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Class:BIOL 2020 - Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Subject:Biology (MTSU and RODP)
University:Middle Tennessee State University
Term:Spring Term 2013
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digestive system

provides two things essential for life:

-fuel that keeps our cells running

-the building blocks needed for cell growth and repair

digestive system

consists of the digestive tract (aka gastrointestinal (GI) tract),

-oral cavity, pharynx,esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine

-accesory organs

  -teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas 

digestive system

functions are:

  1. mechanical processing
  2. digeston
  3. secretion
  4. absorption
  5. excretion
  6. protection
fuel

the digestive system provides two things essential for life: one is that it provides ______ that keeps our cells running

-e.g. sugars and fats used to generate ATP &proteins

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building blocks

the digestive system provides two things essential for life: one is that it provides the ____________ needed for cell growth and repair

-e.g. amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, etc.

mechanical processing function of the digestive system that tears, crushes, and mixes food, makes it easier to propel food along GI tract, and exposes more surface area which aids enzymatic digestion
digestion function of the digestive system that chemically breaks the food down into smaller organics that can be absorbed
glucose during digestion, some things in our food can be absorbed as is, e.g. ________; but most have to be broken down first, e.g. proteins and triglycerides (fat)
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secretion function of the digestive system where the digestive epithelium and the accesory glands secrete water acids, enzymes, buffers, and salts in the GI tract
absorption function of the digestive system were the nutrients and water are reabsorbed across the digestive epithileum and into the interstitial fluid where blood vessels pick them up and distribute them
excretion function of the digestive system where the GI tract and accessory organs discharge waste into the tract which is eventually ejected from the body as the feces
protection

function of the digestive system where the lining of the GI tract protects the surrounding tissues against:

  1. the corrosive effects of digestive enzymes and acids
  2. mechanical stresses or abrasion
  3. bacteria that either are digested with the food or live in the GI tract (a nonspecific defense)
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macrophages & lymphocytes _________ and _________ occur in the connective tissue beneath the digestive epithelium
peritoneum the largest portion of the abdominopelvic cavity
peritoneum not the whole abdominopelvic cavity because some structures are retroperitoneal and some are inferior to it, e.g. some reproductive organs
visceral peritoneum most digestive organs are covered with a _____________ (aka. serosa)
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parietal peritoneum _______________ lines the inner surfaces of the body wall
peritoneal fluid the two layers slide past each other via a lubricating fluid called _____________
mesentary a double-sheet of peritoneal membrane that suspends portions of the GI tract and stabilizes the position of some organs
areolar _________ tissue in the middle of the mesentary provides for passage of blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels to and from the GI tract
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mesentary proper a thick mesentary that stabilizes most of the small intestine
greater omentum a large fold (pouch) of the dorsal mesentary of the stomach; it hangs anterior to the intestines
adipose _________ tissue within the greater omentum cushions and protects the abdominal organs and is also a major site where we store excess energy as fat
mucosa the innermost lining of the digestive tract that consists of an epithileum (often with many goblet cells) on top of the lamina propria
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abrasion where ________ is the worst (oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus), the epithileum consists of a stratified squamous
absorption where ________ occurs (stomach, small intestine, and much of the large intestine), the EPI consists of a simple squamous with goblet cells
abrasion this is the worst in the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus
absorption this occurs in the stomach, small intestine, and much of the large intestine
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stem the lining of the mucosa is constantly renewed by divisions of epithelial _______ cells
2-3 typical EPI cell in esophagus may only live _____ days
lamina propria consists of areolar tissue that contains blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, lymphatic vessels, smooth muscle cells, and scattered areas of the lymphoid tissue
muscularis mucosa in most areas of the GI tract, the lamina propria contains a narrow sheet of smooth muscle and elastic fibers called the ________
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muscularis mucosa changes the shape of the lumen (opening of the tract) and creates motion of the tract
submucosa

a layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the mucosa

-contains large blood and lymphatic vessels

exocrine in some regions, the submucosa has _______ glands that, e.g., secrete enzymes and buffers into the lumen of the GI tract
submucosal plexus the outer portion of the submucosa contains a network of nerve fibers called the ___________ that contains sensory neurons and ANS neurons
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muscularis externa outside of the submucosa is this layer of smooth muscle that is made up of an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of muscle
muscularis externa layer that creates movement that both mites the food and moves the food bolus down the GI tract
muscular in general, parasympathetic activity increases the ________ action and the sympathetic inhibits it
myenteric plexus sandwiched between the circular and longitudinal layers of muscle is the ___________ which is a network of neurons that regulate the GI tract
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serosa the same as the visceral peritoneum; the outermost layer of most of the digestive tract made up of mostly simple squamous EPI
pacesetter cells the smooth muscle of the GI tract contains specialized smooth muscle cells, _____________, that spontaneously depolarize
pacesetter when these specialized smooth muscle cells spontaneously depolarize, this triggers neighboring smooth muscle cells to depolarize  
contraction after the pacesetter cells depolarize and trigger the other smooth muscle cells to depolarize, this makes it so a wave of _________ spreads throughout the entire muscular tube
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peristalsis a wave of smooth muscle contractions that move the bolus along the length of the GI tract
circular

how peristalsis works:

  • the ________ layer of muscle contracts above the bolus
  • then the longitudinal layer of muscle below the bolus contracts themporarily shortening the tube
  • finally a wave of contraction in the circular muscle forces the bolus forward   
segmentation uncoordinated contraction of the muscles that serves to break up the bolus and mix it with the intestinal secretions
neural regulation controls the contractions of the GI tract and many of the secretory functions
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myenteric plexus

neural regulation may come from

  • CNS
  • complex neuronal networks in GI tract itself

         -in any case, both would involve the ___________

CNS nervous system that typically controls large-scale peristalsis
enterendocrine the mucosa may contain ___________ cells scattered among he columnar cells
hormones the enterendocrine cells secrete ________ that regulate the GI tract and accessory glands
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18 the digestive tract produces at least _____ hormones that affect virtually every aspect of digestion
local messengers _______________ like histamine and prostaglandins (an eicosanoid) may coordinate the activity of a small area of the GI tract
histamine the release of _______ from the lamina propria of stomach stimulates stomach to secrete acids
mast cells in areolar tissue what cells secrete histamine? in what type of tissue?
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oral cavity

functions:

  1. sensory analysis of material
  2. mechanical processing
  3. lubrication
  4. limited digestion of corbohydrates and lipids
sensory the mouth in richly supplied with _______ receptors for touch, temperature, pain, and of coure taste
mechanical processing the oral cavity performs this function via action of teeth, tongue, and hard palate
lubrication the oral cavity performs this function via salivary glands and mucus to dissolve food in order to activate taste receptors and to ease movement of food
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tongue besides compressing and manipulating food and sensory analysis of food, it also secretes mucins and the enzyme lingual lipase
mucins tongues secrete ________; proteoglycans responsible for the lubricating nature of mucus
lingual lipase the tongue secretes this enzyme that starts lipid digestion in the oral cavity and continues to digest, e.g., triglycerides, even for some time in the stomach since it works over a broad pH range: 3-6
salivary glands

three pairs:

  1. parotid
  2. sublingual
  3. submandibular
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parotid salivary gland that is anterior to earlobe, deep to the skin
salivary amylase the parotid salivary gland's saliva contains lost of _________, an enzyme that begins starch digestion
parotid salivary gland that discharges saliva near the upper molars
sublingual salivary gland basically below the tongue
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sublingual salivary gland that produces a mucous secretion that acts as a lubricant and pH buffer
sublingual salivary gland that discharges saliva near inferior midline of tongue
submandibular salivary glands that occus along the inner surface of mandible
submandibular these salivary glands produces by far most of the saliva (70%) and also produce a mucous secretion but with some salivary amylase
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teeth the submandibular salivary glands discharges saliva posterior to _______
saliva

functions:

  • lubricant
  • begins starch digestion via salivary amylase
  • some is continually released to help flush out the oral cavity and keep it clean
  • the buffers counteract the acids produced by oral bacteria and keep pH ~7
  • help control the population of oral bacteria
saliva

immunoglobulin A (IgA) and lysozyme in _______ help control the population of oral bacteria

[less during sleep, hence, dry mouth, more bacteria in AM]

teeth chewing with these helps break down the food (collective tissue in meat, fibers in plants)
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teeth helps to saturate the food with salivary secretions and enzymes
tooth

regions:

-crown

-neck

-root

crown the upper, exposed portion of the tooth
root the base of the tooth; the part embedded into the bone of the maxilla of madible
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periodontal ligament teeth are held in their bony sockets by the ____________
dentin

a mineralized matrix that makes up the bulk of a tooth

process the dentin is similar to bone except it doesn't contain whole cells only their ________
enamel covers the dentin of the crown
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enamel the hardest biologically made substance known and cannot be regenerated
cementum a bone-like material that covers the dentin of the root
cementum protects the dentin and like dentin, it can regenerate
pulp cavity the interior chamber of a tooth that contains cells, blood vessels, and nerves
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mumps viral infection of the salivary gland
plaque deposits of bacteria and old food particles on the teeth
tartar this is caused if over time these organics like plaque have become calcified and form a hard layer
deciduous teeth

temporary teeth, aka. baby teeth; usually 20

-typically lose them from ages 6-13

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molars with adult teeth, we typically gain 12 _______ to bring total teeth to 32
molars aren't replacements, they are new and extend the tooth row
wisdom teeth third molars that may not erupt before age 21
gingivae aka. gums: ridges of oral mucosa around the base of the teeth
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gingivae usually tightly joined to the periosteum of the maxilla or mandible
hard palate provides a stiff surface against which the tongue can work to compress food
soft palate non-bony, soft tissue posterior to the hard palate
uvula the process that dangles from the posterior margin of the soft palate 
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uvula helps to prevent food from prematurely entering the pharynx
uvula during swallowing it blocks the entrance to the nasopharynx
pharynx extends from just behind nasal cavity to region of mouth (oropharynx) down to the larynx and esophagus
pharynx most of this is lined with stratified squamous EPI for protection from abrasion, chemicals, and pathogens
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pharynx a common passageway for air, food, and liquids
esophagus conducts food and drink from pharynx to the stomach and is located posterior to the trachea
resting muscle tone

__________ in the esophogeal wall usually prevents air from entering and the stomach contents from leaking back up

-this is important because the esophagus does not really have a sphincter

gastroeophageal sphincter is really more of a region close to the stomach where muscle tone is high
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burp what happens when you do swallow air, i.e., while eating?
mucosa the _______ of the esophagus is made up of stratified squamous EPI
submucosa Histology: this layer of the esophagus contains mucous glands
muscularis externa the ____________ of the esophagus has the usual inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of smooth muscle that function in peristalsis
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stomach

four major regions:

  1. storage of food
  2. mechanical breakdown of food
  3. digestion via acids and enzymes
  4. production of intrinsic factor
stomach one of its major functions is the storage of food, because it can stretch up  to 30-50x its empty size
mechanical breakdown of food the stomach performs this function through the churning action created by its muscular walls
HCl

during digestion in the stomach, _______ helps break down food

 

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stomach allows salivary amylase and lingual lipase to continue to digest carbohydrates and lipids for a bit until its pH gets too acidic
pepsin the stomach starts protein digestion via _______
intrinsic factor a glycoprotein that is needed in order for the small intestine to be able to absorb vitamin B (essential for normal RBC production)
stomach has little absorption of nutrients, but alcohol and some drugs, e.g., aspirin, are absorbed
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stomach

four regions:

