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Physiology Exam #3 Muscle Physiology - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 2150 - PRINCIPLES OF PHYSIOLOGY
Subject:Biology
University:The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey
Term:Fall 2012
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Endomysium space between muscle fibers

"endo" = within
perimysium  is a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles  or fascicles.

"peri" = around
epimysium - a layer of connective tissue 
- ensheaths the entire muscle
- It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue.

"DEEP fascia"

"epi" = above
Tendon - continuation of fascia 
- origin / insertion
-connects muscle to bone
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sarcolemma - the cell membrane around the muscle cell 
"A" band - anisotropic 
-myosin and some actin 
"I" band -isotropic 
-no myosin
"M" band -holds myosin together

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"H" band -no actin
"Z" band - actin junctions
What is a Sarcomere and where are they found? Sarcomere are functional units of a muscle
 
-found between to Z bands
What is Titin - largest protein in humans

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Calcium is the Mediator (in Sliding filament theory) -acetylcholine binds to motor end plate
-AP generated
-triggers calcium release from SR--DHP receptors binds to troponin
-moves tropomyosin from binding sites
-myosin attaches to actin 
-ATP to ADP + Pi provides energy for myosin bend
-need new ATP for myosin to unbind calcium back into SR
-tropomyosin recovers binding sites 
What is a Single Muscle Contraction? (one word) twitch 
What is the sarcoplasm in a muscle cell? the cytoplasm of the muscle cell. 

it houses unusually large amounts of glycosomes and significant amounts of myoglobin, an oxygen binding protein.


What are filaments of a muscle cell? they are the cilia and flagella that contain myosin and actin 
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What is Dystrophin? a type of protein found in muscles used for movement

(only in skeletal and cardiac)
What are the two contractile Proteins of the Myofibril? -myosin

-actin 
What are the two Regulatory Proteins of Myofibril ? -troponin

-tropomyosin
What are the Giant Accessory Proteins of Myofibril? -titin

-nebulin
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Microfilaments - the thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton

-more specifically they are highly organized bundles of contracile and elastic proteins that carry out the work of contraction (so myosin and actin) 
What does the sarcoplasm mitochondrion do? the sarcoplasm mitochondrion stores glycogen
sliding filament theory -Ca++ binds to troponin

-Uncovers binding site on actin

-Activated myosin attaches

- Myosin head flexes = sliding of actin toward M line
What are the tree Muscle Action Potential Phases? -Latent = (AP to onset of contraction)

-Contraction

-Relaxation
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What are the three Variations of Muscle AP Phases? -speed to contractions of muscle fibers
-height (force and strength) 
-duration
What two things does the Strength of Contraction of a muscle cell depend on? The strength of a muscle cell depends on the motor units and frequency of stimuli
What is a Motor Unit? a motor neuron and all fibers it innervates 
What type of contraction do Small Motor Units portray? And how may fibers? Small motor units have fine movement/contraction


- Small motor units have few fibers
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What type of contraction do Large motor units portray?And how many fibers? Large motor units control coarse movement/contraction 

Large motor units have many fibers

AND large motor units effect large groups of muscles
What is Recruitment? The force of contraction in a skeletal muscle ca be increased through recruiting additional motor units. 

(AKA adding units)


What is Asynchrony? And what type of contractions is it associated with? a way of avoiding fatigue by alternating motor units to allow some rest between contraction.

prevents fatigue only in sub-maximal contractions
What is the Optimal Length of a Muscle? -the length at which you get max force
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SEE: series elastic element All muscles contain elastic fibers in the tendons and other connective tissue that attach muscles to bone, and in the connective tissue between muscle fibers. All of these elastic components behave collectively as if they were connected in a series to the contractile elements of the muscle. 
What is Isomeric Contraction? And what does it create?
Isomeric contraction is a type of contraction without a change in length of tendons, connective tissue, titin, etc. So they all are the same length. 

This isomeric contraction creates FORCE without movement.
What is Isotonic contraction? What can it do? A type of contraction without a change in force. aka remains the same tone throughout. 

Isotonic contraction is used to move loads

What does Concentric mean? concentric means the shortening of muscles 
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What does Eccentric mean? And what can happen to this that is not a good thing? Eccentric means the stretching of muscles

if you contract at the same time you stretch it is bad
What is the Lever- Fulcrum formed by? formed by bones and muscles around joints
What are Lever-Fulcrum Disadvantages? the muscle is required to make large amounts of force to move or resist a small load
What are Lever-Fulcrum Advantages? -it maximizes speed and mobility 

-If the muscle is inserted farther from the joint, the leverage is better and a contraction creates more rotational force 

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What is the Work equation? force X distance
In Muscle Metabolism what four things is the ATP needed for? -myosin/ actin binding 
-myosin/actin unbinding
-calcium reuptake
-Na / K /  ATPase pump
Where is Creatine Phosphate contained? - creatine phosphate is contained within the muscle

What are three examples of Mixture Exercise (phosphagen/anaerobic)? And what type of exercise is it generally related to?
1-tennis
2-bowling
3-hockey

Mixture exercise is generally related to "most exercises"
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What are four examples of Aerobic Exercise ? 1)- marathon 
2)- X-country
3)- skiing
4)- rowing



