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Physiology Exam #1 - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 2150 - PRINCIPLES OF PHYSIOLOGY
Subject:Biology
University:The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey
Term:Fall 2012
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Hormones systemic chemical messengers 
a type of ligand

Suspected Hormones "fuzzy"
Autocrine &Paracrine a type of hormone that is a LOCAL messenger
Cytokines hormones that are not specific
not stored
and have no special glands
they are also released on demand
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Endocrinology secretes hormones
is a LONG term process of a system (compared to the others)
uses circulatory system and endocrine glands
TARGET CELL is key to a reaction
specificity of the reaction is decided by the 
Target Cell must have specific receptor or no action will take place

control the rate of reaction 
control which molecules can go through cell membrane
control protein synthesis

Endocrinology Produces endocrine glands
nerve cells
other - digestive tract
Goiter part of neck, where thyroid is

in PRE columbian era people of the ANDES mts. thought it was attractive to have a large "turkey gobbler" like neck, but it was really a lack of the thyroid hormone making this feature prominent 
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C.B. Sequard bull testes = grinned up, made into supplement like viagra and gave to friends.

"improved performance"

earliest imitation of how hormones work
Peptides
start off as>
> "PREPROHORMONE" then to >
> RER>
>Golgi Aparatus>
>Prohormone>
>vesicle>
>enzyme>
>hormone> exocytosis

Peptide Properties are water soluble 

have short half life

are surface receptors

signal transduction (second messenger)

have open channels

can activate genes

Steroids Actions once bound to nucleus --goes to---> mRNA
and then makes a NEW protein (rather than modify an old one)
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Amines single bonded amino acids 
ex: Tryptophan - melatonin- from pineal gland

AMINES: "Tyrosine" Two Types:

1) Catecholamines = NEED receptors (alpha & beta) 
                                   acts like peptide
                                   (ex's: epinephrine, dopamine)

2) Thyroid hormones = act like a steroid 
                                      is in nucleus 
                                      (ex's: T3, T4)
Trophic Hormones hormone that controls another hormone

usually from hypothalamus 

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK: once you get reaction from hormone, they go                 
                                          back and shut hypothalamus off. etc


Reflex Pathways a classic hormone release : cell secretes hormone and integrates 
                                             response 
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Negative Feedback Pathway hormones go back and shuts off production after reaction is accomplished.

ex: sex hormones ---> testosterone ---> shut off sex hormones

ex: insulin/glucose system influenced by stress, diet, and glucagon 
Neurohormones NOT from endocrine glands but released from NEURONS (nerve cells).

posterior pituitary: secretes ADH and oxytocin 

hypothalamus: secretes trophic hormones 

Adrenal Medulla: secretes catecholamines 
Pituitary Gland the "master gland"


Pituitary Gland : Anterior
secretes classic hormones 
controlled by hypothalamus 
neurons go into double capillary bed. 

hormones: 
- Prolactin - milk production
- Growth Hormone (GH)
-Gonadotrophin: follicle stimulating hormone (egg/sperm production)
-Thyroid Stimulating hormone - "TSH"
- ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone, produces cortisol  
 
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Pituitary Gland : Intermediate
is rudimentary in humans

in reptiles it secretes a melanocyte stimulating hormone
Pituitary Gland : Posterior
secretes neurohormones

Hormones: 
- oxytocin : a positive feedback & milk ejection 
-ADH : an antidiuretic hormone
- Vasopressin :  blood pressure for birth


Double Capillary System hypothalamus has this "portal system" thats a HYPOPHYSEAL portal system. 

it releases hormones down two different sides of the pituitary gland ( the posterior and anterior, which are separated by the intermediate section of the gland). 
Ultra Short Feedback Route route from paracrine (local messenger) from hypothalamus sent to shut off hypothalamus: 

hypothalamus --- paracrine --- hypothalamus  
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Short Loop Feedback route hormones take from:

                       Hypothalamus ---> pituitary gland
Long Loop Feedback hormone route from :

pituitary gland -------> target ORGAN
SYNERGISM (Hormone Interaction) hormone sum greater than its parts

EXAMPLE:

5% epinephrine (by itself) 
                                             
