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Exam 3: Cell Communication, Meiosis, Mitosis, Gene.. - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 150 - Prn Molecular&Cellular Biology
Subject:Biology
University:University of Kansas
Term:Fall 2012
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Genome The complete complement of an organism’s genes; an organism’s genetic material.
Binary fission

The type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce; each dividing daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome.

Haploid

A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).

Diploid

A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.

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Chromatids

Duplication of chromosomes leads to replicated structures called chromatids, sister chromatids are joined at the center by centromeres

Centromere The centralized region joining two sister chromatids.
Chromosome A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins
Mitosis A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei
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Cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis
Cell cycle An ordered sequence of events in the life of a dividing eukaryotic cell; composed of the M, G1, S, and G2 phases
Interphase

The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. During interphase, cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase. Interphase accounts for 90% of the time of each cell cycle.

Metaphase The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the chromosomes become aligned on the equatorial plate of the cell 
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G1 phase

The first growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.

G2 phase The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
S phase The synthesis phase of the cell cycle, constituting the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated
Spindle An assemblage of microtubules that orchestrates chromosome movement during eukaryotic cell division
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Meiosis

a two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in gametes with half the chromosome number of the original cell.

 

Gene A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
Somatic cells

Any cell in a multi-cellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.

Gametes A haploid egg or sperm cell; gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote
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Synapsis The pairing and physical connection of duplicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
Tetrad In heredity, a bivalent chromosome that divides into four during meiosis
Homologous chromosomes Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism’s father, the other from the mother
Maternal chromosome Homologous chromosomes consist of two paired chromosomes; the chromosome that originates from the mother is called the maternal chromosome
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Paternal chromosome Homologous chromosomes consist of two paired chromosomes; the chromosome that originates from the father is called the paternal chromosome
Sister chromatids Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II
Chiasma The X-shaped, microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis
Crossing over

The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis I.

 

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Photosynthesis The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes
Autotrophs An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones
Heterotrophs

An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.

 

Stomata A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant
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Mesophyll Leaf cells specialized for photosynthesis; located between the upper and lower epidermis in C3 and CAM plants; located between the bundle-sheath cells and epidermis in C4 plants
Chlorophyll A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants; chlorophyll a can participate directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy
Light dependent reactions Those chemical reactions within photosynthesis that require sunlight; light dependent reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy
Light independent reactions Chemical reactions within photosynthesis that do not require sunlight, these reactions generate sugars from the ATP and NADPH that are generated during the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
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Photophosphorylation The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of chemiosmosis, using a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis
Calvin cycle The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving fixation of atmospheric CO2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate
Photon A quantum, or discrete amount, of light energy
Rubisco Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate)
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C3 plants A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate
C4 plants A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end-product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle
CAM plants

A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an

adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions. 

Signal transduction
Signal transduction occurs when an extracellular signaling molecule activates a cell surface receptor.
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G protein

A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma-membrane signal receptor, known as a G-protein-coupled receptor, to other signal-transduction proteins inside the cell. When such a receptor is activated, it in turn activates the G protein, causing it to bind a molecule of GTP in place of GDP. Hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP inactivates the G protein.

Cyclic AMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that a common intracellular signaling molecule (second messenger) in eukaryotic cells, for example, in vertebrate endocrine cells
adenylyl cyclase An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to an extracellular signal
IP3 (inositol triphosphate) The second messenger, which functions as an intermediate between certain nonsteroid hormones and the third messenger, a rise in cytoplasmic Ca++ concentration
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DAG (diacyl glycerol) Serves as a second messenger in stimulating the activity of protein kinase C
Phosphodiesterase An enzyme that deactivates cyclic AMP
Character (Mendelian) An inherited feature under the control of a single locus (although perhaps modified by genes at other loci); e.g. hair color
Trait Variation within a characteristic, how the genetic character is displayed in an individual
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Locus A particular place along the length of a certain chromosome where a given gene is located
Alleles One of several alternate forms of a particular gene, usually giving rise to a characteristic form of phenotype (e.g., purple or white flower color)
Homozygous Having two identical alleles for a given genetic character
Heterozygous Having two different alleles for a given genetic character
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Phenotype The appearance of the character within an organism
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism
Monohybrid cross A breeding experiment that uses parental varieties differing in a single character
Dihybrid cross A breeding experiment in which parental varieties differing in two traits are mated
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Dominant In genetics, denoting an allele possessed by one of the parents of a hybrid which is expressed in the latter to the exclusion of a contrasting allele (the recessive) from the other parent. An allele that can determine the phenotype of heterozygotes completely, so that they are indistinguishable from individuals homozygous for the allele. In the heterozygotes, the dominant allele completely masks the expression of the other (recessive) allele
Recessive An allele expressed only in homozygotes and completely masked in heterozygotes
F1 generation The first filial or hybrid offspring in a genetic cross-fertilization
F2 generation Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation
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Test cross Breeding of an organism of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype. The ratio of phenotypes in the offspring determines the unknown genotype
Autosomes A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to the sex chromosomes
Sex chromosomes The pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
Linked genes Genes that are located on the same chromosome and tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 GenomeThe complete complement of an organism’s genes; an organism’s genetic material.
 Binary fission

The type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce; each dividing daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome.

