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Physiology Exam #2 - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 2150 - PRINCIPLES OF PHYSIOLOGY
Subject:Biology
University:The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey
Term:Fall 2012
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Neuroglia non nervous cells 

as well as primary support cells

Types: 
             Astrocytes 
             Oligodendrocytes
             Microglia
             Ependymal Cells
Astrocytes type of  Star shaped cell non-nervous cells

-considered "glue" of CNS (holds it together) 

-maintains (BBB) Blood Brain Barrier 

-they uptake and degrade neurotransmitters (clean-up)

-help regulate potassium 

-help form scars/scar tissue

-uptake and degrade beta amyloid (alzheimer's) 

Ependymal Cells type of non-nervous cells that are epithelial in origin

produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

located in ventricles of brain and central canal 
Oligodendrocytes type of non-nervous cells

produces MYELIN :
(the fatty layer on nerves that keeps electrical impulses in cell.)
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Microglia -type of non nervous cells

-protect brain (immune cells)

-produce a nerve growth factor (NGF) for repair and development

- excessive activity of these cells can produce ROS which are "free radicals" and can destroy nerves very fast, which maybe the cause of parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. 
Brain Tumor when nerve cells don't duplicate or divide they can lead to tumors

ex: "meningioma and glioma" which are connective tissues not working

most brain tumors are metastatic though (which means they're in other areas)
Brain -85% water

-Not Sensitive 

-the center of the brain is the warmest part of the body

-there are about 14 billion nerve cells in the brain

- the warmest cell in body is motor neuron from spine to toes
Membrane Potential  is the difference in electrical potential  between the interior and the exterior of a biological cell.

the inside composition vs. the outside.

occurs in nerve and muscles

potassium is 40 times more diffusible than sodium.

sodium has a hard time getting across membranes without channels.
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Graded Potentials (type of Membrane Potential) -seen in brain

-are decremental (gradually slowing) in speed 

-associated with sort distances

-vary according to the stimulus

-can NOT become action potential 
Action Potential -strength remains strong and constant

- associated with long distances

- "all or none" concept , like dominos. you hit one the rest must go

-generated in trigger zone
Resting Potential Na +  /  K+  atp-ase pump

passive diffusion 
Overview on "How a Cell Works" 1) INPUT: graded potential 

2) INTEGRATED: trigger zone

3) CONDUCTION: action potential 

4) OUTPUT: neurotransmitters 
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how a cell works: INPUT
-EPSP: excitatory post synaptic potential (depolarizing)
-IPSP: inhibitory post synaptic potential (hyperpolarizing)
-GPSP: graded post synaptic potential : can be formed from an EPSP 
              and an IPSP together on a neuron.
              integrated by the trigger zone
- IF the mix is strong enough they can generate an AP but NOT become 
dies out with long distances 
channel opens to create potential 
how a cell works: INTEGRATION -aka summation of potentials and how to get strength.

-GPSP: grand post synaptic potential = sum of EPSP and IPSP
              occurs at the trigger zone of the neuron
Two ways the trigger zone gets message and decides what to do with it:
      1) Spatial: post synaptic potentials summate from several neurons at the same time
       2) Temporal: post synaptic potentials from single neuron close in 
            time.

T.Z. RESULTS:
1) No action, no message passed on = IPSP & EPSP cancel out
2) Action Potential
3) Decreased sensitivity (harder to depolarize) 
how a cell works: CONDUCTION
(created by GPSP that reaches threshold aka trigger zone)

1st)  Resting potential (K+ is 40 times more permeable than Na+)

2nd) Na+ channels open and distribute Na+ into cell via TWO gates

3rd) Threshold (where Na+ is now more permeable) = depolarization 

4th) Peak is reaches and Na+ channels close

5th) Re-polarization ( no Na+ allowed into cell, and K+ is pumped out)

6th) Hyperpolarization (where excess K+ is pumped out)

7th) resting potential is restored (K+ channels are closed)

8th) Na+/K+ ATPase pump maintains balance between two elements  and refractory period occurs
Na + Channel's Two GATES (part of action potential) 1) ACTIVATION: active gates close off side of channel aka connecting one channel to another

2) INACTIVATION: inactive gates remain open and do not allow channels to be connected. 
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Refractory Period the period of time right after the Action potential

dealing with double gating of Na+ channels

two types :
1) Absolute Refractory Period
2) Relative refractory period (immediately following the absolute)
Frequency of Action Potential - a higher frequency will lead to a string of AP's since:

-"all or none" = never going to be just one AP aka domino effect 
Conduction of an ACTION Potential: "what will effect it?" TEMPERATURE
-affects rate in poikilotherms (cold blooded organisms) to be slower

-people slow down a small amount but not much because we are warm blooded.