10% glucagon  (by itself)

                                          ---> Together: 22%
Permissiveness (Hormone Interaction) one hormone needs another for FULL effect

Ex:
      thyroid and testosterone both need to work TOGETHER
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Antagonism (Hormone Interaction) hormones COMPETE for same receptor

EX:   insulin vs. glucagon (one raises blood pressure and the other 
         lowers)

Pharmacies use this tactic a lot to try and "fix diseases". For example, tamoxifen blocks estrogen receptors in tumors with estrogen for breast cancer patients.  
Hyposecretion
TOO LITTLE


too low of thyroid hormone levels
Hypersecretion
TOO MUCH


excess stimulation in adrenal gland produces excess cortisol which leads to Cushing's disease.
Receptor Problems -Lack of receptors   
             OR     
-Receptors there but doesn't work

EX: mutated/lost receptor - male feminizing syndrome, where the person
                                            looks like a female but has XY chromos.

EX: signal transduction mutation -  low calcium leads to weak bones


Generated by Koofers.com
Pheromones Hormones outside of the body.

Primary found in animals.

helps attract or repel members of the same species.

its still in debate if humans actually have them.
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone 

an excess of this hormone causes Cushing's disease

secreted by anterior section of pituitary gland
CNS "central nervous system"

brain + spinal cord 
PNS "peripheral nervous system"

nerves + ganglia (outside of CNS)

TWO CATEGORIES:

1) Afferent = towards CNS  (sensory)

2) Efferent = away from CNS   (motor/somatic muscles or Autonomic =
                                                     sympathetic/parasympathetic )
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dendrite recently has become the basic unit

branches projections of a neuron (nerve cell) that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation received from other cells to the cell body
Neuron basic unit
electrically stimulated cell that receives messages
cell body + axons + dendrites
Sensory Neurons very specialized nerve cells

found outside CNS

"afferent" = the travel towards CNS
Interneurons 99% of nerve cells 

located entirely within the CNS

type of nerve cells that connects to other nerve cells
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Axon Transport need to take things to synaptic knobs 

and needed to take waste back to cell body

2 WAYS:

1)Slow = on cytoplasmic flow: enzymes, cytoskeleton from body to axon 

2) FAST = on microtubules (as vesicles, mitochondria ); forward or
                  backward
Neuroglia non - nervous cells

helps maintain homeostasis 

provides primary support for cells

connective tissue

in CNS - 90% of cells / 50% of space
Neuroglia Types -Astrocytes 

-Oligodendrocytes

-Microglia 

-Ependymal Cells

Astrocytes (type of Neuroglia) - Star shaped cell non-nervous cells

-considered "glue" of CNS (holds it together) 

-maintains (BBB) Blood Brain Barrier 

-they uptake and degrade neurotransmitters (clean-up)

-help regulate potassium 

-help form scars/scar tissue

-uptake and degrade beta amyloid (alzheimer's) 

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Oligodendrocytes (type of Neuroglia) type of non-nervous cells

produces MYELIN :
(the fatty layer on nerves that keeps electrical impulses in cell.)
Ependymal Cells (type of Neuroglia) non-nervous cells that are epithelial in origin

produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

located in ventricles of brain and central canal 
4 Ways of Heat Exchange Radiation - like the sun, our body gives off heat

Conduction - put and ice pack or heating pad on and absorb that

Evaporation - sweating through pores on skin

Convection - air blowing away

*regulated by hypothalamus 
Extracellular Matrix extracellular material that is synthesized and secreted by the cells of a tissue.

can hold cells together
can help cells grow and develop 
can cause death of cell


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CAMS "cell adhesion molecules" 

membrane-spanning proteins
responsible for cell to cell junctions and transient adhesions 
hyperthermia (positive feedback) your metabolism speeds up and causes your body temperature to do the same.

