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Final Exam - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 115 - Topics in Ecol & Environment
Subject:Biology
University:Christopher Newport University
Term:Fall 2009
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How many days does soil have to be saturated before it can meet the hydrology parameter for being a wetland? A wetland must be saturated for more that 14 consecutive days during the growing season to meet the hydrology parameter.
During what "season" must wetlands meet the hydrology requirement? The wetland must meet the hydrology requirement during the growing season.
How many positive indicators must an area have to qualify as a wetland? An area must meet 3 parameters, by law, to qualify as a wetland.
Soil that lacks oxygen and allows only hydrophytes to grow is called what? Hydric Soil
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Why can wetland plants survive in wetlands? Hydrophytes can get oxygen to their roots, allowing them to live in hydric soils.
How does water impact the formation of wetlands? Water reduces the amount of oxygen in the soil.
What gas does the bacteria in wetland soils consume? Oxygen
What is the name of the wetland in which shrubs are dominate? Scrub shrub wetlands are dominated by shrubs
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What is another name for a forested wetland? Swamp
What are three major causes of wetland loss in the U.S? Drainage for agriculture Filling them in Development
Define Productivity in terms of wetlands and parameters. Productivity is the amount of biomass produced per unit area per unit time. Productivity is a functional parameter of an ecosystem.
What gas is produced when wetlands are drained and how does this effect the earth? When drained, wetlands are a source of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide can lead to climate change issues.
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What percentage of loss rate of wetlands has Virginia reached since the first European colony? 40-50 percent loss rate of the original wetland acerage
What results from high productivity and low decomposition rates in wetlands? Carbon sequestration
A water quality benefit comes from the fact that wetlands convert nutrients into what? Wetlands convert nutrients into biomass which forms the base of bay food chains
How do levees contribute to the loss of oxygen in the Chesapeake bay? River waters are confined to the river channel The ability of floodplains to take up nutrients is diminished nutrients are transported to sensitive waters downstream
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What can be determined by tree rings? Annual growth of the diameter of the tree during a growing season How wet or dry the year was (they tend to be wider during wet years and narrower during drought years) Represent contributions to productivity for their ecosystems.
What does rising air do? Rising air cools and condenses as it rises.
What is rising air associated with? Low pressure Fronts Windward sides of mountains
What type of pressures is associated with a cloudy sky over Virginia? Low Pressure
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What can be observed when viewing a sundog? When viewing a sundog, you can see all of the colors of the visible spectrum.
When does global circulation of air occur in cells? When they are warm and rising When they are cool and descending
Where is a desert likely to occur? A desert is likely to occur where global air circulation causes air to descend because descending air tends to warm and dry.
What is orographic precipitation? Orographic precipitation is when precipitation is caused by collision with a mountain.
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What does Shelford's Law of Tolerance state? Shelford's Law of Tolerance states that every species tends to have a zone where environmental conditions are optimum.
What color is the soil in the A-horizon? The soil is stained brown.
What horizon is organic matter the highest? The O-horizon has the highest amount of organic matter
How can we recognize hydric soil? The color of the soil will be recognizable. It will be a grayish color.
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Hydric soil can also be call what? The soil can also be called a histosol.
How can one recognize a histosol? A histosol will have a deep brown A horizon.
What feature is distinctive of an Aridolsol? Aridolsols have a caliche layer near the surface.
How can you define soil color? Chroma Value Hue
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Why do wetlands tend to have higher organic matter content in their soils? They tend to have higher productivity rates and lower decomposition rates. Saturated soils allow for less oxygen for bacteria
What would you expect the depth of a water table to look like for mottling to occur? For mottling to occur, the water table depth will vary greatly and have some spikes as well as some lows.
What are the steps of cell respiration? Glycolysis then Kreb's Cycle (citric acid cycle) then Chemiosmotic Process (oxidative phosphorylation)
How are hydrogen molecules transported prior to cell respiration? They are transported as part of a glucose molecule.
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Why is oxygen critical during cell respiration? Oxygen bonds with hydrogen to maintain the Hydrogen gradient that is necessary to keep the flow of Hydrogen atoms moving.
What processes can the absence of oxygen stop? Kreb's Cycle and Chemiosmostic Proces
Why is the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems important to cell respiration? Getting Oxygen to cells Eliminating wast products like CO2 Getting glucose to cells
How do fish maintain the concentration gradient b/n the amount of O2 in the water and the amount of O2 in their blood? Fish maintain this because of the direction that the blood and water flow.
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Why are hydric soils low in Oxygen? Organic matter is abundant and oxygen is used up as it decomposes Soils are saturated for at least 2 weeks, which limits oxygen diffusion from the atmosphere Bacteria are present and consume a lot of oxygen
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 How many days does soil have to be saturated before it can meet the hydrology parameter for being a wetland?A wetland must be saturated for more that 14 consecutive days during the growing season to meet the hydrology parameter.