  1. cardia
  2. fundus
  3. body
  4. pylorus
cardia the smallest part of the stomach, consisting of the first ~3 cm from the esophagus
cardia region that contains numerous mucous glands that help protect esophagus from acids/enzymes of stomach
fundus the portion of the superior to the end of the esophagus
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body the biggest part of the stomach
body basically functions as a mixing tank for the stomach
body its abundant gastric glands secrete most of the acids and enzymes
pylorus the sharply curving end portion of the stomach; the curve of the "J"
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pyloric sphincter regulates the passage of chyme into the duodenum
chyme the viscous, highly-acidic, soupy mixture of partially digested food in the stomach
rugae when the stomach is empty, the mucosa is thrown into obvious wrinkles called _______
simple columnar all portions of the stomach are lined with a ___________ EPI
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mucus simple columnar EPI produces a layer of _______ that protects the stomach from acids and enzymes
gastric glands occur deep in the gastric pits (depressions) in the fundus and body
gastric glands

contains two especially important secretory cells:

-parietal cells

-chief cells

goblet cells single cells that produce mucus in glands
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parietal cells in the gastric glands, these cells secrete intrinsic factors and hydrochloric acid (HCl)
cytoplasm parietal cells do not produce HCl in their _______ because it would cause too much damage
carbonic acid H+ are generated inside a parietal cell from __________, itself formed from CO2 and water using carbonic anhydrase
lumen after H+ are generated inside a parietal cell, H+ are then actively transported into the _______ of the gastric gland
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bicarbonate, Cl- after the H+ is actively transported into the lumen of the gastric gland, the _________ is ejected into the interstitial fluid using a mechanism that simultaneously brings _____ into the parietal cell 
simple leak channels after Cl- is brought into the parietal cell, this builds up the concentration of Cl- in the cell which then diffuse down their concentration gradient through ___________ into the lumen of the gasric gland
HCl once H+ and Cl- are both in the lumen, the two ions combine to form ______
alkaline tide when our gastric glands are especially active, so much bicarbonate may enter the interstitial fluid and then blood that our blood pH increases noticeably, called the "___________"
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1.5-2 the parietal cells generally keep the stomach pH at _______
highly acidic

important functions of the __________ stomach:

  • kills most microbes ingested with the food
  • helps to break down proteins
  • helps break down tough plant cell walls
  • essential for activating pepsin
chief cells secrete an inactive proenzyme called pepsinogen
pepsin

once pepsinogen encounters the acid stomach environment, it's converted into _______, a protein-digesting enzyme

 (works best at pH of 1.5-2)

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proenzymes secreting __________ is advantageous because it prevents the active enzyme from damaging the structure that secretes it
pyloric glands glands within the pylorus
pyloric glands these secrete mostly mucus and several hormones, NOT acids/enzymes
gastrin hormone secreted by the pyloric glands that stimulates the secretion of both parietal and chief cells and the contractions of the stomach wall to mix the chyme
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hormones many of these that are secreted by the pyloric glands play a role in hunger and satiety
small intestine where most digestion and absorption (~90%) occurs, with the help of the pancreas and liver
small intestine

-on average, ~15 feet long

-supported by the mesentary proper

-has three segments:

  1. duodenum
  2. jejunum
  3. ileum
mesentary proper blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves reach the small intestine through this 
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duodenum the initial and shortest segment (~10 in)
duodenum a "mixing bowl" for chyme from the stomach and the secretions of the pancreas and liver
duodenum its main function is to neutralize the acidity of the chyme before it can damage the EPI lining of the small intestine
jejunum the middle segment of the small intestine, ~8 feet long
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jejunum where most of the digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine
ileum final and largest segment of the small intestine, ~12 feet
ileocecal valve the ileum ends at the ____________, which controls the passge of material into the start of the large intestine, or cecum
peyer patches the ileum contains masses of lymphoid tissue called __________; the lymphocytes here protect the small intestine from the bacteria that normally inhibit the large intestine
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pilcae circulares the folds along the lining of the small intestine
pilcae unlike the rugae of the stomach, the ______ are permanent features that do not disappear as the small intestine fills up
pilcae circulares they greatly increase the surface area available for absorption in the small intestine
intestinal villi pilcae circulares are covered with numerous __________
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intestinal villi these are small, fingerlike projections of the mucosa that are covered with simple columnar cells bearing densely packed microvilli ("brush border")
goblet cells numerous __________ occur between the columnar cells and secrete mucus onto the lining of the small intestine
small intestine the pilcae, villi, and microvilli together give us a ___________ with a tremendous surface area of ~2200 square feet
villus

each contains:

-a network of capillaries into which nutrients are reabsorbed

-a nerve ending

-and a lacteal

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liver each villus contains a network of capillaries into which nutrients are reabsorbed and then delivered to the ______ via the hepatic portal circulation
lacteal each villus contains a _______ (lymphatic capillary) which transports absorbed lipids (e.g., fatty acids)
mucus numerous mucous glands in the duodenum produce ______ which protects the EPI from the acidity of chyme
bicarbonate ions this mucus produced in the duodenum also contains __________ that neutralize the pH
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duodenum pH ranges from 1-2 at the start of the _________, but by the end it's raised to 7-8
chyme the secretions of the small intestine usually begin well before _______ arrives so that the protection is already in place
small intestine

several hormones are released by the ____________

-e.g., gastrin, cholecystokinin, and secretion

shed EPI cells several enzymes are also released, often from ________ in the small intestine
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enteropeptidase enzyme released often from the shed EPI cells of the small intestine which activates the pancreatic enzyme, trypsinogen
gastrin hormone released by the stomach AND small intestine
pancreas located posterior to the stomach and has a lumpy, lobular structure wrapped with a thin capsule of connective tissue
acinar cells

simple cuboidal cells that make up the bulk of the pancreas that produce pancreatic enzymes which do most of the digestive work

-darker red cells

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pancreas

functions:

-produces "pancreatic juice"

-secretes the hormones insulin and gucagon which regulate blood glucose levels

pancreatic juice a mixture of water, digestive enzymes, and buffers (to counteract acidity)
pancreatic duct the pancreatic juice is delivered through the ___________ to the duodenum
insulin and glucagon hormones secreted in the pancreas which regulate blood glucose levels
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duodenum pancreatic juice secretion is controlled mainly by hormones of the __________
secretin the presence of chyme stimulates endocrine cells of duodenum to release the hormone _________
secretin this hormone stimulates the pancreas to release a watery buffer containing bicarbonate
pancreatic enzymes cholecystokinin stimulates the pancreas to produce and release _____________
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chyme as was true of the small intestine, the pancreas increases its activity in "anticipation" of ______
pancreatic enzymes

examples:

-pancreatic alpha-amylase

pancreatic lipase

-nucleases

-proteases

-peptidases

pancreatic alpha-amylase pancreatic enzyme that breaks down certain starches
pancreatic lipase pancreatic enzyme that breaks down certain complex lipids so that fatty acids can be absorbed
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nucleases pancreatic enzyme that breaks down DNA or RNA
proteases pancreatic enzymes that break down large proteins
trypsinogen once activated by enteropeptidase into trypsin it not only breaks down proteins but also activates many other proenzymes
peptidases pancreatic enzymes that break small peptides into individual amino acids
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pancreatitis this disease makes the pancreas have a hard time regulating blood sugar and then the pancreatic enzymes start attacking the pancreas.  
liver the largest internal organ
right most of the liver's bulk is on the _______ side of the body
fibrous capsule the liver is divided into a right and left lobe; each wrapped in a tough ____________
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hepatic artery the liver receives arterial blood via the __________
hepatic portal vein the liver receives venous blood via the ___________
hepatic portal vein carries blood coming from stomach, small, and large intestine
liver lobule each lobe of the liver is divided into ~100,000 haxagon-shaped _________ = the functional unit of the liver
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hepatocytes the cells of the liver are called __________; in a liver lobule these cells are arranged like the spokes of a wheel
sinusoidal these capillaries run between the "spokes" of the hepatocytes and drain into the central vein
sinusoids large gaps along the _________ allow substances as large as plasma proteins to enter/exit the blood
hepatic triad at each of the sx corners of the hexagonal liver lobules is a ___________
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hepatic triad

each consists of:

  • a branch of the hepatic portal vein
  • a branch of the hepatic artery
  • a small banch of the bile duct
plasma proteins as blood flows through the sinusoids, hepatocytes absorb solutes (e.g. nutrients) from the blood and secrete ____________ into the blood
hepatocytes in addition to plasma proteins, complement proteins and clotting factors are also secretes by ____________
bile produced by hepatocytes
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bile ductules bile is produced by hepatocytes and flows into the bile ductules
common hepatic duct bile ducts eventually empty into the ___________ which leaves the liver
bile duct after bile leaves the liver via the common hepatic duct, the bile goes into the _________ which delivers bile to the duodenum via the duodenal papilla or goes into the gallbladder for storage
liver like the kidneys, this organ receives ~25% of cardiac output, and it has a major influence on the composition of the blood
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hepatocytes these cells regulate blood glucose levels in the liver
glycogen reserves if blood glucose drops in the liver, the hepatocytes break down ________________
glucose if blood glucose rises, the hepatocytes remove the ________ and store it as glycogen or use it to make lipids
liver this organ regulates circulating levels of triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol
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amino acids the liver removes excess __________ from the bloodstream
amino acids after the liver removes these from the bloodstream, they are either used to make proteins or to synthesize glucose or lipids
liver

this organ's nutrient regulation:

-hepatocytes regulate blood glucose levels

-regulates circulating levels of triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol

-removes excess amino acids from bloodstream

-stores fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)

-stores excess iron as ferritin


ferritin the liver stores excess iron as _________
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fat-soluble the liver stores __________ vitamins (A, D, E, K)
ferritin The liver stores excess iron as ________
liver functions:
-nutrient regulation
-waste and toxin removal or storage
-bile production