-helps with childbirth

-too much heat can cause death
Osmosis only with water

from high to low concentrations

osmotic pressure
Fick's Law of Diffusion Diffusion through a membrane is directly proportional to the surface area and concentration gradient

AND: inversely proportional to the thickness of the membrane and its resistance. 
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Passive Diffusion movement of molecules through membrane/lipids

channels open/gated - H20 solution
Facilitated Diffusion no energy needed

needs carrier protein 

type of passive diffusion 

limited by number and speed of carriers

MOSTLY GLUCOSE IS INVOLVED WITH THIS TYPE OF DIFF

Active Transport NEEDS ENERGY/ ATP

movement of substance across cell membrane going against its concentration gradient 
Secondary Active Transport "hitchhiker" 

uses energy off of SODIUM pump to transport molecules across membrane




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Symport (Secondary Active Transport ) both out
    or
both in
Antiport (Secondary Active Transport) opposite directions
Caveolae dock point for foreign material 

like little indents on a golf ball

cell to cell communication
Vesicular endocytosis - into the cell

ectocytosis - out of the cell

phagocytosis - entering of pathogens into a cell
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Local Chemicals (Cell Communication) AKA LIGANDS

3 Types:

            1) paracrines = cell to cell

            2) autocrines = cell to self

            3) neuromodulators = cell to neurons
cytokines not a specific as hormones - lots of actions

primarily dealing with immune system 

"small cell-signaling protein molecules" secreted by cells

help with cell communication 
Membrane Potential the electrical potential created by living cells due to uneven distribution of ions between the intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid. 

units: 1/1000 volt = mV

Nernst Equation (equilibrium potential) Na = +60 mV

K = -90mV

*** Most potassium is on the inside of the cell

*** Most sodium is on the outside of the cell
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Goldman Equation all ions combine

resting membrane potential = -70mV
6 Types of Receptors 1) Nuclear

2) Cytosolic 

3) Gated ion channel

4) Integrins = tissue repair, protein connect to cytoskeleton, clotting plat

5) Receptor Enzymes = ligands make enzyme active results in either
                                       Guanylyl cyclase: cGMP or in protein kinase: 
                                       protein phosphorylated.

6) G Protein Coupled = most common / most in body 
                                    
G Protein most common receptors in body

1st: GDP gets activated by protein and makes GTP

2nd: GTP stimulates protein to make some sort of amplifier inside (enzyme activity)

3rd: or it can open channels

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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Hormonessystemic chemical messengers 
a type of ligand

 Suspected Hormones"fuzzy"
 Autocrine &Paracrinea type of hormone that is a LOCAL messenger
 Cytokineshormones that are not specific
not stored
and have no special glands
they are also released on demand
 Endocrinologysecretes hormones
is a LONG term process of a system (compared to the others)
uses circulatory system and endocrine glands
TARGET CELL is key to a reaction
specificity of the reaction is decided by the 
 Target Cellmust have specific receptor or no action will take place

control the rate of reaction 
control which molecules can go through cell membrane
control protein synthesis

 Endocrinology Producesendocrine glands
nerve cells
other - digestive tract
 Goiterpart of neck, where thyroid is

in PRE columbian era people of the ANDES mts. thought it was attractive to have a large "turkey gobbler" like neck, but it was really a lack of the thyroid hormone making this feature prominent 
 C.B. Sequardbull testes = grinned up, made into supplement like viagra and gave to friends.

"improved performance"

earliest imitation of how hormones work
 Peptides
start off as>
> "PREPROHORMONE" then to >
> RER>
>Golgi Aparatus>
>Prohormone>
>vesicle>
>enzyme>
>hormone> exocytosis

 Peptide Propertiesare water soluble 

have short half life

are surface receptors

signal transduction (second messenger)

have open channels

can activate genes

 Steroids Actionsonce bound to nucleus --goes to---> mRNA
and then makes a NEW protein (rather than modify an old one)
 Aminessingle bonded amino acids 
ex: Tryptophan - melatonin- from pineal gland

 AMINES: "Tyrosine"Two Types:

1) Catecholamines = NEED receptors (alpha & beta) 
                                   acts like peptide
                                   (ex's: epinephrine, dopamine)

2) Thyroid hormones = act like a steroid 
                                      is in nucleus 
                                      (ex's: T3, T4)
 Trophic Hormoneshormone that controls another hormone

usually from hypothalamus 

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK: once you get reaction from hormone, they go                 
                                          back and shut hypothalamus off. etc


