Koofers

Exam 2 (gonna fail) - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:BIOL 478 - Vertebrate Phys-Lect only
Subject:Biology
University:University of San Diego
Term:Fall 2014
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
hemoglobin protein in red blood cells that transports O2. Comprised of four subunits, heme groups, and binds 1 molecule of O2 per heme group.
facilitation binding of one O2 to one Hb subunit promotes binding to the next subunit (due to conformational change)

switches into R state. Higher affinity.

The reverse is also true.
P50 In biochemistry, P50 indicates the partial pressure of a gas required to achieve 50% enzyme saturation.

partial pressure of O2 where hemoglobin is half saturated

In normal blood. P50 is 26 torr
Bohr Effect a decrease in pH and/or an increase in PCO2 causes a right shift in the oxygen equilibrium/dissociation curve, raising p50 and thus lowering Hb's affinity for O2

useful in tissues, because offloading of O2
Generated by Koofers.com
Root Effect a decrease in pH and/or an increase in PCO2 reduces the amount of O2 blood can carry at saturation, resulting in a downshift of the oxygen equilibrium/dissociation curve

Seen in aquatic animals. Used to help facilitate delivery of O2, their hemoglobin has very high affinity for O2 due to low PO2 in water

(affinity not changed, just amount of oxygen blood can carry at saturation)
2,3 DPG 2,3 Diphosphoglycerate. A salt stored in red blood cells. More 23DPG causes a right shift and reduces Hb's affinity for O2, promoting offloading
swim bladder air sac in fish used to control buoyancy

Buoyancy is a function of the volume of the bag. O2 to fill bladder comes from the blood.
gas gland organ used in fish to create a very high PO2 so that O2 will diffuse into adjacent swim bladder and can control buoyancy

use countercurrent multiplication system

Utilized Root Effect, Bohr Effect, salt effect
Generated by Koofers.com
countercurrent multiplication with arterial blood entering at 100 torr, blood goes through a hairpin shape artery. 

Here, tissue is hard wired for anaerobic glycolysis and a lot of lactate is produced. Salt, facilitates offloading of O2.

pentose shunt, where pH lowered, lactate up, and CO2 up

Creates very high PO2. Each 100mL blood leaves 3ml O2 behind
pentose shunt pathway that converts a 6 carbon sugar to a 5 carbon sugar, producing a CO2 molecule.

Increased PCO2, decreased pH, and increased lactic acid all cause offloading of O2


carbonic anhydrase enzyme that catalyzes the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons

Inside red blood cells, where CO2 is converted to bicarbonate
carbaminos Carbaminohemoglobin is a compound of hemoglobin and carbon dioxide, and is one of the forms in which carbon dioxide exists in the blood.

Compound of hemoglobin and CO2 (Hb- NHCOO-), one of the ways CO2 exists in blood (but only 10%)
Generated by Koofers.com
Haldane Effect at any given PCO2, oxygenated blood holds less CO2 than deoxygenated blood

Conformational thing, O2 binding affects shape. Makes sense because where blood is oxygenated, at lungs, want to offload CO2
acidosis blood pH falls below normal (7.4)
alkalosis blood pH rises above normal (7.4)
chloride shift when HCO3 diffuses out of red blood cells where it forms, leaves a charge gradient. Cl- diffuses in from plasma to RBCs
Generated by Koofers.com
buffer molecules that act to keep pH relatively constant. Function best if within one pH unit of pK
Henderson-Hasselbach equation pH = pK + log[A-]/[HA]

describes relationship between pH, pK and concentrations of acid and base in solution. If more base (HCO3-), pH is higher. If more acid (CO2), pH is lower. pK is 6.1
imidazole involved in protein buffering system
pneumotaxic center / respiratory center controls ventilation rate and tidal volume, responds to chemosensors

Pons and medulla
Generated by Koofers.com
peripheral chemoreceptors extensions of peripheral nervous system in blood vessels that are sensitive to changes in the chemical parameters of blood, including PO2, PCO2, and pH. Particularly PCO2.
carotid body and aortic body chemoreceptors that send signals to respiratory center for body wide alterations. If low CO2, sloe down breathing, if high, increase
Davenport Diagram tool that measures relationship between PCO2, pH, and concentration of plasma HCO3-

Helps determine if disturbance is metabolic or respiratory
metabolic acidosis acidosis caused by some metabolic pathway producing an excess of acid.