- an ice pack would slow it down for humans

Conduction of an ACTION Potential:origin within the cell TRIGGER zone
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Conduction of an ACTION Potential: amount of distance an AP can travel less than 1mm to over 1 meter
Conduction of an ACTION Potential: spreading of AP: UNIDIRECTIONAL -due to the refractory period
-AP's don't travel : instead, the inactive area of the axon is depolarized
                              and a new AP is generated , one after another, like  
                              dominoes 
Conduction of an ACTION Potential: spreading of AP: LOCAL CURRENT FLOW -Na+ channels open  and ions travel away from the gate working its way down the channel.

***ONLY OCCURS in UNMYELINATED nerves

(a nerve that HAS myelin is insulated with a phospholipids on the outside membrane)
- friction of nerve site increases nerve size
-ex organisms: earth warms and squid (are unmyelinated creatures)
Conduction of an ACTION Potential: spreading of AP: SALTATORY CONDUCTION - "to jump"
-only on myelinated nerves (with phospholipid membrane)
- NODES OF RANVIER = are the open spaces where the Na+/K+ 
                                            channels are.
-these myelinated nerves are smaller in diameter than the local current flow's and go 50 times FASTER

-less energy
- get spread with increasing nerve size 
-fiber size can be smaller in vertebrates
Generated by Koofers.com
MS disease takes myelin away (the phospholipid membrane layer)
Guillain Barr -acute myelin disease 
-you can get totally paralyzed for a couple of weeks and then in the next couple of weeks fully recover.

- begins with a respiratory infection
- most scene in middle aged women
- can also develop a chronic form = paralyzed for life :(
Large Myelinated Nerves - motor neurons

- 300 mph aka FAST

- skeletal muscle

- long axons
Small Unmyelinated Nerves - internal organs

- slow

alpha    =  100m/sec
beta      =  10m/sec
gamma =  0.5m/sec

**invertebrates are the only ones with unmyelinated that get very LARGE
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SYNAPSE: neurons terminate on? -muscles

-organs

-other neurons (EPSP and IPSP)
SYNAPSE: electrical gap junctions
SYNAPSE: chemical neurotransmitters - are the most common
SYNAPSE: structure -presynaptic knob

-synaptic cleft

-post synaptic membrane
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SYNAPSE: events 1st) AP to Knob (calcium channels open and calcium enters synaptic 
        knob) 

2nd) calcium stimulates release of transmitters from vesicles 

3rd) those transmitters bind to receptors which opens the ion channel

4th) transmitter than either: is taken back into presynaptic cell 
                                             or diffuses away
                                             or is degraded 
IPSP -inhibited post synaptic potential 

-blocks Na+ channel = hyperpolarizes
EPSP -excitatory post synaptic potential 

-block K+ channel = depolarizes 
NEUROTRANSMITTERS -must be rapidly eliminated

-chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a 
  synapse

Types:
           -Peripheral neurotransmitters 
           -Central neurotransmitters
            -Local neurotransmitters
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Peripheral Neurotransmitters No Enzymes 

-acetylcholine (Ach)

-epinephrine (E)

- norepinephrine (NE)
Central Neurotransmitters Lots of these 

-serotonin 
-dopamine
-GABA = "gamma amino butyric acid"
-glycine
-CCK = "cholecystokinase 
-glutamate
Local Neurotransmitters
-nitric oxide (NO) - paracrine

-carbon monoxide - recent 
Modification of Nervous System / Synapse -presynaptic input on axon: modifies AP before it reaches synaptic knob 

can: 1) facilitate and enhance     OR
        2) inhibit 

regulates amount of neurotransmitters released
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Amplification 1) Convergence - many synapses on one cell
                      (neuron gets attacked by multiple axons on synaptic knob)

2) Divergence - many synapses OUT of cell
Absolute Refractory Period -once an action potential has begun another AP cannot be triggered right away because of this delay period of time

-this time is required for the Na+ channels to reset to their resting positions
Relative Refractory Period -directly follows the absolute refractory period

-this time a very HIGH graded potential is needed to start another AP and open the remaining Na+ channels 

(if not high enough it wont do anything)
Stimulus
-size of post synaptic potentials depends on stimulus:
       -mechanical stimulus : light, pressure, heat, etc.
       -chemical stimulus : hormones, neurotransmitters, etc.