urea the liver neutralizes the toxic ammonia produced during amino acid metabolism by converting it to ______
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bile other waste products and toxins are also removed from the blood by the liver and either inactivated, stored, or excreted in _____
stored [DDT] lipid-soluble toxins are removed from the blood by the liver and ______
liver one of this organ's function is waste and toxin removal or storage:
-neutralizes the toxic ammonia produced during amino acid metabolism by converting it into urea
-other waste products and toxins are also removed from the blood by this organ and either inactivated, stored, or excreted in bile
-inactive drugs
Kupffer in the liver, the cells phagocytize old or damaged RBCs (as they can also initiate an immune response through antigen-presentation
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hepatocytes these liver cells synthesize and release most of the plasma proteins
-e.g., albumins (which affect BCOP), transport, clotting, and complement proteins
BCOP pressure that helps reabsorb water in capillaries
complement proteins a part of a nonspecific defense 
-ex. inflammation
antibodies the liver removes and breaks down circulating ________
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liver the main site for removal and recycling of hormones
-e.g., epinephrine, insulin, thyroid, and steroid hormones
liver this organ plays an important role in the synthesis of calcitriol, EPO, and angiotensin
bile the liver synthesizes ______, which may be stored in the gallbladder, or excreted into the duodenum
bile consists of:
-mostly water
-some ions
-bilirubin (from breakdown of hemoglobin)
-cholesterol
-and a variety of lipids known as _____ salts
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protected function of bile: most lipids in our diets are not water-soluble; thus, churning of the STOMACH produces lipid droplets in which most of the lipids are _______ inside from the action of digestive enzymes
emulsification bile salts break large lipid droplets into tiny droplets in a process called:
surface area emulsification greatly increases the collective ____________ of the lipid droplets so digestive enzymes can more efficiently digest the lipids
bile salts ___________ also help the small intestine to absorb the lipids
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gallbladder a hollow, pear-shaped organ with muscular walls located in the posterior surface of the right lobe of the liver 
gallbladder this organ stores and concentrates bile prior to its excretion into the duodenum
cholecystokinin bile is released into the duodenum from the gallbladder when stimulated to do so by release of the intestinal hormone _________
cholecystokinin without this hormone, all the bile produced goes to the gallbladder for storage
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chyme when _______ enter the duodenum, cholecystokinin is released.. this stimulates the gallbladder to CONTRACT and force bile into the duodenum
lipid chyme with large amounts of _______ stimulates an even greater secretion of cholecystokinin and in response more bile than usual is released from the galbladder into the duodenum
gallstones deposits of insoluble, crystalline bile salts that form when the bile becomes too concentrated 
gallstones if large, they can damage wall of gallbladder or block common bile duct, and gallbladder may have to be surgically removed
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bile without gallbladder you would still have _______, you just wouldn't be able to concentrate and store it. 
*because it is made in the LIVER
large intestine on average, ~5 feet long.
consists of three parts:
-cecum
-colon (divided into four parts)
-rectum
cecum the pouch-like beginning of the large intestine on right side of the body
cecum contents enter here after passing through the ileocecal valve
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appendix the slender, hollow ________ is attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum
lymphoid tissue the appendix contains lots of ______________; hence, functions in immunity
colon the largest portion of the large intestine
haustra the colon's wall forms a series of pouches called _______ which allow the colon to expand and contract
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teniae coli three separate longitudinal bands of smooth muscle, called the __________, run along the outer surfaces of the colon 
muscle tone ___________ within the teniae coli creates the haustra
colon subdivided into four regions:
-ascending
-transverse
-descending
-sigmoid
ascending colon subdivision of the colon that runs superiorly from cecum to liver on right side of body
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transverse colon subdivision of the colon that runs laterally across abdomen from right to left
descending colon subdivision of the colon that runs inferiorly down to the iliac fossa
sigmoid colon -S-shaped segment of the colon
-only ~6 inches long
-posterior to bladder
-empties into rectum
rectum the last 6 inches of the large intestine
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rectum an expandable region for temporary storage of ______
stratified squamous the rectum starts with simple columnar EPI but near the anus changes to __________
internal anal sphincter the muscularis externa in the rectum forms the ____________ =smooth muscle under INVOLUNTARY control
external anal sphincter skeletal muscle under voluntary control in the rectum
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defecation
  1. stretch receptors send signal to spinal cord
  2. reflex stimulates contraction of rectum
  3. and relaxes INTERNAL anal sphincter
  4. but brain prevents _________ until convenient.. if ok, relaxes EXTERNAL anal sphincter
external anal sphincter similar to the bladder, control of this anal sphincter in the rectum would not be fully developed in children
large intestine unlike the small intestine, it has NO villi, its wall is much thinner and it does NOT secrete enzymes
mucous cells the large intestine contains lots of ___________ and scattered lymphoid nodules
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mucus in the large intestine, this provides lubrication for the movement of the feces which have become more compact and dry
large intestine functions:
-reabsorption of water and compaction of intestinal contents into feces
-absorption of vitamins liberated by bacterial action
-absorption of some organic wastes
-temporary storage of fecal material
constipation excessive reabsorption of water by the large intestine leads to ___________
diarrhea too little reabsorption of water in the large intestine leads to ________
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bacterial the large intestine absorbs vitamins liberated by _________ action
bacterial normal ________ residents of the large intestine generate 3 vitamins:
  1. vitamin K
  2. biotin
  3. vitamin B5
bilirubin in the large intestine, bacteria convert _________ into urobilinogen
urobilinogen some of this is absorbed in the blood from the large intestine and excreted in the urine
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peptides bacteria in the large intestine also break down the remaining ________ and in the process generate ammonia (NH4+) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) among others
ammonia much of the _______ generated by the break down of peptides in the large intestine is absorbed and sent via hepatic portal system to the liver 
meals our _______ are usually a mixture of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, water, salts, minerals, and vitamins
large organics during digestion, ___________ must be broken down before they can be absorbed
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complex chains most large organics are ___________ of simpler molecules
proteins are chains of amino acids
simple sugars starches/glycogen are chains of ______________
lipids are chains of fatty acids
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nucleic acids are chains of sug-P-nitrog bases
hydrolysis digestive enzymes break the bonds between the simpler building blocks in a process called ____________ 
hydrolysis means "split with water"
modification water, salts, minerals, and vitamins can usually be absorbed without ____________
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carbohydrates complex ___________ (starches) are broken down by SALIVARY AMYLASE and PANCREATIC ALPHA-AMYLASE into disaccharides and trisaccharides into the duodenum
monosaccharides after the carbohydrates have been broken down into disaccharides and trisaccharides, brush-border (small intestine) enzymes then finish the digestion by breaking these sugars down into the simple sugars, called ____________  
milk galactose comes from a ______ sugar 
table fructose comes from a ________ sugar
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lactose-intolerant what if in adulthood a person's mucosa stops producing lactase? they would be ____________
facilitated diffusion after being broken down by the brush-border enzymes, the simple sugars are then absorbed into the intestinal villi and enter capillaries via ______________
capillaries after the simple sugars are absorbed into the intestinal villi and entered the capillaries via facilitated diffusion, the __________ carry the sugars to the liver via the hepatic portal vein 
carbohydrate ____________ digestion and absorption:
  • complex ___________ (starches) are broken down by salivary amylase and pancreatic alpa-amylase into disaccharides and trisaccharides
  • brush-border enzymes then finish the digestion by breaking these sugars down into the simple sugars, called monosaccharides
  • the simple sugars are then absorbed into the intestinal villi and enter capillaries via facilitated diffusion
  • capillaries carry the sugars to the liver via the hepatic portal vein
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glycogen if you ingest too much sugar, the liver will combine the sugar and store as _________
lipase lingual ________ and pancreatic ________ digest fats (triglycerides) by breaking off two of the fatty acids leaving a monoglyceride
20% only about _____ of the lipids have been digested by the time the chyme enters the duodenum, because the fat droplets are too LARGE and thus most fat is sheltered in the middle of the drop 
middle since the fat droplets are too large, most fat is sheltered in the ______ of the drop
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emulsification _____________ by the bile salts makes it easier for pancreatic lipase to digest the remaining lipids that have not been digested 
chylomicrons the digested lipids, since hydrophobic, simply diffuse into the intestinal villi and then they get a protein coating and are called __________
chylomicrons the __________ are transported into the LACTEALS and from there eventually enter the venous blood supply via the thoracic duct 
lipid ________ digestion and absorption:
  • lingual lipase and pancreatic lipase digest fats (triglycerides) by breaking off two of the fatty acids leaving a monoglyceride
  • only about 20% of the lipids have been digested by the time the chyme enters the duodenum because the fat droplets are too large.. and thus most fat is sheltered in the middle of the drop
  • the digested lipids, since hydrophobic, simple diffuse into the intestinal villi 
  • then they get a protein coating and are called chylomicrons
  • chylomicrons are transported into the lacteals and from there eventually enter the venous blood supply via the thoracic duct
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proteins mechanical processing and the acidity of the stomach begins to break down large ________ (but doesn't break peptide bonds)
acidity the _______ of the stomach also activates pepsinogen (from stomach's chief cells) into pepsin
pepsin does break down certain peptide bonds
enteropeptidase in the small intestine, ____________ activates trypsinogen (from pancreas) into trypsin 
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trypsin ________ and the other proteases that it activates begin attacking other peptide bonds
peptidases small intestine itself also produces some ___________
protein eventually the _______ broken down into free amino acids
facilitated diffusion the free amino acids are then absorbed into the intestinal villi and enter capillaries via ____________, then the capillaries carry them to the liver via the hepatic portal vein
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protein ________ digestion and absorption:
  • mechanical processing and the acidity of the stomach begins to break down large proteins(but doesn't break down peptide bonds)
  • the acidity of the stomach also activates pepsinogen into pepsin (pepsin does break certain peptide bonds)
  • in the small intestine, enteropeptidase activates trypsinogen into trypsin
  • trypsin and other proteases that it activates begin attacking other peptide bonds
  • small intestine itself also produces some peptidases
  • eventually the _______ is broken down into free amino acids
  • the free amino acids are then absorbed into the intestinal villi and enter capillaries via facilitated diffusion
  • capillaries carry them to the liver via the hepatic portal vein
stomach organ that produces pepsin
pancreas organ that produces trypsin and peptidases
small intestine organ that produces peptidases
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water typically the GI tract secretes far more _______ than we acquire in our food and drink
2 on average, we might ingest ___ liters of water/day
7 about ___ liters are added to the GI tract via saliva, stomach secretions, bile, pancreatic juice, and intestinal secretions
osmosis almost all (98%) of this water secreted by the GI tract is reabsorbed through ________
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reabsorption this _________ of water occurs in both the small and large intestine
intestinal basically as the nutrients and ions are absorbed into the ________ cells, water follows
water _______ absorption:
  • typically the GI tract secretes far more _______ than we acquire in our food and drink
  • almost all (~98%) is reabsorbed through osmosis
  • this reabsorption occurs in both the small and large intestine
  • as the nutrients and ions are absorbed into the intestinal cells, _______ follows
Na+ example of ion absorption: _____ is absorbed via simple diffusion, active transport, and other transport mechanisms
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greater in general, the greater the concentration of sodium in the food, the ________ the sodium absorption and the ________ the gain of water through osmosis
aldosterone __________ increases the rate of sodium absorption in the intestine (as well as the DCT and collecting ducts of kidneys)
calcium _________ absorption involves active transport
calcitriol _________ increases the rate of calcium reabsorption
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ions other _____ are absorbed either via diffusion, active transport, or carrier-mediated transport
-e.g., K+, Cl-, magnesium, iron (Fe2+)
testes form within the body cavity near the kidneys and gradually move lower as the fetus grows
third trimester in the __________ of pregnancy, the fetus' testes move through the abdominal muscles and enter the scrotum
cryptorchidism when the testis fails to descend during the third trimester of pregnancy, the condition is called _________.
-increases risk of testicular cancer
-can make them infertile
-fixed by surgery or sometimes testosterone injections
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spermatic cords these cords run between the testes and the inguinal cavity
inguinal canal a passageway through the abdominal muscles
spermatic cords consist of an outer layer of connective tissue and muscle covering the ductus (vas) deferens, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves
scrotum each testis lies in a separate chamber that limits the spread of infection from one testis to another
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scrotum contains both a layer of smooth muscle and a layer of skeletal muscle
temperature muscles of the scrotum relax or contract to move the testes closer to or away from the body in order to keep the testes at an appropriate __________ for sperm development
2 the appropriate temperature for sperm development is ~___ degrees lower than the rest of the body
cold _____ water elevates the scrotum
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pampiniform plexus network of veins surrounding the testicular artery and cools the arterial blood
tunica albuginea a dense layer of connective tissue covering the testes and dividing into a series of lobules
seminiferous tubules each lobule contains 100s of tightly coiled ______________ in which sperm are produced
sustenacular cells (aka. Sertoli cells) occur within the seminiferous tubules and support the formation of sperm
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rete testis a complex network of tubes at the superior end of testes into which the seminiferous tubules discharge their sperm
epididymis from the rete testis, sperm are conducted to the __________
interstitial cells (aka. Leydig cells) occur in the areolar tissue between the seminiferous tubules
interstitial cells (aka. Leydig cells) produce androgens (e.g., testosterone) 
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spermatogenesis the process of forming spermatozoa (aka. sperm)
outermost spermatogenesis begins at the __________ layer of cells in the seminiferous tubule
lumen at each step of spermatogenesis, the daughter cells move toward the______ (opening)
spermatogenesis consists of three basic steps:
  1. mitosis
  2. meiosis
  3. spermiogenesis
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mitosis first step of spermatogenesis
mitosis one cell divides into two; the daughter cells are genetically identical
meiosis second step of spermatogenesis
meiosis one cell divides into four; each daughter cell is different and has only half the original amount of genetic material
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double why is it necessary to cut the number of chromosomes in half when making gametes?
~each generation, chromosome number would ________
spermiogenesis third step of spermatogenesis
spermiogenesis process in which a spermatid matures into a spermatozoon (sperm)
spermatogonia first in spermatogenesis, stem cells called ___________ divide by mitosis to produce two daughter cells (each still has 46 chromosome) 
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46 how many chromosomes does each spermatogonia have? 
primary (1) spermatocyte after spermatogonia divide by mitosis to produce two daughter cells, one daughter cell remains to continue functioning as a stem cell and the other differentiates into a ______________
meiosis step of spermatogenesis that consists of two cycles of cell division (________ I and ________ II) that give rise to four spermatids, each of which contains only 23 individual chromosomes 
somatic each of our ________ (body) cells contains 46 chromosomes:
mother's egg contained 23 + father's sperm contained 23 = 
You with 46 chromosomes
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same the 23 chromosomes you received from mom are basically the _____ as the 23 you got from dad
same your mother and father carry the _____ genes in the same order along the chromosome
homologous each chromosome you got from mom can be paired with a similar (but not identical) chromosome from your dad; we say these are ___________ chromosomes
23 in humans, there are ____ homologous pairs
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X which chromosome is from mom in the homologous pair?
Y which chromosome is from dad in the homologous pair?
interphase I during this step of meiosis, primary spermatocytes replicate their DNA 
chromatids during interphase I, each of the 46 chromosomes now consists of two duplicate _________
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DNA made up by:
sugar-phosphate-sugar (sides of "ladder")
with AGTC (steps of "ladder")
prophase I during this step of meiosis, chromosomes condense and nuclear envelope disintegrates 
tetrads during prophase I of meiosis, homologous chromosomes join together (synapse), called ________
crossing-over during prophase I of meiosis, the tetrads swap some genetic material, called __________
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mix after the crossing-over in prophase I, now each of the 46 chromosomes contains a _____ of mom and dad's DNA, rather than being strictly from mom or dad
synapsis where homologues are closely associated, and crossing over can occur
metaphase I step of meiosis when homologous pairs and move and line up in middle of cell 
anaphase I step of meiosis when the homologous pairs separate NOT the duplicate chromatids
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anaphase I at this point in meiosis, the 2 daughter cells have only half as much DNA as the original cell (only 23 chromosomes, 1 member of each homologous pair)
secondary (2) spermatocytes the 2 daughter cells during anaphase I that have only half as much DNA as the original cell (only 23 chromosomes, 1 member of each homologous pair) are called ______________
interphase II during this step of meiosis, chromosomes do not get replicated (copied)
second the ________ meiotic division is just like mitosis
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singly during the second meiotic division, the chromosomes line up _______ along the metaphase plate
anaphase II in the second meiotic division, duplicate chromatids DO seperate in this step
spermatids the result of the meiotic divisions is that TWO secondary spermatocytes (which only had 23 chromosomes) divide to form FOUR total _________ (which also have only 23 chromosomes)
10 million because of crossing-over and other mechanisms, a male can easily produce over __________ genetically different kinds of sperm
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spermiogenesis step in spermatogenesis that is the process in which spermatids differentiate into physically mature spermatozoa (sperm) 
spermiogenesis process in spermatogenesis that:
-involves changing from a typical round-shaped cell into a streamlined,elongated shape
-growth of flagellum
-freeing themselves from the sustenacular cells
fertilization while the sperm are physically mature in spermiogenesis, they are not yet functional
-e.g., they are immobile and incapable of ____________
spermatogenesis not responsible for the functional maturation of sperm, other parts of the reproductive system are
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sperm three distinct regions:
  1. head
  2. middle piece
  3. tail
head region of the sperm that contains the nucleus with 23 densely packed chromosomes
acrosomal __________ cap at the tip of the head of sperm contains enzymes needed for fertilization
middle piece region of sperm in which the mitochondria in it generate the ATP needed to power the tail
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tail region of sperm that consists of a flagellum, a whiplike organelle that moves in a complex, corkscrew motion
tail region of sperm that propels the sperm through the female's uterus
mature a _______ sperm has no ER, no golgi apparatus, no lysosomes, no peroxisomes, and no stored glycogen (or other energy) 
sperm it is advantageous for _____ to lack so many organelles because it allows the cell to be smaller, lighter, and thus faster
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epididymis a coiled tube bound to the posterior border of the testis
cilia _____ create fluid movement that transports the immobile sperm from the rete testis into the epididymis
epididymis is lined with a psuedostratified columnar EPI with distinctive stereocilia
stereocilia in the EPI of epididymis that elongates microvilli and greatly increases surface area
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epididymis consists of three regions:
  1. head
  2. body
  3. tail
tail region of epididymis where most sperm are stored; connects to the ductus deferens
epididymis functions:
  • stores sperm
  • absorbs and recycles damaged sperm
  • moves sperm along via peristalsis and fluid movement
  • adjusts the composition of fluid that the sperm are bathed in
ductus (vas) deferens begins at the tail of the epididymis and as part of the spermatic cord, it ascends through the inguinal canal, curves along the lateral surface of the bladder and finally empties into the ejaculatory duct 
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ductus (vas) deferens like the epididymis, it is lined with pseudostratified columnar EPI 
smooth the ductus (vas) deferen's wall contains lots of _______ muscle that propels the sperm along via peristalsis
ductus (vas) deferens besides transporting sperm, it can also store sperm for several months
vasectomy surgical removal of a segment of the ductus deferens near each testes; male is then sterile because sperm, though produced, cannot reach the urethra
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ejaculatory duct starts where the ductus (vas) deferens and the duct of the seminal gland join
ejaculatory duct runs through part of the prostate gland before emptying into the urethra
urethra runs from the urinary bladder through the tip of the penis
urethra common passageway for both urine and semen
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urethta varies from transitional to stratified columnar to stratified squamous EPI
prostatic _________ urethra: runs through prostate gland
membranous ___________ urethra: runs through body wall
spongy ________ urethra: runs through penis
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seminal vesicles glands located on posterior of bladder, just superior to prostate gland
seminal vesicle drains into the ejaculatory duct near where the ductus (vas) deferens does
seminal vesicles their secretions account for the majority (60%) of the volume of semen
seminal vesicles secretions contain lots of fructose, prostaglandins, prosemenogelin, and are slightly alkaline
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fructose secretions of the seminal vesicles contain lots of ________ to serve as the energy source for sperm
prostaglandins secretions of the seminal vesicles contain this because it can stimulate smooth muscle contractions along both the male and female reproductive tracts to help propel the sperm 
prosemenogelin secretions of the seminal vesicles contain this which after ejaculation thickens the ejaculate and helps prevent it from simply leaking out
alkaline the secretions of seminal vesicles are slightly __________ to help neutralize the acidity of the secretions of the prostate gland and the vagina
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motile when sperm encounter the secretions of the seminal vesicles they finally start beating their flagella and become highly _______ 
prostate gland a muscular, round gland that encircles the proximal urethra as it leaves the urinary bladder
prostate gland its secretion is slightly acidic and accounts for ~30% of semen volume
seminalplasmin prostate gland secretion contains ___________ and many other compounds of unknown function such as a clotting enzyme and serine protease (PSA)
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seminalplasmin an antibiotic that may help prevent urinary tract infections 
bulbourethral gland located at the base of the penis, in the urogenital diaphragm 
urogenital diaphragm muscular floor of pelvic cavity
bulbourethral gland secrete a thick, alkaline mucus 
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thick, alkaline mucus helps neutralize any urinary acids in the urethra and lubricates urethra and the glans penis
penis three parts:
  • glans
  • prepuce (aka. foreskin)
  • body or shaft
glans the expanded distal end of the penis
prepuce the fold of skin surrounding the tip of the penis 
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prepuce what is removed during circumcision
body or shaft part of penis that consists of three columns of erectile tissue 
erectile tissue consists of a complex 3D maze of blood vessels separated into channels by elastic connective tissue and smooth muscle
nitric oxide the parasympathetic nervous system stimulates neurons to release ____________ which relaxes the smooth muscle in the penile arteries (=vasodilation) thus increasing blood flow
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erection after nitric oxide is released and blood flow increases, channels become engorged with blood and an _________ results
corpora cavernosa the two superior columns of erectile tissue
central artery each one of the two superior columns of erectile tissue of the corpora cavernosa contains a ____________
corpora spongiosum the chamber that surrounds the urethra
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arteries the chamber of the corpora spongiosum contains a pair of small ________
semen contains:
  • spermatozoa
  • seminal fluid
  • enzymes that function as antibiotics
sperm normal ______ count is 20 million - 100 million /ml  
infertile if the sperm count is lower than normal, individual is usually _______
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seminal fluid the majority of it is from the seminal vesicles (60%) and prostate (30%), the rest from the sustenacular cells, epididymis, and bulbourethral glands
enzymes semen contains ________ that function as
  • antibiotics(seminalplasmin)
  •  function in dissolving the mucous secretions in the vagina,
  •  or coagulate the semen 
sympathetic this nervous system controls the peristaltic contractions of the ductus (vas) deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate 
peristaltic these contractions controlled by the sympathetic nervous system causes the discharge of semen into the ejaculatory duct (emission)
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emission the discharge of semen into the ejaculatory duct
peristaltic these contractions controlled by the sympathetic nervous system cause the contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle (expulsion)
expulsion the contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle
hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) across the hypophyseal portal system 
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hypothalamus promotes FSH/LH secretion by anterior pituitary gland
anterior pituitary gland secretes two gonadotropins:
-FSH: Follicle-stimulating hormone
=LH: Luteining Hormone