Decreased bicarb. Increased CO2 but corrected for by breathing
Generated by Koofers.com
respiratory acidosis acidosis caused by excess of CO2 (if not breathing enough or expelling CO2 efficiently)

Increased H+. Increased bicarb.
metabolic alkalosis alkalosis caused by metabolic pathway producing excess of base.

Increased bicarb. Decreased CO2 but breathing rate compensates for it.
respiratory alkalosis alkalosis caused by lack of CO2

Decreased bicarb. Decreased H+.
pulmonary circuit portion of cardiovascular system that carries blood from heart to lungs and back.

Pumped by right heart.
Generated by Koofers.com
systemic circuit portion of cardiovascular system that carries blood from heart to body and back.

Pumped by left heart.
flow rate Change in P / R

volume of fluid that passes per unit time
laminar flow fluid flows in parallel layers with no disruption between layers

You see it for sure if Re is below 400
turbulent flow fluid flows in chaotic ways, producing greater resistance, requires more energy because not as efficient

You see it for sure if Re is above 2000
Generated by Koofers.com
vasoconstriction constricting and narrowing of blood vessels. Creates more resistance, more fluid in contact with vessel wall.
vasodilation dilating and widening of blood vessels. Creates less resistance.
Poiseuille's Equation a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section.

Flow Rate = (delta P * osmotic pressure * r^4) / (8 * viscosity * L)
elastin elastic protein in vessels (connective tissue) that allows them to resume shape after stretching or contracting
Generated by Koofers.com
collagen structural protein in vessels (connective tissue) to give it strength and structure
elastic tone tone of vessels, can contract or expand
systole contraction of heart

  1. the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries.
diastole relaxation of heart

  1. the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood.
Generated by Koofers.com
pulse pressure systolic - diastolic pressure
mean arterial pressure diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure
aorta large systemic artery that exits from left ventricle

Long, large diameter, experiences highest blood pressure, is both distensible and resilient, lots of collagen and elastin

MAP at beginning is 100mmHg, 90 at end

Law of Laplace tension is proportional to pressure * diameter
Generated by Koofers.com
aneurysm a breakdown in the wall of a vessel, resulting in a blood-filled bulge. Can be dangerous if bursts.
Sigma Effect at small diameter of capillaries, red blood cells must go through one at a time.

helps reduce viscosity

the decrease in apparent viscosity that occurs when a suspension, such as blood, is made to flow through a tube of smaller diameter; observed in tubes less than about 0.3 mm in diameter.
hydrostatic pressure the pressure exerted by a liquid as a result of its potential energy, ignoring its kinetic energy; frequently used to distinguish a true pressure from an osmotic pressure or to emphasize the variation in pressure in a column of fluid due to the effect of gravity.

stronger at beginning of capillary and pushes fluid out of vessel
osmotic pressure Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane.

Higher at end of capillary and pulls fluid into vessel
Generated by Koofers.com
precapillary sphincters A precapillary sphincter is a band of smooth muscle that adjusts blood flow into capillaries mainly in the mesenteric microcirculation.

band of smooth muscle that contracts or expands to control blood flow through capillaries. Contract to constrict capillary
total peripheral resistance sum of resistances of all blood vessels in systemic circulation 

 must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.
cardiac output Cardiac output, is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a left or right ventricle, per unit time.

volume of blood heart pumps per unit time

= Heart rate + stroke volume
stroke volume volume of blood pumped per beat, volume of blood heart ejects each time it contracts
Generated by Koofers.com
skeletal pump when skeletal muscle contracts, squeezes on veins to pump blood towards heart, aids venous return
thoracic pump when inhale, decrease pressure, expand vena cava to suck blood in, when exhale, increase pressure, push on vena cava to push blood forward, aids in venous return
Valsalva Maneuver performed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth, pinching one's nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon

Holding breath when heavy lifting

Can cause blackout or death. Can cause spike in blood pressure that can cause heart attack or stroke
orthostatic hypertension Orthostatic hypertension, or postural hypertension, is a medical condition consisting of a sudden increase in blood pressure when a person stands up.
Generated by Koofers.com
hypoxic vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circuit, when sensors detect low O2, arteries constrict to redirect flow to somewhere with high O2 content, adaptive way to keep blood away from damaged areas


Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is a physiological phenomenon in which pulmonary arteries constrict in the presence of hypoxia without hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels), redirecting blood flow to alveoli with a higher oxygen content.
action potential rapid all or nothing reversal of a cell's resting membrane potential
sinoatrial node (SA node) bundle of tissue at top of right atrium that initiates contraction in the heart

weakly contractile, but contracts faster than rest of heart, generating action potential for rest of heart