 Reflex Pathwaysa classic hormone release : cell secretes hormone and integrates 
                                             response 
 Negative Feedback Pathwayhormones go back and shuts off production after reaction is accomplished.

ex: sex hormones ---> testosterone ---> shut off sex hormones

ex: insulin/glucose system influenced by stress, diet, and glucagon 
 NeurohormonesNOT from endocrine glands but released from NEURONS (nerve cells).

posterior pituitary: secretes ADH and oxytocin 

hypothalamus: secretes trophic hormones 

Adrenal Medulla: secretes catecholamines 
 Pituitary Glandthe "master gland"


 Pituitary Gland : Anterior
secretes classic hormones 
controlled by hypothalamus 
neurons go into double capillary bed. 

hormones: 
- Prolactin - milk production
- Growth Hormone (GH)
-Gonadotrophin: follicle stimulating hormone (egg/sperm production)
-Thyroid Stimulating hormone - "TSH"
- ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone, produces cortisol  
 
 Pituitary Gland : Intermediate
is rudimentary in humans

in reptiles it secretes a melanocyte stimulating hormone
 Pituitary Gland : Posterior
secretes neurohormones

Hormones: 
- oxytocin : a positive feedback & milk ejection 
-ADH : an antidiuretic hormone
- Vasopressin :  blood pressure for birth


 Double Capillary Systemhypothalamus has this "portal system" thats a HYPOPHYSEAL portal system. 

it releases hormones down two different sides of the pituitary gland ( the posterior and anterior, which are separated by the intermediate section of the gland). 
 Ultra Short Feedback Routeroute from paracrine (local messenger) from hypothalamus sent to shut off hypothalamus: 

hypothalamus --- paracrine --- hypothalamus  
 Short Loop Feedbackroute hormones take from:

                       Hypothalamus ---> pituitary gland
 Long Loop Feedbackhormone route from :

pituitary gland -------> target ORGAN
 SYNERGISM (Hormone Interaction)hormone sum greater than its parts

EXAMPLE:

5% epinephrine (by itself) 
                                             
10% glucagon  (by itself)

                                          ---> Together: 22%
 Permissiveness (Hormone Interaction)one hormone needs another for FULL effect

Ex:
      thyroid and testosterone both need to work TOGETHER
 Antagonism (Hormone Interaction)hormones COMPETE for same receptor

EX:   insulin vs. glucagon (one raises blood pressure and the other 
         lowers)

Pharmacies use this tactic a lot to try and "fix diseases". For example, tamoxifen blocks estrogen receptors in tumors with estrogen for breast cancer patients.  
 Hyposecretion
TOO LITTLE


too low of thyroid hormone levels
 Hypersecretion
TOO MUCH


excess stimulation in adrenal gland produces excess cortisol which leads to Cushing's disease.
 Receptor Problems-Lack of receptors   
             OR     
-Receptors there but doesn't work

EX: mutated/lost receptor - male feminizing syndrome, where the person
                                            looks like a female but has XY chromos.

EX: signal transduction mutation -  low calcium leads to weak bones


 PheromonesHormones outside of the body.

Primary found in animals.

helps attract or repel members of the same species.

its still in debate if humans actually have them.
 ACTHadrenocorticotropic hormone 

an excess of this hormone causes Cushing's disease

secreted by anterior section of pituitary gland
 CNS"central nervous system"

brain + spinal cord 
 PNS"peripheral nervous system"

nerves + ganglia (outside of CNS)

TWO CATEGORIES:

1) Afferent = towards CNS  (sensory)

2) Efferent = away from CNS   (motor/somatic muscles or Autonomic =
                                                     sympathetic/parasympathetic )
 dendriterecently has become the basic unit

branches projections of a neuron (nerve cell) that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation received from other cells to the cell body
 Neuronbasic unit
electrically stimulated cell that receives messages
cell body + axons + dendrites
 Sensory Neuronsvery specialized nerve cells

found outside CNS

"afferent" = the travel towards CNS
 Interneurons99% of nerve cells 

located entirely within the CNS

type of nerve cells that connects to other nerve cells
 Axon Transportneed to take things to synaptic knobs 

and needed to take waste back to cell body

2 WAYS:

1)Slow = on cytoplasmic flow: enzymes, cytoskeleton from body to axon 

2) FAST = on microtubules (as vesicles, mitochondria ); forward or
                  backward
 Neuroglianon - nervous cells

helps maintain homeostasis 

provides primary support for cells

connective tissue

in CNS - 90% of cells / 50% of space
 Neuroglia Types-Astrocytes 

-Oligodendrocytes

-Microglia 

-Ependymal Cells

 Astrocytes (type of Neuroglia)- Star shaped cell non-nervous cells

-considered "glue" of CNS (holds it together) 