and also many other hormones
FSH gonadotropin secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates sperm production mainly by stimulating the sustenacular cells (Sertoli)
LH gonadotropin secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates testosterone secretion by the interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
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testes interstitial cells (Leydig cells) secrete mainly testosterone (but also other androgens)
testes
  1. responsible for development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics
  2. stimulates sperm production (spermeogenesis)
  3. increases libido by acting on CNS function
  4. are essentially inactive until activated by the gonadotropins (LH, FSH) at puberty
  5. high T levels feed back negatively on GnRH levels
testes responsible for development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics
sperm testes stimulates ______ production
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libido testes increases ________ by acting on CNS function
testes are essentially inactive until activated by the gonadotropins (LH, FSH) at puberty
GnRH in testes, high T levels feed back negatively on _______ levels
GnRH controls testosterone levels from getting too high or too low
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secondary _________ sexual characteristics are NOT directly related to sexual reproduction
prostate by far the most common reproductive cancer of males
-has high survival rate
testicular one of the most curable forms of cancer in a male
-because it is easy to view so it is easier to catch
breast cancer type of cancers that does occur in males but only about 1% the rate of in females
-due to cancer of the ducts
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extra tissue can males produce milk? in general, no. It would occur in a male with __________ in the breast
ovaries lumpy, almond-shaped organs (~5 cm long) near the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity
broad ligament the ovaries are enclosed with an extensive mesentary called the: 
ovaries three major functions:
  1. production of immature oocytes
  2. secretion of female sex hormones, like estrogen and progesterone
  3. secretion of inhibin
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estrogen, progesterone ovaries secrete female sex hormones, like ________ and ________
inhibin a hormone that inhibits FSH levels
-males have it as well to turn of spermatogenesis 
oogenesis the process of forming ova (eggs)
oogenesis
  1. before birth, stem cells called oogonia divide by mitosis to produce daughter cells called primary oocytes
  2. between the 3rd-7th months of fetal development, meiosis of the primary oocytes begins but then is suspended 
  3. the primary oocytes reach the tetrad stage then stop developing (until puberty)
  4. starting at puberty and each month therafter, some primary oocytes are stimulated to continue meiosis
  5.  
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 digestive system

provides two things essential for life:

-fuel that keeps our cells running

-the building blocks needed for cell growth and repair

 digestive system

consists of the digestive tract (aka gastrointestinal (GI) tract),

-oral cavity, pharynx,esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine

-accesory organs

  -teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas 

 digestive system

functions are:

  1. mechanical processing
  2. digeston
  3. secretion
  4. absorption
  5. excretion
  6. protection
 fuel

the digestive system provides two things essential for life: one is that it provides ______ that keeps our cells running

-e.g. sugars and fats used to generate ATP &proteins

 building blocks

the digestive system provides two things essential for life: one is that it provides the ____________ needed for cell growth and repair

-e.g. amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, etc.