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 Neuroglianon nervous cells 

as well as primary support cells

Types: 
             Astrocytes 
             Oligodendrocytes
             Microglia
             Ependymal Cells
 Astrocytestype of  Star shaped cell non-nervous cells

-considered "glue" of CNS (holds it together) 

-maintains (BBB) Blood Brain Barrier 

-they uptake and degrade neurotransmitters (clean-up)

-help regulate potassium 

-help form scars/scar tissue

-uptake and degrade beta amyloid (alzheimer's) 

 Ependymal Cellstype of non-nervous cells that are epithelial in origin

produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

located in ventricles of brain and central canal 
 Oligodendrocytestype of non-nervous cells

produces MYELIN :
(the fatty layer on nerves that keeps electrical impulses in cell.)
 Microglia-type of non nervous cells

-protect brain (immune cells)

-produce a nerve growth factor (NGF) for repair and development

- excessive activity of these cells can produce ROS which are "free radicals" and can destroy nerves very fast, which maybe the cause of parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. 
 Brain Tumorwhen nerve cells don't duplicate or divide they can lead to tumors

ex: "meningioma and glioma" which are connective tissues not working

most brain tumors are metastatic though (which means they're in other areas)
 Brain-85% water

-Not Sensitive 

-the center of the brain is the warmest part of the body

-there are about 14 billion nerve cells in the brain

- the warmest cell in body is motor neuron from spine to toes
 Membrane Potential is the difference in electrical potential  between the interior and the exterior of a biological cell.

the inside composition vs. the outside.

occurs in nerve and muscles

potassium is 40 times more diffusible than sodium.

sodium has a hard time getting across membranes without channels.
 Graded Potentials (type of Membrane Potential)-seen in brain

-are decremental (gradually slowing) in speed 

-associated with sort distances

-vary according to the stimulus

-can NOT become action potential 
 Action Potential-strength remains strong and constant

- associated with long distances

- "all or none" concept , like dominos. you hit one the rest must go

-generated in trigger zone
 Resting PotentialNa +  /  K+  atp-ase pump

passive diffusion 
 Overview on "How a Cell Works"1) INPUT: graded potential 

2) INTEGRATED: trigger zone

3) CONDUCTION: action potential 

4) OUTPUT: neurotransmitters 
 how a cell works: INPUT
-EPSP: excitatory post synaptic potential (depolarizing)
-IPSP: inhibitory post synaptic potential (hyperpolarizing)
-GPSP: graded post synaptic potential : can be formed from an EPSP 
              and an IPSP together on a neuron.
              integrated by the trigger zone
- IF the mix is strong enough they can generate an AP but NOT become 
dies out with long distances 
channel opens to create potential 
 how a cell works: INTEGRATION-aka summation of potentials and how to get strength.

-GPSP: grand post synaptic potential = sum of EPSP and IPSP
              occurs at the trigger zone of the neuron
Two ways the trigger zone gets message and decides what to do with it:
      1) Spatial: post synaptic potentials summate from several neurons at the same time
       2) Temporal: post synaptic potentials from single neuron close in 
            time.

T.Z. RESULTS:
1) No action, no message passed on = IPSP & EPSP cancel out
2) Action Potential
3) Decreased sensitivity (harder to depolarize) 
 how a cell works: CONDUCTION
(created by GPSP that reaches threshold aka trigger zone)

1st)  Resting potential (K+ is 40 times more permeable than Na+)

2nd) Na+ channels open and distribute Na+ into cell via TWO gates

3rd) Threshold (where Na+ is now more permeable) = depolarization 

4th) Peak is reaches and Na+ channels close

5th) Re-polarization ( no Na+ allowed into cell, and K+ is pumped out)

6th) Hyperpolarization (where excess K+ is pumped out)

7th) resting potential is restored (K+ channels are closed)

8th) Na+/K+ ATPase pump maintains balance between two elements  and refractory period occurs
 Na + Channel's Two GATES (part of action potential)1) ACTIVATION: active gates close off side of channel aka connecting one channel to another

2) INACTIVATION: inactive gates remain open and do not allow channels to be connected. 
 Refractory Periodthe period of time right after the Action potential

dealing with double gating of Na+ channels

two types :
1) Absolute Refractory Period
2) Relative refractory period (immediately following the absolute)
 Frequency of Action Potential- a higher frequency will lead to a string of AP's since:

-"all or none" = never going to be just one AP aka domino effect 
 Conduction of an ACTION Potential: "what will effect it?"TEMPERATURE
-affects rate in poikilotherms (cold blooded organisms) to be slower

-people slow down a small amount but not much because we are warm blooded.

