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Class:BIOL 150 - Prn Molecular&Cellular Biology
Subject:Biology
University:University of Kansas
Term:Fall 2011
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Wild Type Wild type refers to the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs in nature.
Recombinant Type Offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents.
Recombination of linked genes occurs by? Crossing over between non-sister chromatids of a homologous pair of chromosomes.
Complete Dominance Phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.

Example: Aa will show same features as AA
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Incomplete Dominance Phenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between the phenotypes of individuals homogygous for either allele.

Example: if WW is white and ww is purple, Ww is pink.
Codominance Phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote because both alleles affect the phenotype.
Pleiotropy Occurs when one gene influences multiple phenotypic traits.

Example: PKU disease is caused by mutations on a single gene and causes mental retardation and reduced hair and skin pigmentation.
Epistasis The phenomenon where the effects of one gene are modified by one or several other genes, which are sometimes called modifier genes.

Example: gene causing albinism hides gene controlling hair color.
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Anticodon Base triplet within tRNA
Nucleotide that base-pairs with a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
Transcription Factors Protein that assists in the binding of RNA polymerase to DNA and initiation of transcription from the transcription start and assist with initiation transcript.
Ligase Enzyme that joins Okazaki fragments.
DNA Polymerase I Enzyme that removes RNA nucleotides and replaces these nucleotides with DNA nucleotides.
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DNA Polymerase III Enzyme that catalyzes the addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing strand of DNA
Independent Assortment Random alignment of tetrads on the metaphase plate during Meiosis I
RNA Polymerase Adds nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing RNA transcript in eukaryotic cells.
TATA Box Base sequence within the template and non-template strands of DNA that is upstream from the transcription start point and assists with the binding of RNA polymerase.
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Wobble Term that refers to a relaxation of base pairing  rules for the binding of anticodons to codons.
Release Factor Binds to the A site of the ribosome during the termination of translation.
Adenylyl Cyclase Enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic AMP
Protein Kinase Alters the activity of other enzymes by phosphorylating the enzyme.
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Outputs of the Calvin Cycle? ADP, NADP+, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
Source of Oxygen in Photosynthesis? H2O (water).
Outputs of Light Dependent Reactions? NADPH, ATP
Nuclear Envelope Contains openings or pores that allow movement of materials from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
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Molecule produced within the glycolytic pathway? Pyruvate
When is CO2 produced in cellular respiration? Within the junction between glycolysis and the krebs cycle, and the krebs cycle.
What is the most common route for the synthesis and trafficking of proteins secreted from cell? Rough ER, vesicles, Golgi, vesicles, plasma membrane
Events leading to synthesis of ATP within oxidative phosphorylation?
  1. donation of electrons by NADH
  2. movement of electrons from one carrier complex to next
  3. generation of a proton gradient
  4. synthesis of ATP via the enzymatic action of ATP synthase
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What does "glyco" refer to in "glycoprotein"? Carbohydrate portion of molecule.
Products of Oxydative Phosphorylation within the electron transport chain? ATP, NAD+, and H2O
Active Site specific region where the substrate or reactant binds.
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 Wild TypeWild type refers to the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs in nature.
 Recombinant TypeOffspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents.
 Recombination of linked genes occurs by?Crossing over between non-sister chromatids of a homologous pair of chromosomes.
 Complete DominancePhenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.

Example: Aa will show same features as AA
 Incomplete DominancePhenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between the phenotypes of individuals homogygous for either allele.

Example: if WW is white and ww is purple, Ww is pink.
 CodominancePhenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote because both alleles affect the phenotype.
 PleiotropyOccurs when one gene influences multiple phenotypic traits.

Example: PKU disease is caused by mutations on a single gene and causes mental retardation and reduced hair and skin pigmentation.
 EpistasisThe phenomenon where the effects of one gene are modified by one or several other genes, which are sometimes called modifier genes.

Example: gene causing albinism hides gene controlling hair color.
 AnticodonBase triplet within tRNA
Nucleotide that base-pairs with a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
 Transcription FactorsProtein that assists in the binding of RNA polymerase to DNA and initiation of transcription from the transcription start and assist with initiation transcript.
 LigaseEnzyme that joins Okazaki fragments.
 DNA Polymerase IEnzyme that removes RNA nucleotides and replaces these nucleotides with DNA nucleotides.
 DNA Polymerase IIIEnzyme that catalyzes the addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing strand of DNA
 Independent AssortmentRandom alignment of tetrads on the metaphase plate during Meiosis I
 RNA PolymeraseAdds nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing RNA transcript in eukaryotic cells.
 TATA BoxBase sequence within the template and non-template strands of DNA that is upstream from the transcription start point and assists with the binding of RNA polymerase.
 WobbleTerm that refers to a relaxation of base pairing  rules for the binding of anticodons to codons.
 Release FactorBinds to the A site of the ribosome during the termination of translation.
 Adenylyl CyclaseEnzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic AMP
 Protein KinaseAlters the activity of other enzymes by phosphorylating the enzyme.
 Outputs of the Calvin Cycle?ADP, NADP+, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
 Source of Oxygen in Photosynthesis?H2O (water).
 Outputs of Light Dependent Reactions?NADPH, ATP
 Nuclear EnvelopeContains openings or pores that allow movement of materials from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
 Molecule produced within the glycolytic pathway?Pyruvate
 When is CO2 produced in cellular respiration?Within the junction between glycolysis and the krebs cycle, and the krebs cycle.
 What is the most common route for the synthesis and trafficking of proteins secreted from cell?Rough ER, vesicles, Golgi, vesicles, plasma membrane
 Events leading to synthesis of ATP within oxidative phosphorylation?
  1. donation of electrons by NADH
  2. movement of electrons from one carrier complex to next
  3. generation of a proton gradient
  4. synthesis of ATP via the enzymatic action of ATP synthase
 What does "glyco" refer to in "glycoprotein"?Carbohydrate portion of molecule.
 Products of Oxydative Phosphorylation within the electron transport chain?ATP, NAD+, and H2O
 Active Sitespecific region where the substrate or reactant binds.
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