Koofers

exam 3 - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:BIOL 100 - Principles of Biology
Subject:Biology
University:University of Kansas
Term:Fall 2013
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
evolution change of allele frequencies in population. Genetic change through time
darwin's observances species located near each other often resembled each other, but sometimes had pronounced differences. Differences suited environment
theory of evolution by natural selection populations change over time and this change happens by natural selection
adaption inherited trait that enhances organism's ability to survive/reproduce in particular environment
Generated by Koofers.com
artificial selection plants/animals with preferable traits are encouraged to reproduce. traits are passed on through natural selection
microevolution change at the genetic level. change in the gene pool over time
macroevolution change at the species level
population group of individuals of the same species, living in the same space at the same time
Generated by Koofers.com
gene pool all the alleles of all the genes in a population
mutation change in DNA . Only source of new alleles, is ultimate source of variation. mutation must be present in gametes if it is to contribute to next generation. must also affect chances of survival or reproduction
natural selection not all genotypes are the same. some allow for individuals to better survive and reproduce. these genotypes are then passed along to next generation
genetic drift change in gene pool due to chance events, such as disasters
Generated by Koofers.com
genetic drift- bottleneck severe reduction in population
genetic drift- founder effect few individuals from population branch out and start new one
gene flow change in gene pool due to immigration or emmegration of individuals in and out of population
species one or more populations of individuals that can interbreed under natural conditions to produce fertile offspring
Generated by Koofers.com
geographic isolation little or no gene flow between populations
genetic divergence two isolated populations will evolve independently through genetic drift and natural selection (microevolution)
reproductive isolation genetic divergence that can result in reproductive barriers. leads to macroevolution
carolus linnaeus laid foundation for bionomial system
Generated by Koofers.com
order of species, most general to specific kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
evolutionary trees timeline of which ancestors of one species separated from ancestors of another. each branch represents line of descent, branch point is time of divergence 
3 domain types eubacteria, archeabacteria, eukariotes 
Stanley miller performed experiment in which he combined methane, hydrogen, water, and ammonia, and created amino acids
Generated by Koofers.com
first cells originated 3.8 billion years ago, were prokaryotic and anaerobic, relied on fermentation to survive as there was no oxygen
prokaryotes lack nucleus and many organelles, unicellular. Most bacteria and archaea
eukaryotes fungi, protists, plants, and animals. unicellular or multicellular. contain nucleus and many organelles
theory of endosymbiosis mitochondrea and chloraplests are descendants of free living prokaryotic organisms. prokaryotes were engulfed by early eukaryotes and became organelles
Generated by Koofers.com
protists eukaryotic, mostly unicellular, motile, structurally complex. found where 'wet' (plankton). extremely diverse
euglenoids autotrophic or parasitic, one or more flagella, asexual reproduction. orients towards light
giardia 'backpacker's diarriah' infects 200 million people each year
trypanosoma african sleeping sickness. toxic metabolic waste, common in areas such as uganda
Generated by Koofers.com
amoeboids free living, move by pseudopodia. are anarobic and can carry a variety of diseases
slime molds amoeboid. not really mold, just slime. are heterotrophic. amoeboids form 'super cell' with multiple nuclei. important decomposers in wet environment
plant multicellular eukaryote, creates food by using photosynthesis
chloraphyll absorbs blue violent and red light, green and yellow light pass through or are reflected. located in chloraplests
Generated by Koofers.com
thylakoid membrane contains pigments and performs photosynthesis
biogeography study and interpritation of distribution patterns of living organisms around the world
directional selection selection that, for given trait, increases fitness at one extreme and reduces it in another
biodiversity variety and variability among all genes, species, and ecosystems
Generated by Koofers.com
microsphere membrane enclosed, small spherical unit containing self replicating molecule and carrying info but no genetic material
rna world hypothesis hypothesis that the world may have been full of rna before it became filled with life based on dna
allopatric speculation speculation that occurs as a result of a geographic barrier between groups of individuals that results in reproductive isolation
biological species concept concept that defines species in terms of the possibilities of inbreeding
Generated by Koofers.com
domain highest level of class. contains archaea bacteria and eukaria
hybredization inbreeding of closely related species
hybrids offspring of individuals of two different species
kingdoms 6 kingdoms bacteria, archaea, protists, plants, animals, and fungi