- an ice pack would slow it down for humans

 Conduction of an ACTION Potential:origin within the cellTRIGGER zone
 Conduction of an ACTION Potential: amount of distancean AP can travel less than 1mm to over 1 meter
 Conduction of an ACTION Potential: spreading of AP: UNIDIRECTIONAL-due to the refractory period
-AP's don't travel : instead, the inactive area of the axon is depolarized
                              and a new AP is generated , one after another, like  
                              dominoes 
 Conduction of an ACTION Potential: spreading of AP: LOCAL CURRENT FLOW-Na+ channels open  and ions travel away from the gate working its way down the channel.

***ONLY OCCURS in UNMYELINATED nerves

(a nerve that HAS myelin is insulated with a phospholipids on the outside membrane)
- friction of nerve site increases nerve size
-ex organisms: earth warms and squid (are unmyelinated creatures)
 Conduction of an ACTION Potential: spreading of AP: SALTATORY CONDUCTION- "to jump"
-only on myelinated nerves (with phospholipid membrane)
- NODES OF RANVIER = are the open spaces where the Na+/K+ 
                                            channels are.
-these myelinated nerves are smaller in diameter than the local current flow's and go 50 times FASTER

-less energy
- get spread with increasing nerve size 
-fiber size can be smaller in vertebrates
 MS diseasetakes myelin away (the phospholipid membrane layer)
 Guillain Barr-acute myelin disease 
-you can get totally paralyzed for a couple of weeks and then in the next couple of weeks fully recover.

- begins with a respiratory infection
- most scene in middle aged women
- can also develop a chronic form = paralyzed for life :(
 Large Myelinated Nerves- motor neurons

- 300 mph aka FAST

- skeletal muscle

- long axons
 Small Unmyelinated Nerves- internal organs

- slow

alpha    =  100m/sec
beta      =  10m/sec
gamma =  0.5m/sec

**invertebrates are the only ones with unmyelinated that get very LARGE
 SYNAPSE: neurons terminate on?-muscles

-organs

-other neurons (EPSP and IPSP)
 SYNAPSE: electricalgap junctions
 SYNAPSE: chemicalneurotransmitters - are the most common
 SYNAPSE: structure-presynaptic knob

-synaptic cleft

-post synaptic membrane
 SYNAPSE: events1st) AP to Knob (calcium channels open and calcium enters synaptic 
        knob) 

2nd) calcium stimulates release of transmitters from vesicles 

3rd) those transmitters bind to receptors which opens the ion channel

4th) transmitter than either: is taken back into presynaptic cell 
                                             or diffuses away
                                             or is degraded 
 IPSP-inhibited post synaptic potential 

-blocks Na+ channel = hyperpolarizes
 EPSP-excitatory post synaptic potential 

-block K+ channel = depolarizes 
 NEUROTRANSMITTERS-must be rapidly eliminated

-chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a 
  synapse

Types:
           -Peripheral neurotransmitters 
           -Central neurotransmitters
            -Local neurotransmitters
 Peripheral NeurotransmittersNo Enzymes 

-acetylcholine (Ach)

-epinephrine (E)

- norepinephrine (NE)
 Central NeurotransmittersLots of these 

-serotonin 
-dopamine
-GABA = "gamma amino butyric acid"
-glycine
-CCK = "cholecystokinase 
-glutamate
 Local Neurotransmitters
-nitric oxide (NO) - paracrine

-carbon monoxide - recent 
 Modification of Nervous System / Synapse-presynaptic input on axon: modifies AP before it reaches synaptic knob 

can: 1) facilitate and enhance     OR
        2) inhibit 

regulates amount of neurotransmitters released
 Amplification1) Convergence - many synapses on one cell
                      (neuron gets attacked by multiple axons on synaptic knob)

2) Divergence - many synapses OUT of cell
 Absolute Refractory Period-once an action potential has begun another AP cannot be triggered right away because of this delay period of time

-this time is required for the Na+ channels to reset to their resting positions
 Relative Refractory Period-directly follows the absolute refractory period

-this time a very HIGH graded potential is needed to start another AP and open the remaining Na+ channels 

(if not high enough it wont do anything)
 Stimulus
-size of post synaptic potentials depends on stimulus:
       -mechanical stimulus : light, pressure, heat, etc.
       -chemical stimulus : hormones, neurotransmitters, etc.

  
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"