 Haploid

A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).

 Diploid

A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.

 Chromatids

Duplication of chromosomes leads to replicated structures called chromatids, sister chromatids are joined at the center by centromeres

 CentromereThe centralized region joining two sister chromatids.
 ChromosomeA threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins
 MitosisA process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei
 CytokinesisThe division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis
 Cell cycleAn ordered sequence of events in the life of a dividing eukaryotic cell; composed of the M, G1, S, and G2 phases
 Interphase

The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. During interphase, cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase. Interphase accounts for 90% of the time of each cell cycle.

 MetaphaseThe stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the chromosomes become aligned on the equatorial plate of the cell 
 G1 phase

The first growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.

 G2 phaseThe second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
 S phaseThe synthesis phase of the cell cycle, constituting the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated
 SpindleAn assemblage of microtubules that orchestrates chromosome movement during eukaryotic cell division
 Meiosis

a two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in gametes with half the chromosome number of the original cell.

 

 GeneA discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
 Somatic cells

Any cell in a multi-cellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.

 GametesA haploid egg or sperm cell; gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote
 SynapsisThe pairing and physical connection of duplicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
 TetradIn heredity, a bivalent chromosome that divides into four during meiosis
 Homologous chromosomesChromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism’s father, the other from the mother
 Maternal chromosomeHomologous chromosomes consist of two paired chromosomes; the chromosome that originates from the mother is called the maternal chromosome
 Paternal chromosomeHomologous chromosomes consist of two paired chromosomes; the chromosome that originates from the father is called the paternal chromosome
 Sister chromatidsReplicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II
 ChiasmaThe X-shaped, microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis
 Crossing over

The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis I.

 

 PhotosynthesisThe conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes
 AutotrophsAn organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones
 Heterotrophs

An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.

 

 StomataA microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant
 MesophyllLeaf cells specialized for photosynthesis; located between the upper and lower epidermis in C3 and CAM plants; located between the bundle-sheath cells and epidermis in C4 plants
 ChlorophyllA green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants; chlorophyll a can participate directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy
 Light dependent reactionsThose chemical reactions within photosynthesis that require sunlight; light dependent reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy
 Light independent reactionsChemical reactions within photosynthesis that do not require sunlight, these reactions generate sugars from the ATP and NADPH that are generated during the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
 PhotophosphorylationThe process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of chemiosmosis, using a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis
 Calvin cycleThe second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving fixation of atmospheric CO2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate
 PhotonA quantum, or discrete amount, of light energy
 RubiscoRibulose bisphosphate carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate)
 C3 plantsA plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate
 C4 plantsA plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end-product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle
 CAM plants

A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an

adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions. 

 Signal transduction
Signal transduction occurs when an extracellular signaling molecule activates a cell surface receptor.
 G protein

A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma-membrane signal receptor, known as a G-protein-coupled receptor, to other signal-transduction proteins inside the cell. When such a receptor is activated, it in turn activates the G protein, causing it to bind a molecule of GTP in place of GDP. Hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP inactivates the G protein.

 Cyclic AMPcyclic adenosine monophosphate, a ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that a common intracellular signaling molecule (second messenger) in eukaryotic cells, for example, in vertebrate endocrine cells
 adenylyl cyclaseAn enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to an extracellular signal
 IP3 (inositol triphosphate)The second messenger, which functions as an intermediate between certain nonsteroid hormones and the third messenger, a rise in cytoplasmic Ca++ concentration
 DAG (diacyl glycerol)Serves as a second messenger in stimulating the activity of protein kinase C
 PhosphodiesteraseAn enzyme that deactivates cyclic AMP
 Character (Mendelian)An inherited feature under the control of a single locus (although perhaps modified by genes at other loci); e.g. hair color
 TraitVariation within a characteristic, how the genetic character is displayed in an individual
 LocusA particular place along the length of a certain chromosome where a given gene is located
 AllelesOne of several alternate forms of a particular gene, usually giving rise to a characteristic form of phenotype (e.g., purple or white flower color)
 HomozygousHaving two identical alleles for a given genetic character
 HeterozygousHaving two different alleles for a given genetic character
 PhenotypeThe appearance of the character within an organism
 GenotypeThe genetic makeup of an organism
 Monohybrid crossA breeding experiment that uses parental varieties differing in a single character
 Dihybrid crossA breeding experiment in which parental varieties differing in two traits are mated
 DominantIn genetics, denoting an allele possessed by one of the parents of a hybrid which is expressed in the latter to the exclusion of a contrasting allele (the recessive) from the other parent. An allele that can determine the phenotype of heterozygotes completely, so that they are indistinguishable from individuals homozygous for the allele. In the heterozygotes, the dominant allele completely masks the expression of the other (recessive) allele
 RecessiveAn allele expressed only in homozygotes and completely masked in heterozygotes
 F1 generationThe first filial or hybrid offspring in a genetic cross-fertilization
 F2 generationOffspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation
 Test crossBreeding of an organism of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype. The ratio of phenotypes in the offspring determines the unknown genotype
 AutosomesA chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to the sex chromosomes
 Sex chromosomesThe pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
 Linked genesGenes that are located on the same chromosome and tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses
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