-maintains (BBB) Blood Brain Barrier 

-they uptake and degrade neurotransmitters (clean-up)

-help regulate potassium 

-help form scars/scar tissue

-uptake and degrade beta amyloid (alzheimer's) 

 Oligodendrocytes (type of Neuroglia)type of non-nervous cells

produces MYELIN :
(the fatty layer on nerves that keeps electrical impulses in cell.)
 Ependymal Cells (type of Neuroglia)non-nervous cells that are epithelial in origin

produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

located in ventricles of brain and central canal 
 4 Ways of Heat ExchangeRadiation - like the sun, our body gives off heat

Conduction - put and ice pack or heating pad on and absorb that

Evaporation - sweating through pores on skin

Convection - air blowing away

*regulated by hypothalamus 
 Extracellular Matrixextracellular material that is synthesized and secreted by the cells of a tissue.

can hold cells together
can help cells grow and develop 
can cause death of cell


 CAMS"cell adhesion molecules" 

membrane-spanning proteins
responsible for cell to cell junctions and transient adhesions 
 hyperthermia (positive feedback)your metabolism speeds up and causes your body temperature to do the same.

-helps with childbirth

-too much heat can cause death
 Osmosisonly with water

from high to low concentrations

osmotic pressure
 Fick's Law of DiffusionDiffusion through a membrane is directly proportional to the surface area and concentration gradient

AND: inversely proportional to the thickness of the membrane and its resistance. 
 Passive Diffusionmovement of molecules through membrane/lipids

channels open/gated - H20 solution
 Facilitated Diffusionno energy needed

needs carrier protein 

type of passive diffusion 

limited by number and speed of carriers

MOSTLY GLUCOSE IS INVOLVED WITH THIS TYPE OF DIFF

 Active TransportNEEDS ENERGY/ ATP

movement of substance across cell membrane going against its concentration gradient 
 Secondary Active Transport"hitchhiker" 

uses energy off of SODIUM pump to transport molecules across membrane




 Symport (Secondary Active Transport )both out
    or
both in
 Antiport (Secondary Active Transport)opposite directions
 Caveolaedock point for foreign material 

like little indents on a golf ball

cell to cell communication
 Vesicularendocytosis - into the cell

ectocytosis - out of the cell

phagocytosis - entering of pathogens into a cell
 Local Chemicals (Cell Communication)AKA LIGANDS

3 Types:

            1) paracrines = cell to cell

            2) autocrines = cell to self

            3) neuromodulators = cell to neurons
 cytokinesnot a specific as hormones - lots of actions

primarily dealing with immune system 

"small cell-signaling protein molecules" secreted by cells

help with cell communication 
 Membrane Potentialthe electrical potential created by living cells due to uneven distribution of ions between the intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid. 

units: 1/1000 volt = mV

 Nernst Equation (equilibrium potential)Na = +60 mV

K = -90mV

*** Most potassium is on the inside of the cell

*** Most sodium is on the outside of the cell
 Goldman Equationall ions combine

resting membrane potential = -70mV
 6 Types of Receptors1) Nuclear

2) Cytosolic 

3) Gated ion channel

4) Integrins = tissue repair, protein connect to cytoskeleton, clotting plat

5) Receptor Enzymes = ligands make enzyme active results in either
                                       Guanylyl cyclase: cGMP or in protein kinase: 
                                       protein phosphorylated.

6) G Protein Coupled = most common / most in body 
                                    
 G Proteinmost common receptors in body

1st: GDP gets activated by protein and makes GTP

2nd: GTP stimulates protein to make some sort of amplifier inside (enzyme activity)

3rd: or it can open channels

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