Generated by Koofers.com
morphological species concept concept that defines species on physical features such as body shape and size
polyploidy doubling of sets of chromosomes in an individual
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 50 Print
 
Front
Back
 evolutionchange of allele frequencies in population. Genetic change through time
 darwin's observancesspecies located near each other often resembled each other, but sometimes had pronounced differences. Differences suited environment
 theory of evolution by natural selectionpopulations change over time and this change happens by natural selection
 adaptioninherited trait that enhances organism's ability to survive/reproduce in particular environment
 artificial selectionplants/animals with preferable traits are encouraged to reproduce. traits are passed on through natural selection
 microevolutionchange at the genetic level. change in the gene pool over time
 macroevolutionchange at the species level
 populationgroup of individuals of the same species, living in the same space at the same time
 gene poolall the alleles of all the genes in a population
 mutationchange in DNA . Only source of new alleles, is ultimate source of variation. mutation must be present in gametes if it is to contribute to next generation. must also affect chances of survival or reproduction
 natural selectionnot all genotypes are the same. some allow for individuals to better survive and reproduce. these genotypes are then passed along to next generation
 genetic driftchange in gene pool due to chance events, such as disasters
 genetic drift- bottlenecksevere reduction in population
 genetic drift- founder effectfew individuals from population branch out and start new one
 gene flowchange in gene pool due to immigration or emmegration of individuals in and out of population
 speciesone or more populations of individuals that can interbreed under natural conditions to produce fertile offspring
 geographic isolationlittle or no gene flow between populations
 genetic divergencetwo isolated populations will evolve independently through genetic drift and natural selection (microevolution)
 reproductive isolationgenetic divergence that can result in reproductive barriers. leads to macroevolution
 carolus linnaeuslaid foundation for bionomial system
 order of species, most general to specifickingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
 evolutionary treestimeline of which ancestors of one species separated from ancestors of another. each branch represents line of descent, branch point is time of divergence 
 3 domain typeseubacteria, archeabacteria, eukariotes 
 Stanley millerperformed experiment in which he combined methane, hydrogen, water, and ammonia, and created amino acids
 first cellsoriginated 3.8 billion years ago, were prokaryotic and anaerobic, relied on fermentation to survive as there was no oxygen
 prokaryoteslack nucleus and many organelles, unicellular. Most bacteria and archaea
 eukaryotesfungi, protists, plants, and animals. unicellular or multicellular. contain nucleus and many organelles
 theory of endosymbiosismitochondrea and chloraplests are descendants of free living prokaryotic organisms. prokaryotes were engulfed by early eukaryotes and became organelles
 protistseukaryotic, mostly unicellular, motile, structurally complex. found where 'wet' (plankton). extremely diverse
 euglenoidsautotrophic or parasitic, one or more flagella, asexual reproduction. orients towards light
 giardia'backpacker's diarriah' infects 200 million people each year
 trypanosomaafrican sleeping sickness. toxic metabolic waste, common in areas such as uganda
 amoeboidsfree living, move by pseudopodia. are anarobic and can carry a variety of diseases
 slime moldsamoeboid. not really mold, just slime. are heterotrophic. amoeboids form 'super cell' with multiple nuclei. important decomposers in wet environment
 plantmulticellular eukaryote, creates food by using photosynthesis
 chloraphyllabsorbs blue violent and red light, green and yellow light pass through or are reflected. located in chloraplests
 thylakoid membranecontains pigments and performs photosynthesis
 biogeographystudy and interpritation of distribution patterns of living organisms around the world
 directional selectionselection that, for given trait, increases fitness at one extreme and reduces it in another
 biodiversityvariety and variability among all genes, species, and ecosystems
 microspheremembrane enclosed, small spherical unit containing self replicating molecule and carrying info but no genetic material
 rna world hypothesishypothesis that the world may have been full of rna before it became filled with life based on dna
 allopatric speculationspeculation that occurs as a result of a geographic barrier between groups of individuals that results in reproductive isolation
 biological species conceptconcept that defines species in terms of the possibilities of inbreeding
 domainhighest level of class. contains archaea bacteria and eukaria
 hybredizationinbreeding of closely related species
 hybridsoffspring of individuals of two different species
 kingdoms6 kingdoms bacteria, archaea, protists, plants, animals, and fungi
 morphological species conceptconcept that defines species on physical features such as body shape and size
 polyploidydoubling of sets of chromosomes in an individual
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"