"pacemaker"
atrioventricular node (AV node) second node at lower right corner of right atrium, where there is a delay in signal before send action potential through Bundle of His to apex of heart, where it spreads and causes ventricles to contract from bottom up

(make sure atria are completely empty before ventricles contract)
Generated by Koofers.com
Bundle of His bundle of cardiac tissue that conducts action potential down to apex of heart
Purkinje fibers The Purkinje fibers (Purkinje tissue or subendocardial branches) are located in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath the endocardium in a space called the subendocardium.

specialized for very rapid conduction of action potentials, weakly contractile
tachycardia increased heart rate from resting
bradycardia decreased heart rate from resting
Generated by Koofers.com
fibrillation Fibrillation is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of heart

Chaotic or unsynchronized contraction

Heart flutter. In atria, may not be life threatening. In ventricles, often deadly because blood cannot be pumped to body

Some heart disease can cause fibrillation, break down insulation between a and v, or mess up nodes
Frank-Starling Law the greater the ventricle is filled during diastole, the more strongly the heart contracts 
The Frank-Starling law of the heart states that the stroke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the heart (the end diastolic volume) when all other factors remain constant.
Foramen of Panizza small vessel that connects left and right aorta of Crocodilians

Helps them bypass pulmonary circuit when diving and breath holding underwater
foramen ovale connection between right and left atria in fetal heart, allowing blood to flow from right to left atrium without going to pulmonary circuit, where resistance is high
Generated by Koofers.com
ductus arteriosus blood vessel between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, allowing blood to go into aorta and bypass pulmonary circuit, where resistance is high
ligamentum arteriosum ductus arterioles eventually breaks down and degrades into ligamentum arteriosum, closed when infant takes first breath of air
submaximal exercise exercise below maximal level
maximal exercise maximum level of exercise that can be sustained aerobically
Generated by Koofers.com
supermaximal exercise any level of exercise above maximal, where have to use anaerobic mechanisms to supply ATP because aerobic not enough
phosphagens The phosphagens are energy storage compounds, also known as high-energy phosphate compounds, are chiefly found in muscular tissue in animals.

Creatine phosphate + ADP makes ATP + creatine

Used to supply energy anaerobically, but only lasts about 10 secs
anaerobic glycolysis Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to lactate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available.

It's inefficient, but short and quick. Glucose is converted to pyruvate and 2 ATP are produced in the process, and pyruvate becomes lactic acid

Supports intense exercise for about 2 mins
EPOC Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption

"oxygen debt", still elevated O2 demand and consumption after finish intense exercise because have to metabolize lactate
Generated by Koofers.com
gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

Pyruvate back into glucose
glycogenesis Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.

Glucose turned into glycogen, stored
lactate dehydrogenase Lactate dehydrogenase is an enzyme (LDH) that catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvic acid and back, as it converts NAD⁺to NADH and back
cerebral edema excess fluid accumulation and swelling in brain, often caused by increased systemic blood pressure

can cause nausea, dizziness, vomiting, confusion, even coma and death
Generated by Koofers.com
pulmonary edema excess fluid accumulation in air spaces of lungs, alveoli, making oxygen exchange very difficult and can be deadly
acute mountain sickness pathological effect of high altitude on humans, caused by acute exposure to low partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude.

Brought on by hypoxia at altitude and all the effects low PO2 (and body's adjustments) have on the body

often see cerebral and pulmonary edema, only way to get rid of it is to get to lower altitude
Aerobic Dive Limit estimated/calculated amount of time animal can spend submerged based on how much O2 take down and BMR

calculated amount of time animal can spend submerged based on BMR before have to start using anaerobic mechanisms
mammalian dive response instinctive response seen in most mammals upon submersion where experience:

bradycardia
peripheral vasoconstriction to preferentially direct blood to vital organs
fluid shifts into alveoli to stop them from collapsing
Generated by Koofers.com
zone of regulation in aquatic animals, range of partial pressures of O2 in water where uptake is independent of environmental PO2
zone of conformity in aquatic animals, range of partial pressures where gradient is insufficient, PO2 too low, to facilitate enough diffusion and get all needed uptake (diffusion-limited)

after Pcrit, lower water PO2 causes lower uptake and lower blood PO2 because gradient is smaller
Pcrit partial pressure that separates zone of regulation from zone of conformity, where PO2 and uptake no longer independent of water PO2

Where it lies depends on the species, what is its SMR and P50 of Hb
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 87 Print
 
Front
Back
 hemoglobinprotein in red blood cells that transports O2. Comprised of four subunits, heme groups, and binds 1 molecule of O2 per heme group.
 facilitationbinding of one O2 to one Hb subunit promotes binding to the next subunit (due to conformational change)

switches into R state. Higher affinity.