 mechanical processingfunction of the digestive system that tears, crushes, and mixes food, makes it easier to propel food along GI tract, and exposes more surface area which aids enzymatic digestion
 digestionfunction of the digestive system that chemically breaks the food down into smaller organics that can be absorbed
 glucoseduring digestion, some things in our food can be absorbed as is, e.g. ________; but most have to be broken down first, e.g. proteins and triglycerides (fat)
 secretionfunction of the digestive system where the digestive epithelium and the accesory glands secrete water acids, enzymes, buffers, and salts in the GI tract
 absorptionfunction of the digestive system were the nutrients and water are reabsorbed across the digestive epithileum and into the interstitial fluid where blood vessels pick them up and distribute them
 excretionfunction of the digestive system where the GI tract and accessory organs discharge waste into the tract which is eventually ejected from the body as the feces
 protection

function of the digestive system where the lining of the GI tract protects the surrounding tissues against:

  1. the corrosive effects of digestive enzymes and acids
  2. mechanical stresses or abrasion
  3. bacteria that either are digested with the food or live in the GI tract (a nonspecific defense)
 macrophages & lymphocytes_________ and _________ occur in the connective tissue beneath the digestive epithelium
 peritoneumthe largest portion of the abdominopelvic cavity
 peritoneumnot the whole abdominopelvic cavity because some structures are retroperitoneal and some are inferior to it, e.g. some reproductive organs
 visceral peritoneummost digestive organs are covered with a _____________ (aka. serosa)
 parietal peritoneum_______________ lines the inner surfaces of the body wall
 peritoneal fluidthe two layers slide past each other via a lubricating fluid called _____________
 mesentarya double-sheet of peritoneal membrane that suspends portions of the GI tract and stabilizes the position of some organs
 areolar_________ tissue in the middle of the mesentary provides for passage of blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels to and from the GI tract
 mesentary propera thick mesentary that stabilizes most of the small intestine
 greater omentuma large fold (pouch) of the dorsal mesentary of the stomach; it hangs anterior to the intestines
 adipose_________ tissue within the greater omentum cushions and protects the abdominal organs and is also a major site where we store excess energy as fat
 mucosathe innermost lining of the digestive tract that consists of an epithileum (often with many goblet cells) on top of the lamina propria
 abrasionwhere ________ is the worst (oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus), the epithileum consists of a stratified squamous
 absorptionwhere ________ occurs (stomach, small intestine, and much of the large intestine), the EPI consists of a simple squamous with goblet cells
 abrasionthis is the worst in the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus
 absorptionthis occurs in the stomach, small intestine, and much of the large intestine
 stemthe lining of the mucosa is constantly renewed by divisions of epithelial _______ cells
 2-3typical EPI cell in esophagus may only live _____ days
 lamina propriaconsists of areolar tissue that contains blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, lymphatic vessels, smooth muscle cells, and scattered areas of the lymphoid tissue
 muscularis mucosain most areas of the GI tract, the lamina propria contains a narrow sheet of smooth muscle and elastic fibers called the ________
 muscularis mucosachanges the shape of the lumen (opening of the tract) and creates motion of the tract
 submucosa

a layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the mucosa

-contains large blood and lymphatic vessels

 exocrinein some regions, the submucosa has _______ glands that, e.g., secrete enzymes and buffers into the lumen of the GI tract
 submucosal plexusthe outer portion of the submucosa contains a network of nerve fibers called the ___________ that contains sensory neurons and ANS neurons
 muscularis externaoutside of the submucosa is this layer of smooth muscle that is made up of an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of muscle
 muscularis externalayer that creates movement that both mites the food and moves the food bolus down the GI tract
 muscularin general, parasympathetic activity increases the ________ action and the sympathetic inhibits it
 myenteric plexussandwiched between the circular and longitudinal layers of muscle is the ___________ which is a network of neurons that regulate the GI tract
 serosathe same as the visceral peritoneum; the outermost layer of most of the digestive tract made up of mostly simple squamous EPI
 pacesetter cellsthe smooth muscle of the GI tract contains specialized smooth muscle cells, _____________, that spontaneously depolarize
 pacesetterwhen these specialized smooth muscle cells spontaneously depolarize, this triggers neighboring smooth muscle cells to depolarize  
 contractionafter the pacesetter cells depolarize and trigger the other smooth muscle cells to depolarize, this makes it so a wave of _________ spreads throughout the entire muscular tube
 peristalsisa wave of smooth muscle contractions that move the bolus along the length of the GI tract
 circular

how peristalsis works:

  • the ________ layer of muscle contracts above the bolus
  • then the longitudinal layer of muscle below the bolus contracts themporarily shortening the tube
  • finally a wave of contraction in the circular muscle forces the bolus forward   
 segmentationuncoordinated contraction of the muscles that serves to break up the bolus and mix it with the intestinal secretions
 neural regulationcontrols the contractions of the GI tract and many of the secretory functions
 myenteric plexus

neural regulation may come from

  • CNS
  • complex neuronal networks in GI tract itself

         -in any case, both would involve the ___________

 CNSnervous system that typically controls large-scale peristalsis
 enterendocrinethe mucosa may contain ___________ cells scattered among he columnar cells
 hormonesthe enterendocrine cells secrete ________ that regulate the GI tract and accessory glands
 18the digestive tract produces at least _____ hormones that affect virtually every aspect of digestion
 local messengers_______________ like histamine and prostaglandins (an eicosanoid) may coordinate the activity of a small area of the GI tract
 histaminethe release of _______ from the lamina propria of stomach stimulates stomach to secrete acids
 mast cells in areolar tissuewhat cells secrete histamine? in what type of tissue?
 oral cavity

functions:

  1. sensory analysis of material
  2. mechanical processing
  3. lubrication
  4. limited digestion of corbohydrates and lipids
 sensorythe mouth in richly supplied with _______ receptors for touch, temperature, pain, and of coure taste
 mechanical processingthe oral cavity performs this function via action of teeth, tongue, and hard palate
 lubricationthe oral cavity performs this function via salivary glands and mucus to dissolve food in order to activate taste receptors and to ease movement of food
 tonguebesides compressing and manipulating food and sensory analysis of food, it also secretes mucins and the enzyme lingual lipase
 mucinstongues secrete ________; proteoglycans responsible for the lubricating nature of mucus
 lingual lipasethe tongue secretes this enzyme that starts lipid digestion in the oral cavity and continues to digest, e.g., triglycerides, even for some time in the stomach since it works over a broad pH range: 3-6
 salivary glands

three pairs:

  1. parotid
  2. sublingual
  3. submandibular
 parotidsalivary gland that is anterior to earlobe, deep to the skin
 salivary amylasethe parotid salivary gland's saliva contains lost of _________, an enzyme that begins starch digestion
 parotidsalivary gland that discharges saliva near the upper molars
 sublingualsalivary gland basically below the tongue
 sublingualsalivary gland that produces a mucous secretion that acts as a lubricant and pH buffer
 sublingualsalivary gland that discharges saliva near inferior midline of tongue
 submandibularsalivary glands that occus along the inner surface of mandible
 submandibularthese salivary glands produces by far most of the saliva (70%) and also produce a mucous secretion but with some salivary amylase
 teeththe submandibular salivary glands discharges saliva posterior to _______
 saliva

functions:

  • lubricant
  • begins starch digestion via salivary amylase
  • some is continually released to help flush out the oral cavity and keep it clean
  • the buffers counteract the acids produced by oral bacteria and keep pH ~7
  • help control the population of oral bacteria
 saliva

immunoglobulin A (IgA) and lysozyme in _______ help control the population of oral bacteria

[less during sleep, hence, dry mouth, more bacteria in AM]

 teethchewing with these helps break down the food (collective tissue in meat, fibers in plants)
 teethhelps to saturate the food with salivary secretions and enzymes
 tooth

regions:

-crown

-neck

-root

 crownthe upper, exposed portion of the tooth
 rootthe base of the tooth; the part embedded into the bone of the maxilla of madible
 periodontal ligamentteeth are held in their bony sockets by the ____________
 dentin

a mineralized matrix that makes up the bulk of a tooth

 processthe dentin is similar to bone except it doesn't contain whole cells only their ________
 enamelcovers the dentin of the crown
 enamelthe hardest biologically made substance known and cannot be regenerated
 cementuma bone-like material that covers the dentin of the root
 cementumprotects the dentin and like dentin, it can regenerate
 pulp cavitythe interior chamber of a tooth that contains cells, blood vessels, and nerves
 mumpsviral infection of the salivary gland
 plaquedeposits of bacteria and old food particles on the teeth
 tartarthis is caused if over time these organics like plaque have become calcified and form a hard layer
 deciduous teeth

temporary teeth, aka. baby teeth; usually 20

-typically lose them from ages 6-13

 molarswith adult teeth, we typically gain 12 _______ to bring total teeth to 32
 molarsaren't replacements, they are new and extend the tooth row
 wisdom teeththird molars that may not erupt before age 21
 gingivaeaka. gums: ridges of oral mucosa around the base of the teeth
 gingivaeusually tightly joined to the periosteum of the maxilla or mandible
 hard palateprovides a stiff surface against which the tongue can work to compress food
 soft palatenon-bony, soft tissue posterior to the hard palate
 uvulathe process that dangles from the posterior margin of the soft palate 
 uvulahelps to prevent food from prematurely entering the pharynx
 uvuladuring swallowing it blocks the entrance to the nasopharynx
 pharynxextends from just behind nasal cavity to region of mouth (oropharynx) down to the larynx and esophagus
 pharynxmost of this is lined with stratified squamous EPI for protection from abrasion, chemicals, and pathogens
 pharynxa common passageway for air, food, and liquids
 esophagusconducts food and drink from pharynx to the stomach and is located posterior to the trachea
 resting muscle tone

__________ in the esophogeal wall usually prevents air from entering and the stomach contents from leaking back up

-this is important because the esophagus does not really have a sphincter

 gastroeophageal sphincteris really more of a region close to the stomach where muscle tone is high
 burpwhat happens when you do swallow air, i.e., while eating?
 mucosathe _______ of the esophagus is made up of stratified squamous EPI
 submucosaHistology: this layer of the esophagus contains mucous glands
 muscularis externathe ____________ of the esophagus has the usual inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of smooth muscle that function in peristalsis
 stomach

four major regions:

  1. storage of food
  2. mechanical breakdown of food
  3. digestion via acids and enzymes
  4. production of intrinsic factor
 stomachone of its major functions is the storage of food, because it can stretch up  to 30-50x its empty size
 mechanical breakdown of foodthe stomach performs this function through the churning action created by its muscular walls
 HCl

during digestion in the stomach, _______ helps break down food

 

 stomachallows salivary amylase and lingual lipase to continue to digest carbohydrates and lipids for a bit until its pH gets too acidic
 pepsinthe stomach starts protein digestion via _______
 intrinsic factora glycoprotein that is needed in order for the small intestine to be able to absorb vitamin B (essential for normal RBC production)
 stomachhas little absorption of nutrients, but alcohol and some drugs, e.g., aspirin, are absorbed
 stomach

four regions:

  1. cardia
  2. fundus
  3. body
  4. pylorus
 cardiathe smallest part of the stomach, consisting of the first ~3 cm from the esophagus
 cardiaregion that contains numerous mucous glands that help protect esophagus from acids/enzymes of stomach
 fundusthe portion of the superior to the end of the esophagus
 bodythe biggest part of the stomach
 bodybasically functions as a mixing tank for the stomach
 bodyits abundant gastric glands secrete most of the acids and enzymes
 pylorusthe sharply curving end portion of the stomach; the curve of the "J"
 pyloric sphincterregulates the passage of chyme into the duodenum
 chymethe viscous, highly-acidic, soupy mixture of partially digested food in the stomach
 rugaewhen the stomach is empty, the mucosa is thrown into obvious wrinkles called _______
 simple columnarall portions of the stomach are lined with a ___________ EPI
 mucussimple columnar EPI produces a layer of _______ that protects the stomach from acids and enzymes
 gastric glandsoccur deep in the gastric pits (depressions) in the fundus and body
 gastric glands

contains two especially important secretory cells:

-parietal cells

-chief cells

 goblet cellssingle cells that produce mucus in glands
 parietal cellsin the gastric glands, these cells secrete intrinsic factors and hydrochloric acid (HCl)
 cytoplasmparietal cells do not produce HCl in their _______ because it would cause too much damage
 carbonic acidH+ are generated inside a parietal cell from __________, itself formed from CO2 and water using carbonic anhydrase
 lumenafter H+ are generated inside a parietal cell, H+ are then actively transported into the _______ of the gastric gland
 bicarbonate, Cl-after the H+ is actively transported into the lumen of the gastric gland, the _________ is ejected into the interstitial fluid using a mechanism that simultaneously brings _____ into the parietal cell 
 simple leak channelsafter Cl- is brought into the parietal cell, this builds up the concentration of Cl- in the cell which then diffuse down their concentration gradient through ___________ into the lumen of the gasric gland
 HClonce H+ and Cl- are both in the lumen, the two ions combine to form ______
 alkaline tidewhen our gastric glands are especially active, so much bicarbonate may enter the interstitial fluid and then blood that our blood pH increases noticeably, called the "___________"
 1.5-2the parietal cells generally keep the stomach pH at _______
 highly acidic

important functions of the __________ stomach:

  • kills most microbes ingested with the food
  • helps to break down proteins
  • helps break down tough plant cell walls
  • essential for activating pepsin
 chief cellssecrete an inactive proenzyme called pepsinogen
 pepsin

once pepsinogen encounters the acid stomach environment, it's converted into _______, a protein-digesting enzyme

 (works best at pH of 1.5-2)

 proenzymessecreting __________ is advantageous because it prevents the active enzyme from damaging the structure that secretes it
 pyloric glandsglands within the pylorus
 pyloric glandsthese secrete mostly mucus and several hormones, NOT acids/enzymes
 gastrinhormone secreted by the pyloric glands that stimulates the secretion of both parietal and chief cells and the contractions of the stomach wall to mix the chyme
 hormonesmany of these that are secreted by the pyloric glands play a role in hunger and satiety
 small intestinewhere most digestion and absorption (~90%) occurs, with the help of the pancreas and liver
 small intestine

-on average, ~15 feet long

-supported by the mesentary proper

-has three segments:

  1. duodenum
  2. jejunum
  3. ileum
 mesentary properblood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves reach the small intestine through this 
 duodenumthe initial and shortest segment (~10 in)
 duodenuma "mixing bowl" for chyme from the stomach and the secretions of the pancreas and liver
 duodenumits main function is to neutralize the acidity of the chyme before it can damage the EPI lining of the small intestine
 jejunumthe middle segment of the small intestine, ~8 feet long
 jejunumwhere most of the digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine
 ileumfinal and largest segment of the small intestine, ~12 feet
 ileocecal valvethe ileum ends at the ____________, which controls the passge of material into the start of the large intestine, or cecum
 peyer patchesthe ileum contains masses of lymphoid tissue called __________; the lymphocytes here protect the small intestine from the bacteria that normally inhibit the large intestine
 pilcae circularesthe folds along the lining of the small intestine
 pilcaeunlike the rugae of the stomach, the ______ are permanent features that do not disappear as the small intestine fills up
 pilcae circularesthey greatly increase the surface area available for absorption in the small intestine
 intestinal villipilcae circulares are covered with numerous __________
 intestinal villithese are small, fingerlike projections of the mucosa that are covered with simple columnar cells bearing densely packed microvilli ("brush border")
 goblet cellsnumerous __________ occur between the columnar cells and secrete mucus onto the lining of the small intestine
 small intestinethe pilcae, villi, and microvilli together give us a ___________ with a tremendous surface area of ~2200 square feet
 villus

each contains:

-a network of capillaries into which nutrients are reabsorbed

-a nerve ending

-and a lacteal

 livereach villus contains a network of capillaries into which nutrients are reabsorbed and then delivered to the ______ via the hepatic portal circulation
 lactealeach villus contains a _______ (lymphatic capillary) which transports absorbed lipids (e.g., fatty acids)
 mucusnumerous mucous glands in the duodenum produce ______ which protects the EPI from the acidity of chyme
 bicarbonate ionsthis mucus produced in the duodenum also contains __________ that neutralize the pH
 duodenumpH ranges from 1-2 at the start of the _________, but by the end it's raised to 7-8
 chymethe secretions of the small intestine usually begin well before _______ arrives so that the protection is already in place
 small intestine

several hormones are released by the ____________

-e.g., gastrin, cholecystokinin, and secretion

 shed EPI cellsseveral enzymes are also released, often from ________ in the small intestine
 enteropeptidaseenzyme released often from the shed EPI cells of the small intestine which activates the pancreatic enzyme, trypsinogen
 gastrinhormone released by the stomach AND small intestine
 pancreaslocated posterior to the stomach and has a lumpy, lobular structure wrapped with a thin capsule of connective tissue
 acinar cells

simple cuboidal cells that make up the bulk of the pancreas that produce pancreatic enzymes which do most of the digestive work

-darker red cells

 pancreas

functions:

-produces "pancreatic juice"

-secretes the hormones insulin and gucagon which regulate blood glucose levels

 pancreatic juicea mixture of water, digestive enzymes, and buffers (to counteract acidity)
 pancreatic ductthe pancreatic juice is delivered through the ___________ to the duodenum
 insulin and glucagonhormones secreted in the pancreas which regulate blood glucose levels
 duodenumpancreatic juice secretion is controlled mainly by hormones of the __________
 secretinthe presence of chyme stimulates endocrine cells of duodenum to release the hormone _________
 secretinthis hormone stimulates the pancreas to release a watery buffer containing bicarbonate
 pancreatic enzymescholecystokinin stimulates the pancreas to produce and release _____________
 chymeas was true of the small intestine, the pancreas increases its activity in "anticipation" of ______
 pancreatic enzymes

examples:

-pancreatic alpha-amylase

pancreatic lipase

-nucleases

-proteases

-peptidases

 pancreatic alpha-amylasepancreatic enzyme that breaks down certain starches
 pancreatic lipasepancreatic enzyme that breaks down certain complex lipids so that fatty acids can be absorbed
 nucleasespancreatic enzyme that breaks down DNA or RNA
 proteasespancreatic enzymes that break down large proteins
 trypsinogenonce activated by enteropeptidase into trypsin it not only breaks down proteins but also activates many other proenzymes
 peptidasespancreatic enzymes that break small peptides into individual amino acids
 pancreatitisthis disease makes the pancreas have a hard time regulating blood sugar and then the pancreatic enzymes start attacking the pancreas.  
 liverthe largest internal organ
 rightmost of the liver's bulk is on the _______ side of the body
 fibrous capsulethe liver is divided into a right and left lobe; each wrapped in a tough ____________
 hepatic arterythe liver receives arterial blood via the __________
 hepatic portal veinthe liver receives venous blood via the ___________
 hepatic portal veincarries blood coming from stomach, small, and large intestine
 liver lobuleeach lobe of the liver is divided into ~100,000 haxagon-shaped _________ = the functional unit of the liver
 hepatocytesthe cells of the liver are called __________; in a liver lobule these cells are arranged like the spokes of a wheel
 sinusoidalthese capillaries run between the "spokes" of the hepatocytes and drain into the central vein
 sinusoidslarge gaps along the _________ allow substances as large as plasma proteins to enter/exit the blood
 hepatic triadat each of the sx corners of the hexagonal liver lobules is a ___________
 hepatic triad

each consists of:

  • a branch of the hepatic portal vein
  • a branch of the hepatic artery
  • a small banch of the bile duct
 plasma proteinsas blood flows through the sinusoids, hepatocytes absorb solutes (e.g. nutrients) from the blood and secrete ____________ into the blood
 hepatocytesin addition to plasma proteins, complement proteins and clotting factors are also secretes by ____________
 bileproduced by hepatocytes
 bile ductulesbile is produced by hepatocytes and flows into the bile ductules
 common hepatic ductbile ducts eventually empty into the ___________ which leaves the liver
 bile ductafter bile leaves the liver via the common hepatic duct, the bile goes into the _________ which delivers bile to the duodenum via the duodenal papilla or goes into the gallbladder for storage
 liverlike the kidneys, this organ receives ~25% of cardiac output, and it has a major influence on the composition of the blood
 hepatocytesthese cells regulate blood glucose levels in the liver
 glycogen reservesif blood glucose drops in the liver, the hepatocytes break down ________________
 glucoseif blood glucose rises, the hepatocytes remove the ________ and store it as glycogen or use it to make lipids
 liverthis organ regulates circulating levels of triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol
 amino acidsthe liver removes excess __________ from the bloodstream
 amino acidsafter the liver removes these from the bloodstream, they are either used to make proteins or to synthesize glucose or lipids
 liver

this organ's nutrient regulation:

-hepatocytes regulate blood glucose levels

-regulates circulating levels of triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol

-removes excess amino acids from bloodstream

-stores fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)

-stores excess iron as ferritin


 ferritinthe liver stores excess iron as _________
 fat-solublethe liver stores __________ vitamins (A, D, E, K)
 ferritinThe liver stores excess iron as ________
 liverfunctions:
-nutrient regulation
-waste and toxin removal or storage
-bile production

