. in men, helps control the production of sperm
 LH (luteinizing hormone)a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; in female, and acute rise of LH triggers ovulation; in male it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone 
 progesteroneis a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
 morphogenesisshaping
 differentiationprocess of cellular specialization
 cleavagethe succession of rapid cell divisions without cell growth that converts the animal zygotes into a ball of cels
 gastrulationphase of the embryonic development that transforms the lastula into gastrula; adds more cells to the embryo and sorts the cells into distinct cell layers
 neurulationis the stage of organogenesis in vertebrate embryos, during which the neural tube is transformed into the primitive structures that will later develop into the central nervous system.
 blastula is a hollow sphere of cells formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals .
 blastocoela central fluid-filled cavity in blastula
 Blastopore is an opening into the archenteron during the embryonic stages of an organism.
 blastocysta mammalian embryo make up of a hollow ball of cells that results from cleavage and that implants in the mothers endometrium
 morulastage of cleavage when an embryo can be split into twins or fused into "chimeras"
 ectoderm is one of the three primary germ cell layers in the very early embryo.
 mesodermmiddle layer of 3 embryonic cell layers; gives rise to muscles, bones, and other organs
 endoderminnermost of 3 embryonic cell layers in gastrula; innermost linings of digestive tract and other organs
 notochordThe notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. located between digestive tract and nerve cord
 neural plateIn human embryology, formation of neural plate is the first step of neurulation.
 neural tubegives rise to the brain and spinal cord formed from ectoderm after gastrulation
 inner cell mass
is the mass of cells inside the primordial embryo that will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus.
 trophoblastthe outer portion of the blastocyst
 chorionbecomes the mammalian embryo's part of the placenta
 endometriumthe inner lining of the uteris

 inductionduring embryonic development, the influence of one group of cells on another group of cells
 chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein hormone produced during pregnancy that is made by the developing embryo after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta)..
 oxytocin is a mammalian hormone that acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain.
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