The reverse is also true.
 P50In biochemistry, P50 indicates the partial pressure of a gas required to achieve 50% enzyme saturation.

partial pressure of O2 where hemoglobin is half saturated

In normal blood. P50 is 26 torr
 Bohr Effecta decrease in pH and/or an increase in PCO2 causes a right shift in the oxygen equilibrium/dissociation curve, raising p50 and thus lowering Hb's affinity for O2

useful in tissues, because offloading of O2
 Root Effecta decrease in pH and/or an increase in PCO2 reduces the amount of O2 blood can carry at saturation, resulting in a downshift of the oxygen equilibrium/dissociation curve

Seen in aquatic animals. Used to help facilitate delivery of O2, their hemoglobin has very high affinity for O2 due to low PO2 in water

(affinity not changed, just amount of oxygen blood can carry at saturation)
 2,3 DPG2,3 Diphosphoglycerate. A salt stored in red blood cells. More 23DPG causes a right shift and reduces Hb's affinity for O2, promoting offloading
 swim bladderair sac in fish used to control buoyancy

Buoyancy is a function of the volume of the bag. O2 to fill bladder comes from the blood.
 gas glandorgan used in fish to create a very high PO2 so that O2 will diffuse into adjacent swim bladder and can control buoyancy

use countercurrent multiplication system

Utilized Root Effect, Bohr Effect, salt effect
 countercurrent multiplicationwith arterial blood entering at 100 torr, blood goes through a hairpin shape artery. 

Here, tissue is hard wired for anaerobic glycolysis and a lot of lactate is produced. Salt, facilitates offloading of O2.

pentose shunt, where pH lowered, lactate up, and CO2 up

Creates very high PO2. Each 100mL blood leaves 3ml O2 behind
 pentose shuntpathway that converts a 6 carbon sugar to a 5 carbon sugar, producing a CO2 molecule.

Increased PCO2, decreased pH, and increased lactic acid all cause offloading of O2


 carbonic anhydraseenzyme that catalyzes the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons

Inside red blood cells, where CO2 is converted to bicarbonate
 carbaminosCarbaminohemoglobin is a compound of hemoglobin and carbon dioxide, and is one of the forms in which carbon dioxide exists in the blood.

Compound of hemoglobin and CO2 (Hb- NHCOO-), one of the ways CO2 exists in blood (but only 10%)
 Haldane Effectat any given PCO2, oxygenated blood holds less CO2 than deoxygenated blood

Conformational thing, O2 binding affects shape. Makes sense because where blood is oxygenated, at lungs, want to offload CO2
 acidosisblood pH falls below normal (7.4)
 alkalosisblood pH rises above normal (7.4)
 chloride shiftwhen HCO3 diffuses out of red blood cells where it forms, leaves a charge gradient. Cl- diffuses in from plasma to RBCs
 buffermolecules that act to keep pH relatively constant. Function best if within one pH unit of pK
 Henderson-Hasselbach equationpH = pK + log[A-]/[HA]

describes relationship between pH, pK and concentrations of acid and base in solution. If more base (HCO3-), pH is higher. If more acid (CO2), pH is lower. pK is 6.1
 imidazoleinvolved in protein buffering system
 pneumotaxic center / respiratory centercontrols ventilation rate and tidal volume, responds to chemosensors

Pons and medulla
 peripheral chemoreceptorsextensions of peripheral nervous system in blood vessels that are sensitive to changes in the chemical parameters of blood, including PO2, PCO2, and pH. Particularly PCO2.
 carotid body and aortic bodychemoreceptors that send signals to respiratory center for body wide alterations. If low CO2, sloe down breathing, if high, increase
 Davenport Diagramtool that measures relationship between PCO2, pH, and concentration of plasma HCO3-

Helps determine if disturbance is metabolic or respiratory
 metabolic acidosisacidosis caused by some metabolic pathway producing an excess of acid.