 ureathe liver neutralizes the toxic ammonia produced during amino acid metabolism by converting it to ______
 bileother waste products and toxins are also removed from the blood by the liver and either inactivated, stored, or excreted in _____
 stored [DDT]lipid-soluble toxins are removed from the blood by the liver and ______
 liverone of this organ's function is waste and toxin removal or storage:
-neutralizes the toxic ammonia produced during amino acid metabolism by converting it into urea
-other waste products and toxins are also removed from the blood by this organ and either inactivated, stored, or excreted in bile
-inactive drugs
 Kupfferin the liver, the cells phagocytize old or damaged RBCs (as they can also initiate an immune response through antigen-presentation
 hepatocytesthese liver cells synthesize and release most of the plasma proteins
-e.g., albumins (which affect BCOP), transport, clotting, and complement proteins
 BCOPpressure that helps reabsorb water in capillaries
 complement proteinsa part of a nonspecific defense 
-ex. inflammation
 antibodiesthe liver removes and breaks down circulating ________
 liverthe main site for removal and recycling of hormones
-e.g., epinephrine, insulin, thyroid, and steroid hormones
 liverthis organ plays an important role in the synthesis of calcitriol, EPO, and angiotensin
 bilethe liver synthesizes ______, which may be stored in the gallbladder, or excreted into the duodenum
 bileconsists of:
-mostly water
-some ions
-bilirubin (from breakdown of hemoglobin)
-cholesterol
-and a variety of lipids known as _____ salts
 protectedfunction of bile: most lipids in our diets are not water-soluble; thus, churning of the STOMACH produces lipid droplets in which most of the lipids are _______ inside from the action of digestive enzymes
 emulsificationbile salts break large lipid droplets into tiny droplets in a process called:
 surface areaemulsification greatly increases the collective ____________ of the lipid droplets so digestive enzymes can more efficiently digest the lipids
 bile salts___________ also help the small intestine to absorb the lipids
 gallbladdera hollow, pear-shaped organ with muscular walls located in the posterior surface of the right lobe of the liver 
 gallbladderthis organ stores and concentrates bile prior to its excretion into the duodenum
 cholecystokininbile is released into the duodenum from the gallbladder when stimulated to do so by release of the intestinal hormone _________
 cholecystokininwithout this hormone, all the bile produced goes to the gallbladder for storage
 chymewhen _______ enter the duodenum, cholecystokinin is released.. this stimulates the gallbladder to CONTRACT and force bile into the duodenum
 lipidchyme with large amounts of _______ stimulates an even greater secretion of cholecystokinin and in response more bile than usual is released from the galbladder into the duodenum
 gallstonesdeposits of insoluble, crystalline bile salts that form when the bile becomes too concentrated 
 gallstonesif large, they can damage wall of gallbladder or block common bile duct, and gallbladder may have to be surgically removed
 bilewithout gallbladder you would still have _______, you just wouldn't be able to concentrate and store it. 
*because it is made in the LIVER
 large intestineon average, ~5 feet long.
consists of three parts:
-cecum
-colon (divided into four parts)
-rectum
 cecumthe pouch-like beginning of the large intestine on right side of the body
 cecumcontents enter here after passing through the ileocecal valve
 appendixthe slender, hollow ________ is attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum
 lymphoid tissuethe appendix contains lots of ______________; hence, functions in immunity
 colonthe largest portion of the large intestine
 haustrathe colon's wall forms a series of pouches called _______ which allow the colon to expand and contract
 teniae colithree separate longitudinal bands of smooth muscle, called the __________, run along the outer surfaces of the colon 
 muscle tone___________ within the teniae coli creates the haustra
 colonsubdivided into four regions:
-ascending
-transverse
-descending
-sigmoid
 ascending colonsubdivision of the colon that runs superiorly from cecum to liver on right side of body
 transverse colonsubdivision of the colon that runs laterally across abdomen from right to left
 descending colonsubdivision of the colon that runs inferiorly down to the iliac fossa
 sigmoid colon-S-shaped segment of the colon
-only ~6 inches long
-posterior to bladder
-empties into rectum
 rectumthe last 6 inches of the large intestine
 rectuman expandable region for temporary storage of ______
 stratified squamousthe rectum starts with simple columnar EPI but near the anus changes to __________
 internal anal sphincterthe muscularis externa in the rectum forms the ____________ =smooth muscle under INVOLUNTARY control
 external anal sphincterskeletal muscle under voluntary control in the rectum
 defecation
  1. stretch receptors send signal to spinal cord
  2. reflex stimulates contraction of rectum
  3. and relaxes INTERNAL anal sphincter
  4. but brain prevents _________ until convenient.. if ok, relaxes EXTERNAL anal sphincter
 external anal sphinctersimilar to the bladder, control of this anal sphincter in the rectum would not be fully developed in children
 large intestineunlike the small intestine, it has NO villi, its wall is much thinner and it does NOT secrete enzymes
 mucous cellsthe large intestine contains lots of ___________ and scattered lymphoid nodules
 mucusin the large intestine, this provides lubrication for the movement of the feces which have become more compact and dry
 large intestinefunctions:
-reabsorption of water and compaction of intestinal contents into feces
-absorption of vitamins liberated by bacterial action
-absorption of some organic wastes
-temporary storage of fecal material
 constipationexcessive reabsorption of water by the large intestine leads to ___________
 diarrheatoo little reabsorption of water in the large intestine leads to ________
 bacterialthe large intestine absorbs vitamins liberated by _________ action
 bacterialnormal ________ residents of the large intestine generate 3 vitamins:
  1. vitamin K
  2. biotin
  3. vitamin B5
 bilirubinin the large intestine, bacteria convert _________ into urobilinogen
 urobilinogensome of this is absorbed in the blood from the large intestine and excreted in the urine
 peptidesbacteria in the large intestine also break down the remaining ________ and in the process generate ammonia (NH4+) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) among others
 ammoniamuch of the _______ generated by the break down of peptides in the large intestine is absorbed and sent via hepatic portal system to the liver 
 mealsour _______ are usually a mixture of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, water, salts, minerals, and vitamins
 large organicsduring digestion, ___________ must be broken down before they can be absorbed
 complex chainsmost large organics are ___________ of simpler molecules
 proteinsare chains of amino acids
 simple sugarsstarches/glycogen are chains of ______________
 lipidsare chains of fatty acids
 nucleic acidsare chains of sug-P-nitrog bases
 hydrolysisdigestive enzymes break the bonds between the simpler building blocks in a process called ____________ 
 hydrolysismeans "split with water"
 modificationwater, salts, minerals, and vitamins can usually be absorbed without ____________
 carbohydratescomplex ___________ (starches) are broken down by SALIVARY AMYLASE and PANCREATIC ALPHA-AMYLASE into disaccharides and trisaccharides into the duodenum
 monosaccharidesafter the carbohydrates have been broken down into disaccharides and trisaccharides, brush-border (small intestine) enzymes then finish the digestion by breaking these sugars down into the simple sugars, called ____________  
 milkgalactose comes from a ______ sugar 
 tablefructose comes from a ________ sugar
 lactose-intolerantwhat if in adulthood a person's mucosa stops producing lactase? they would be ____________
 facilitated diffusionafter being broken down by the brush-border enzymes, the simple sugars are then absorbed into the intestinal villi and enter capillaries via ______________
 capillariesafter the simple sugars are absorbed into the intestinal villi and entered the capillaries via facilitated diffusion, the __________ carry the sugars to the liver via the hepatic portal vein 
 carbohydrate____________ digestion and absorption:
  • complex ___________ (starches) are broken down by salivary amylase and pancreatic alpa-amylase into disaccharides and trisaccharides
  • brush-border enzymes then finish the digestion by breaking these sugars down into the simple sugars, called monosaccharides
  • the simple sugars are then absorbed into the intestinal villi and enter capillaries via facilitated diffusion
  • capillaries carry the sugars to the liver via the hepatic portal vein
 glycogenif you ingest too much sugar, the liver will combine the sugar and store as _________
 lipaselingual ________ and pancreatic ________ digest fats (triglycerides) by breaking off two of the fatty acids leaving a monoglyceride
 20%only about _____ of the lipids have been digested by the time the chyme enters the duodenum, because the fat droplets are too LARGE and thus most fat is sheltered in the middle of the drop 
 middlesince the fat droplets are too large, most fat is sheltered in the ______ of the drop
 emulsification_____________ by the bile salts makes it easier for pancreatic lipase to digest the remaining lipids that have not been digested 
 chylomicronsthe digested lipids, since hydrophobic, simply diffuse into the intestinal villi and then they get a protein coating and are called __________
 chylomicronsthe __________ are transported into the LACTEALS and from there eventually enter the venous blood supply via the thoracic duct 
 lipid________ digestion and absorption:
  • lingual lipase and pancreatic lipase digest fats (triglycerides) by breaking off two of the fatty acids leaving a monoglyceride
  • only about 20% of the lipids have been digested by the time the chyme enters the duodenum because the fat droplets are too large.. and thus most fat is sheltered in the middle of the drop
  • the digested lipids, since hydrophobic, simple diffuse into the intestinal villi 
  • then they get a protein coating and are called chylomicrons
  • chylomicrons are transported into the lacteals and from there eventually enter the venous blood supply via the thoracic duct
 proteinsmechanical processing and the acidity of the stomach begins to break down large ________ (but doesn't break peptide bonds)
 aciditythe _______ of the stomach also activates pepsinogen (from stomach's chief cells) into pepsin
 pepsindoes break down certain peptide bonds
 enteropeptidasein the small intestine, ____________ activates trypsinogen (from pancreas) into trypsin 
 trypsin________ and the other proteases that it activates begin attacking other peptide bonds
 peptidasessmall intestine itself also produces some ___________
 proteineventually the _______ broken down into free amino acids
 facilitated diffusionthe free amino acids are then absorbed into the intestinal villi and enter capillaries via ____________, then the capillaries carry them to the liver via the hepatic portal vein
 protein________ digestion and absorption:
  • mechanical processing and the acidity of the stomach begins to break down large proteins(but doesn't break down peptide bonds)
  • the acidity of the stomach also activates pepsinogen into pepsin (pepsin does break certain peptide bonds)
  • in the small intestine, enteropeptidase activates trypsinogen into trypsin
  • trypsin and other proteases that it activates begin attacking other peptide bonds
  • small intestine itself also produces some peptidases
  • eventually the _______ is broken down into free amino acids
  • the free amino acids are then absorbed into the intestinal villi and enter capillaries via facilitated diffusion
  • capillaries carry them to the liver via the hepatic portal vein
 stomachorgan that produces pepsin
 pancreasorgan that produces trypsin and peptidases
 small intestineorgan that produces peptidases
 watertypically the GI tract secretes far more _______ than we acquire in our food and drink
 2on average, we might ingest ___ liters of water/day
 7about ___ liters are added to the GI tract via saliva, stomach secretions, bile, pancreatic juice, and intestinal secretions
 osmosisalmost all (98%) of this water secreted by the GI tract is reabsorbed through ________
 reabsorptionthis _________ of water occurs in both the small and large intestine
 intestinalbasically as the nutrients and ions are absorbed into the ________ cells, water follows
 water_______ absorption:
  • typically the GI tract secretes far more _______ than we acquire in our food and drink
  • almost all (~98%) is reabsorbed through osmosis
  • this reabsorption occurs in both the small and large intestine
  • as the nutrients and ions are absorbed into the intestinal cells, _______ follows
 Na+example of ion absorption: _____ is absorbed via simple diffusion, active transport, and other transport mechanisms
 greaterin general, the greater the concentration of sodium in the food, the ________ the sodium absorption and the ________ the gain of water through osmosis
 aldosterone__________ increases the rate of sodium absorption in the intestine (as well as the DCT and collecting ducts of kidneys)
 calcium_________ absorption involves active transport
 calcitriol_________ increases the rate of calcium reabsorption
 ionsother _____ are absorbed either via diffusion, active transport, or carrier-mediated transport
-e.g., K+, Cl-, magnesium, iron (Fe2+)
 testesform within the body cavity near the kidneys and gradually move lower as the fetus grows
 third trimesterin the __________ of pregnancy, the fetus' testes move through the abdominal muscles and enter the scrotum
 cryptorchidismwhen the testis fails to descend during the third trimester of pregnancy, the condition is called _________.
-increases risk of testicular cancer
-can make them infertile
-fixed by surgery or sometimes testosterone injections
 spermatic cordsthese cords run between the testes and the inguinal cavity
 inguinal canala passageway through the abdominal muscles
 spermatic cordsconsist of an outer layer of connective tissue and muscle covering the ductus (vas) deferens, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves
 scrotumeach testis lies in a separate chamber that limits the spread of infection from one testis to another
 scrotumcontains both a layer of smooth muscle and a layer of skeletal muscle
 temperaturemuscles of the scrotum relax or contract to move the testes closer to or away from the body in order to keep the testes at an appropriate __________ for sperm development
 2the appropriate temperature for sperm development is ~___ degrees lower than the rest of the body
 cold_____ water elevates the scrotum
 pampiniform plexusnetwork of veins surrounding the testicular artery and cools the arterial blood
 tunica albugineaa dense layer of connective tissue covering the testes and dividing into a series of lobules
 seminiferous tubuleseach lobule contains 100s of tightly coiled ______________ in which sperm are produced
 sustenacular cells(aka. Sertoli cells) occur within the seminiferous tubules and support the formation of sperm
 rete testisa complex network of tubes at the superior end of testes into which the seminiferous tubules discharge their sperm
 epididymisfrom the rete testis, sperm are conducted to the __________
 interstitial cells(aka. Leydig cells) occur in the areolar tissue between the seminiferous tubules
 interstitial cells(aka. Leydig cells) produce androgens (e.g., testosterone) 
 spermatogenesisthe process of forming spermatozoa (aka. sperm)
 outermostspermatogenesis begins at the __________ layer of cells in the seminiferous tubule
 lumenat each step of spermatogenesis, the daughter cells move toward the______ (opening)
 spermatogenesisconsists of three basic steps:
  1. mitosis
  2. meiosis
  3. spermiogenesis
 mitosisfirst step of spermatogenesis
 mitosisone cell divides into two; the daughter cells are genetically identical
 meiosissecond step of spermatogenesis
 meiosisone cell divides into four; each daughter cell is different and has only half the original amount of genetic material
 doublewhy is it necessary to cut the number of chromosomes in half when making gametes?
~each generation, chromosome number would ________
 spermiogenesisthird step of spermatogenesis
 spermiogenesisprocess in which a spermatid matures into a spermatozoon (sperm)
 spermatogoniafirst in spermatogenesis, stem cells called ___________ divide by mitosis to produce two daughter cells (each still has 46 chromosome) 
 46how many chromosomes does each spermatogonia have? 
 primary (1) spermatocyteafter spermatogonia divide by mitosis to produce two daughter cells, one daughter cell remains to continue functioning as a stem cell and the other differentiates into a ______________
 meiosisstep of spermatogenesis that consists of two cycles of cell division (________ I and ________ II) that give rise to four spermatids, each of which contains only 23 individual chromosomes 
 somaticeach of our ________ (body) cells contains 46 chromosomes:
mother's egg contained 23 + father's sperm contained 23 = 
You with 46 chromosomes
 samethe 23 chromosomes you received from mom are basically the _____ as the 23 you got from dad
 sameyour mother and father carry the _____ genes in the same order along the chromosome
 homologouseach chromosome you got from mom can be paired with a similar (but not identical) chromosome from your dad; we say these are ___________ chromosomes
 23in humans, there are ____ homologous pairs
 Xwhich chromosome is from mom in the homologous pair?
 Ywhich chromosome is from dad in the homologous pair?
 interphase Iduring this step of meiosis, primary spermatocytes replicate their DNA 
 chromatidsduring interphase I, each of the 46 chromosomes now consists of two duplicate _________
 DNAmade up by:
sugar-phosphate-sugar (sides of "ladder")
with AGTC (steps of "ladder")
 prophase Iduring this step of meiosis, chromosomes condense and nuclear envelope disintegrates 
 tetradsduring prophase I of meiosis, homologous chromosomes join together (synapse), called ________
 crossing-overduring prophase I of meiosis, the tetrads swap some genetic material, called __________
 mixafter the crossing-over in prophase I, now each of the 46 chromosomes contains a _____ of mom and dad's DNA, rather than being strictly from mom or dad
 synapsiswhere homologues are closely associated, and crossing over can occur
 metaphase Istep of meiosis when homologous pairs and move and line up in middle of cell 
 anaphase Istep of meiosis when the homologous pairs separate NOT the duplicate chromatids
 anaphase Iat this point in meiosis, the 2 daughter cells have only half as much DNA as the original cell (only 23 chromosomes, 1 member of each homologous pair)
 secondary (2) spermatocytesthe 2 daughter cells during anaphase I that have only half as much DNA as the original cell (only 23 chromosomes, 1 member of each homologous pair) are called ______________
 interphase IIduring this step of meiosis, chromosomes do not get replicated (copied)
 secondthe ________ meiotic division is just like mitosis
 singlyduring the second meiotic division, the chromosomes line up _______ along the metaphase plate
 anaphase IIin the second meiotic division, duplicate chromatids DO seperate in this step
 spermatidsthe result of the meiotic divisions is that TWO secondary spermatocytes (which only had 23 chromosomes) divide to form FOUR total _________ (which also have only 23 chromosomes)
 10 millionbecause of crossing-over and other mechanisms, a male can easily produce over __________ genetically different kinds of sperm
 spermiogenesisstep in spermatogenesis that is the process in which spermatids differentiate into physically mature spermatozoa (sperm) 
 spermiogenesisprocess in spermatogenesis that:
-involves changing from a typical round-shaped cell into a streamlined,elongated shape
-growth of flagellum
-freeing themselves from the sustenacular cells
 fertilizationwhile the sperm are physically mature in spermiogenesis, they are not yet functional
-e.g., they are immobile and incapable of ____________
 spermatogenesisnot responsible for the functional maturation of sperm, other parts of the reproductive system are
 spermthree distinct regions:
  1. head
  2. middle piece
  3. tail
 headregion of the sperm that contains the nucleus with 23 densely packed chromosomes
 acrosomal__________ cap at the tip of the head of sperm contains enzymes needed for fertilization
 middle pieceregion of sperm in which the mitochondria in it generate the ATP needed to power the tail
 tailregion of sperm that consists of a flagellum, a whiplike organelle that moves in a complex, corkscrew motion
 tailregion of sperm that propels the sperm through the female's uterus
 maturea _______ sperm has no ER, no golgi apparatus, no lysosomes, no peroxisomes, and no stored glycogen (or other energy) 
 spermit is advantageous for _____ to lack so many organelles because it allows the cell to be smaller, lighter, and thus faster
 epididymisa coiled tube bound to the posterior border of the testis
 cilia_____ create fluid movement that transports the immobile sperm from the rete testis into the epididymis
 epididymisis lined with a psuedostratified columnar EPI with distinctive stereocilia
 stereociliain the EPI of epididymis that elongates microvilli and greatly increases surface area
 epididymisconsists of three regions:
  1. head
  2. body
  3. tail
 tailregion of epididymis where most sperm are stored; connects to the ductus deferens
 epididymisfunctions:
  • stores sperm
  • absorbs and recycles damaged sperm
  • moves sperm along via peristalsis and fluid movement
  • adjusts the composition of fluid that the sperm are bathed in
 ductus (vas) deferensbegins at the tail of the epididymis and as part of the spermatic cord, it ascends through the inguinal canal, curves along the lateral surface of the bladder and finally empties into the ejaculatory duct 
 ductus (vas) deferenslike the epididymis, it is lined with pseudostratified columnar EPI 
 smooththe ductus (vas) deferen's wall contains lots of _______ muscle that propels the sperm along via peristalsis
 ductus (vas) deferensbesides transporting sperm, it can also store sperm for several months
 vasectomysurgical removal of a segment of the ductus deferens near each testes; male is then sterile because sperm, though produced, cannot reach the urethra
 ejaculatory ductstarts where the ductus (vas) deferens and the duct of the seminal gland join
 ejaculatory ductruns through part of the prostate gland before emptying into the urethra
 urethraruns from the urinary bladder through the tip of the penis
 urethracommon passageway for both urine and semen
 urethtavaries from transitional to stratified columnar to stratified squamous EPI
 prostatic_________ urethra: runs through prostate gland
 membranous___________ urethra: runs through body wall
 spongy________ urethra: runs through penis
 seminal vesiclesglands located on posterior of bladder, just superior to prostate gland
 seminal vesicledrains into the ejaculatory duct near where the ductus (vas) deferens does
 seminal vesiclestheir secretions account for the majority (60%) of the volume of semen
 seminal vesiclessecretions contain lots of fructose, prostaglandins, prosemenogelin, and are slightly alkaline
 fructosesecretions of the seminal vesicles contain lots of ________ to serve as the energy source for sperm
 prostaglandinssecretions of the seminal vesicles contain this because it can stimulate smooth muscle contractions along both the male and female reproductive tracts to help propel the sperm 
 prosemenogelinsecretions of the seminal vesicles contain this which after ejaculation thickens the ejaculate and helps prevent it from simply leaking out
 alkalinethe secretions of seminal vesicles are slightly __________ to help neutralize the acidity of the secretions of the prostate gland and the vagina
 motilewhen sperm encounter the secretions of the seminal vesicles they finally start beating their flagella and become highly _______ 
 prostate glanda muscular, round gland that encircles the proximal urethra as it leaves the urinary bladder
 prostate glandits secretion is slightly acidic and accounts for ~30% of semen volume
 seminalplasminprostate gland secretion contains ___________ and many other compounds of unknown function such as a clotting enzyme and serine protease (PSA)
 seminalplasminan antibiotic that may help prevent urinary tract infections 
 bulbourethral glandlocated at the base of the penis, in the urogenital diaphragm 
 urogenital diaphragmmuscular floor of pelvic cavity
 bulbourethral glandsecrete a thick, alkaline mucus 
 thick, alkaline mucushelps neutralize any urinary acids in the urethra and lubricates urethra and the glans penis
 penisthree parts:
  • glans
  • prepuce (aka. foreskin)
  • body or shaft
 glansthe expanded distal end of the penis
 prepucethe fold of skin surrounding the tip of the penis 
 prepucewhat is removed during circumcision
 body or shaftpart of penis that consists of three columns of erectile tissue 
 erectile tissueconsists of a complex 3D maze of blood vessels separated into channels by elastic connective tissue and smooth muscle
 nitric oxidethe parasympathetic nervous system stimulates neurons to release ____________ which relaxes the smooth muscle in the penile arteries (=vasodilation) thus increasing blood flow
 erectionafter nitric oxide is released and blood flow increases, channels become engorged with blood and an _________ results
 corpora cavernosathe two superior columns of erectile tissue
 central arteryeach one of the two superior columns of erectile tissue of the corpora cavernosa contains a ____________
 corpora spongiosumthe chamber that surrounds the urethra
 arteriesthe chamber of the corpora spongiosum contains a pair of small ________
 semencontains:
  • spermatozoa
  • seminal fluid
  • enzymes that function as antibiotics
 spermnormal ______ count is 20 million - 100 million /ml  
 infertileif the sperm count is lower than normal, individual is usually _______
 seminal fluidthe majority of it is from the seminal vesicles (60%) and prostate (30%), the rest from the sustenacular cells, epididymis, and bulbourethral glands
 enzymessemen contains ________ that function as
  • antibiotics(seminalplasmin)
  •  function in dissolving the mucous secretions in the vagina,
  •  or coagulate the semen 
 sympatheticthis nervous system controls the peristaltic contractions of the ductus (vas) deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate 
 peristalticthese contractions controlled by the sympathetic nervous system causes the discharge of semen into the ejaculatory duct (emission)
 emissionthe discharge of semen into the ejaculatory duct
 peristalticthese contractions controlled by the sympathetic nervous system cause the contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle (expulsion)
 expulsionthe contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle
 hypothalamusreleases gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) across the hypophyseal portal system 
 hypothalamuspromotes FSH/LH secretion by anterior pituitary gland
 anterior pituitary glandsecretes two gonadotropins:
-FSH: Follicle-stimulating hormone
=LH: Luteining Hormone