 During what "season" must wetlands meet the hydrology requirement?The wetland must meet the hydrology requirement during the growing season.
 How many positive indicators must an area have to qualify as a wetland?An area must meet 3 parameters, by law, to qualify as a wetland.
 Soil that lacks oxygen and allows only hydrophytes to grow is called what?Hydric Soil
 Why can wetland plants survive in wetlands?Hydrophytes can get oxygen to their roots, allowing them to live in hydric soils.
 How does water impact the formation of wetlands?Water reduces the amount of oxygen in the soil.
 What gas does the bacteria in wetland soils consume?Oxygen
 What is the name of the wetland in which shrubs are dominate?Scrub shrub wetlands are dominated by shrubs
 What is another name for a forested wetland?Swamp
 What are three major causes of wetland loss in the U.S?Drainage for agriculture
Filling them in
Development
 Define Productivity in terms of wetlands and parameters.Productivity is the amount of biomass produced per unit area per unit time.
Productivity is a functional parameter of an ecosystem.
 What gas is produced when wetlands are drained and how does this effect the earth?When drained, wetlands are a source of carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide can lead to climate change issues.
 What percentage of loss rate of wetlands has Virginia reached since the first European colony?40-50 percent loss rate of the original wetland acerage
 What results from high productivity and low decomposition rates in wetlands?Carbon sequestration
 A water quality benefit comes from the fact that wetlands convert nutrients into what?Wetlands convert nutrients into biomass which forms the base of bay food chains
 How do levees contribute to the loss of oxygen in the Chesapeake bay?River waters are confined to the river channel
The ability of floodplains to take up nutrients is diminished
nutrients are transported to sensitive waters downstream
 What can be determined by tree rings?Annual growth of the diameter of the tree during a growing season
How wet or dry the year was (they tend to be wider during wet years and narrower during drought years)
Represent contributions to productivity for their ecosystems.
 What does rising air do?Rising air cools and condenses as it rises.
 What is rising air associated with?Low pressure
Fronts
Windward sides of mountains
 What type of pressures is associated with a cloudy sky over Virginia?Low Pressure
 What can be observed when viewing a sundog?When viewing a sundog, you can see all of the colors of the visible spectrum.
 When does global circulation of air occur in cells?When they are warm and rising
When they are cool and descending
 Where is a desert likely to occur?A desert is likely to occur where global air circulation causes air to descend because descending air tends to warm and dry.
 What is orographic precipitation?Orographic precipitation is when precipitation is caused by collision with a mountain.
 What does Shelford's Law of Tolerance state?Shelford's Law of Tolerance states that every species tends to have a zone where environmental conditions are optimum.
 What color is the soil in the A-horizon?The soil is stained brown.
 What horizon is organic matter the highest?The O-horizon has the highest amount of organic matter
 How can we recognize hydric soil?The color of the soil will be recognizable. It will be a grayish color.
 Hydric soil can also be call what?The soil can also be called a histosol.
 How can one recognize a histosol?A histosol will have a deep brown A horizon.
 What feature is distinctive of an Aridolsol?Aridolsols have a caliche layer near the surface.
 How can you define soil color?Chroma
Value
Hue
 Why do wetlands tend to have higher organic matter content in their soils?They tend to have higher productivity rates and lower decomposition rates.
Saturated soils allow for less oxygen for bacteria
 What would you expect the depth of a water table to look like for mottling to occur?For mottling to occur, the water table depth will vary greatly and have some spikes as well as some lows.
 What are the steps of cell respiration?Glycolysis then Kreb's Cycle (citric acid cycle) then Chemiosmotic Process (oxidative phosphorylation)
 How are hydrogen molecules transported prior to cell respiration?They are transported as part of a glucose molecule.
 Why is oxygen critical during cell respiration?Oxygen bonds with hydrogen to maintain the Hydrogen gradient that is necessary to keep the flow of Hydrogen atoms moving.
 What processes can the absence of oxygen stop?Kreb's Cycle and Chemiosmostic Proces
 Why is the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems important to cell respiration?Getting Oxygen to cells
Eliminating wast products like CO2
Getting glucose to cells
 How do fish maintain the concentration gradient b/n the amount of O2 in the water and the amount of O2 in their blood?Fish maintain this because of the direction that the blood and water flow.
 Why are hydric soils low in Oxygen?Organic matter is abundant and oxygen is used up as it decomposes
Soils are saturated for at least 2 weeks, which limits oxygen diffusion from the atmosphere
Bacteria are present and consume a lot of oxygen
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