Decreased bicarb. Increased CO2 but corrected for by breathing
 respiratory acidosisacidosis caused by excess of CO2 (if not breathing enough or expelling CO2 efficiently)

Increased H+. Increased bicarb.
 metabolic alkalosisalkalosis caused by metabolic pathway producing excess of base.

Increased bicarb. Decreased CO2 but breathing rate compensates for it.
 respiratory alkalosisalkalosis caused by lack of CO2

Decreased bicarb. Decreased H+.
 pulmonary circuitportion of cardiovascular system that carries blood from heart to lungs and back.

Pumped by right heart.
 systemic circuitportion of cardiovascular system that carries blood from heart to body and back.

Pumped by left heart.
 flow rateChange in P / R

volume of fluid that passes per unit time
 laminar flowfluid flows in parallel layers with no disruption between layers

You see it for sure if Re is below 400
 turbulent flowfluid flows in chaotic ways, producing greater resistance, requires more energy because not as efficient

You see it for sure if Re is above 2000
 vasoconstrictionconstricting and narrowing of blood vessels. Creates more resistance, more fluid in contact with vessel wall.
 vasodilationdilating and widening of blood vessels. Creates less resistance.
 Poiseuille's Equationa physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section.

Flow Rate = (delta P * osmotic pressure * r^4) / (8 * viscosity * L)
 elastinelastic protein in vessels (connective tissue) that allows them to resume shape after stretching or contracting
 collagenstructural protein in vessels (connective tissue) to give it strength and structure
 elastic tonetone of vessels, can contract or expand
 systolecontraction of heart

  1. the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries.
 diastolerelaxation of heart

  1. the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood.
 pulse pressuresystolic - diastolic pressure
 mean arterial pressurediastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure
 aortalarge systemic artery that exits from left ventricle

Long, large diameter, experiences highest blood pressure, is both distensible and resilient, lots of collagen and elastin

MAP at beginning is 100mmHg, 90 at end

 Law of Laplacetension is proportional to pressure * diameter
 aneurysma breakdown in the wall of a vessel, resulting in a blood-filled bulge. Can be dangerous if bursts.
 Sigma Effectat small diameter of capillaries, red blood cells must go through one at a time.

helps reduce viscosity

the decrease in apparent viscosity that occurs when a suspension, such as blood, is made to flow through a tube of smaller diameter; observed in tubes less than about 0.3 mm in diameter.
 hydrostatic pressurethe pressure exerted by a liquid as a result of its potential energy, ignoring its kinetic energy; frequently used to distinguish a true pressure from an osmotic pressure or to emphasize the variation in pressure in a column of fluid due to the effect of gravity.

stronger at beginning of capillary and pushes fluid out of vessel
 osmotic pressureOsmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane.

Higher at end of capillary and pulls fluid into vessel
 precapillary sphinctersA precapillary sphincter is a band of smooth muscle that adjusts blood flow into capillaries mainly in the mesenteric microcirculation.

band of smooth muscle that contracts or expands to control blood flow through capillaries. Contract to constrict capillary
 total peripheral resistancesum of resistances of all blood vessels in systemic circulation 

 must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.
 cardiac outputCardiac output, is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a left or right ventricle, per unit time.

volume of blood heart pumps per unit time

= Heart rate + stroke volume
 stroke volumevolume of blood pumped per beat, volume of blood heart ejects each time it contracts
 skeletal pumpwhen skeletal muscle contracts, squeezes on veins to pump blood towards heart, aids venous return
 thoracic pumpwhen inhale, decrease pressure, expand vena cava to suck blood in, when exhale, increase pressure, push on vena cava to push blood forward, aids in venous return
 Valsalva Maneuverperformed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth, pinching one's nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon

Holding breath when heavy lifting

Can cause blackout or death. Can cause spike in blood pressure that can cause heart attack or stroke
 orthostatic hypertensionOrthostatic hypertension, or postural hypertension, is a medical condition consisting of a sudden increase in blood pressure when a person stands up.
 hypoxic vasoconstrictionin the pulmonary circuit, when sensors detect low O2, arteries constrict to redirect flow to somewhere with high O2 content, adaptive way to keep blood away from damaged areas


Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is a physiological phenomenon in which pulmonary arteries constrict in the presence of hypoxia without hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels), redirecting blood flow to alveoli with a higher oxygen content.
 action potentialrapid all or nothing reversal of a cell's resting membrane potential
 sinoatrial node (SA node)bundle of tissue at top of right atrium that initiates contraction in the heart

weakly contractile, but contracts faster than rest of heart, generating action potential for rest of heart