and also many other hormones
 FSHgonadotropin secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates sperm production mainly by stimulating the sustenacular cells (Sertoli)
 LHgonadotropin secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates testosterone secretion by the interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
 testesinterstitial cells (Leydig cells) secrete mainly testosterone (but also other androgens)
 testes
  1. responsible for development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics
  2. stimulates sperm production (spermeogenesis)
  3. increases libido by acting on CNS function
  4. are essentially inactive until activated by the gonadotropins (LH, FSH) at puberty
  5. high T levels feed back negatively on GnRH levels
 testesresponsible for development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics
 spermtestes stimulates ______ production
 libidotestes increases ________ by acting on CNS function
 testesare essentially inactive until activated by the gonadotropins (LH, FSH) at puberty
 GnRHin testes, high T levels feed back negatively on _______ levels
 GnRHcontrols testosterone levels from getting too high or too low
 secondary_________ sexual characteristics are NOT directly related to sexual reproduction
 prostateby far the most common reproductive cancer of males
-has high survival rate
 testicularone of the most curable forms of cancer in a male
-because it is easy to view so it is easier to catch
 breast cancertype of cancers that does occur in males but only about 1% the rate of in females
-due to cancer of the ducts
 extra tissuecan males produce milk? in general, no. It would occur in a male with __________ in the breast
 ovarieslumpy, almond-shaped organs (~5 cm long) near the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity
 broad ligamentthe ovaries are enclosed with an extensive mesentary called the: 
 ovariesthree major functions:
  1. production of immature oocytes
  2. secretion of female sex hormones, like estrogen and progesterone
  3. secretion of inhibin
 estrogen, progesteroneovaries secrete female sex hormones, like ________ and ________
 inhibina hormone that inhibits FSH levels
-males have it as well to turn of spermatogenesis 
 oogenesisthe process of forming ova (eggs)
 oogenesis
  1. before birth, stem cells called oogonia divide by mitosis to produce daughter cells called primary oocytes
  2. between the 3rd-7th months of fetal development, meiosis of the primary oocytes begins but then is suspended 
  3. the primary oocytes reach the tetrad stage then stop developing (until puberty)
  4. starting at puberty and each month therafter, some primary oocytes are stimulated to continue meiosis
  5.  
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