"pacemaker"
 atrioventricular node (AV node)second node at lower right corner of right atrium, where there is a delay in signal before send action potential through Bundle of His to apex of heart, where it spreads and causes ventricles to contract from bottom up

(make sure atria are completely empty before ventricles contract)
 Bundle of Hisbundle of cardiac tissue that conducts action potential down to apex of heart
 Purkinje fibersThe Purkinje fibers (Purkinje tissue or subendocardial branches) are located in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath the endocardium in a space called the subendocardium.

specialized for very rapid conduction of action potentials, weakly contractile
 tachycardiaincreased heart rate from resting
 bradycardiadecreased heart rate from resting
 fibrillationFibrillation is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of heart

Chaotic or unsynchronized contraction

Heart flutter. In atria, may not be life threatening. In ventricles, often deadly because blood cannot be pumped to body

Some heart disease can cause fibrillation, break down insulation between a and v, or mess up nodes
 Frank-Starling Lawthe greater the ventricle is filled during diastole, the more strongly the heart contracts 
The Frank-Starling law of the heart states that the stroke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the heart (the end diastolic volume) when all other factors remain constant.
 Foramen of Panizzasmall vessel that connects left and right aorta of Crocodilians

Helps them bypass pulmonary circuit when diving and breath holding underwater
 foramen ovaleconnection between right and left atria in fetal heart, allowing blood to flow from right to left atrium without going to pulmonary circuit, where resistance is high
 ductus arteriosusblood vessel between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, allowing blood to go into aorta and bypass pulmonary circuit, where resistance is high
 ligamentum arteriosumductus arterioles eventually breaks down and degrades into ligamentum arteriosum, closed when infant takes first breath of air
 submaximal exerciseexercise below maximal level
 maximal exercisemaximum level of exercise that can be sustained aerobically
 supermaximal exerciseany level of exercise above maximal, where have to use anaerobic mechanisms to supply ATP because aerobic not enough
 phosphagensThe phosphagens are energy storage compounds, also known as high-energy phosphate compounds, are chiefly found in muscular tissue in animals.

Creatine phosphate + ADP makes ATP + creatine

Used to supply energy anaerobically, but only lasts about 10 secs
 anaerobic glycolysisAnaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to lactate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available.

It's inefficient, but short and quick. Glucose is converted to pyruvate and 2 ATP are produced in the process, and pyruvate becomes lactic acid

Supports intense exercise for about 2 mins
 EPOCExcess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption

"oxygen debt", still elevated O2 demand and consumption after finish intense exercise because have to metabolize lactate
 gluconeogenesisGluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

Pyruvate back into glucose
 glycogenesisGlycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.

Glucose turned into glycogen, stored
 lactate dehydrogenaseLactate dehydrogenase is an enzyme (LDH) that catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvic acid and back, as it converts NAD⁺to NADH and back
 cerebral edemaexcess fluid accumulation and swelling in brain, often caused by increased systemic blood pressure

can cause nausea, dizziness, vomiting, confusion, even coma and death
 pulmonary edemaexcess fluid accumulation in air spaces of lungs, alveoli, making oxygen exchange very difficult and can be deadly
 acute mountain sicknesspathological effect of high altitude on humans, caused by acute exposure to low partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude.

Brought on by hypoxia at altitude and all the effects low PO2 (and body's adjustments) have on the body

often see cerebral and pulmonary edema, only way to get rid of it is to get to lower altitude
 Aerobic Dive Limitestimated/calculated amount of time animal can spend submerged based on how much O2 take down and BMR

calculated amount of time animal can spend submerged based on BMR before have to start using anaerobic mechanisms
 mammalian dive responseinstinctive response seen in most mammals upon submersion where experience:

bradycardia
peripheral vasoconstriction to preferentially direct blood to vital organs
fluid shifts into alveoli to stop them from collapsing
 zone of regulationin aquatic animals, range of partial pressures of O2 in water where uptake is independent of environmental PO2
 zone of conformityin aquatic animals, range of partial pressures where gradient is insufficient, PO2 too low, to facilitate enough diffusion and get all needed uptake (diffusion-limited)

after Pcrit, lower water PO2 causes lower uptake and lower blood PO2 because gradient is smaller
 Pcritpartial pressure that separates zone of regulation from zone of conformity, where PO2 and uptake no longer independent of water PO2

Where it lies depends on the species, what is its SMR and P50 of Hb
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"