Type I Skeletal Muscle slow twitch 
-oxidative
-myoglobin (red muscle)

Type IIa Skeletal Muscle -fast twitch
-oxidative

Type IIb Skeletal Muscle -fast twitch
-glycolic 
-white muscle
- high glycogen

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Types of Skeletal Muscle: Facts -most muscles have all three in varying proportions
-motor units only innervate one type
-you can't change which one you genetically have more of
-but with plasticity , endurance training can determine fiber composition

What type of athletes are associated with Slow twitch? endurance athletes 
distance runners
cross country
What types of athletes are associated with Fast Twitch? sprinters
ice hockey
weight lifters 
What is Hypertrophy and what does this do to muscles? increased growth in muscle fibers,
increase in number of actin & myosin (sarcomeres); this is how muscles get bigger.    

-larger diameter 
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Hyperplasia allows muscles to what? But not what? -muscle can split not divide

1)   c

Atrophy causes what four things in the body?
- lack of blood supply
-muscle fibers get smaller
-lack of nerve supply
-immobility

~ 1 year: muscle cells lose their actin/myosin & becomes fat. Longer than one year usually permanent damage. 
Muscular Dystrophy -Inherited muscles are the most difficult to treat .
-Duchenne: no dystrophin to link actin to proteins in the cell membrane; very bad!!
-tiny tears in membrane allows extracellular Ca++ to leak into the fiber, leads to progressive muscle weakness.

- Becker: Dystrophin malformed; membrane leaks out Ca++ and muscle deformed = fibrosis (scar tissue)
What can Myoblasts do? Myoblasts can form new fibers

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What do Anabolic Steroids do? ANd what can they lead to? -increase muscle mass
-increase blood pressure and cholesterol

-can lead to heart disease, liver failure, smaller testicles
-agression 
What are the chemical controls of Contractions for Smooth Muscle? hormones 
paracrines 

examples: (epinephrine, histamine, NO) 
What are the electrical controls of Contractions for Smooth Muscle?

  –         - neural, sympathetic and parasympathetic (autonomic); 

           - variscosities ,

           - Neurotransmitters diffuse to receptors, receptor determines action

What are the mechanical controls of Contractions for Smooth Muscle?

   –    The stretch of Ca++ channels to open & close with prolonged contraction is the mechanical control on the muscle

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The slow wave of a smooth muscle membrane potential has what two components located where? The slow wave membrane potential of a smooth muscle show the depolarization and re-polarization below threshold with occasional AP
Relaxation in Smooth Muscle

1.     Free Ca++ in cytosol decreases when Ca++ is pumped out of the cell or back in to SR

2.     Ca++ unbinds from Calmodulin (CaM)

3.     Myosin phosphatase removes phosphate from myosin, which decreases myosin ATPase activity.

4.     Less myosin ATPase results in decreased muscle tension.

Two Types of Smooth Muscle -Single Unit
-Multi Unit
What do Joint Capsule Receptors (muscle afferents) do? Tell the cerebellum and medulla the position of the body to keep posture/balance. 
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Where are Golgi tendon Organs found? (muscle afferents) -in tendons


muscle "afferents" - going into the muscle
What are Extrafusal muscle fibers? they are  standard muscle fibers 

((aka not intrafusal muscle fibers))


What are Intrafusal muscle fibers? (muscle afferents) -skeletal muscle fibers that comprise the muscle spindle 
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What does the Stretch of spindle apparatus in muscle lead to? AND what does that increase? -A stretch of a spindle apparatus leads to intrafusal stretch 

-this increases afferent impulses
What is an alpha stimulated spindle?  a muscle contraction


PACEMAKER's are what? and have what? -Pacemakers are self exciting


-Pacemakers have regular AP's 
What is the result of No Membrane Potential change? (Smooth Muscle) -contract/relax due to calcium in and sodium out

(Ca++/Na+ antiport)

= therefore no depolarization
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fatty acids -beta oxidation

-bad source of protein

-acts as a source of energy in emergencies 
Paresis -a condition typified by a weakness of voluntary movement, or partial loss of voluntary movement or by impaired movement.
Hemiplegia -total paralysis of the arm, leg, and trunk on the same side of the body.
paraplegia  an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities. The word comes from Ionic Greek: -- "half-striking".


***does not effect the arms
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quadriplegia -paralysis caused by illness or injury to a human that results in the partial or total loss of use of all their limbs and torso
spastic paralysis Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance in muscle tone involving hypertonia; it is also referred to as an unusual "tightness", stiffness, and/or "pull" of muscles.
flaccid paralysis  is a clinical characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause (e.g., trauma).
wave summation -occurs when a given set of cells is repeatedly stimulated without complete relaxation
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tetany is the sustained contraction resulting from high frequency stimulation
skeletal muscle contract due to response to what? they contract due to a response to Ach from a somatic motor neuron
Do single or multiple pathways influence smooth muscles contraction/relaxation? multiple pathways influence contraction/relaxation
When do skeletal muscles relax? They relax when stimuli from contraction ceases
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What can inhibit smooth muscles? -multiple neurotransmitters
-hormones
-paracrines

all acting on a smooth muscle can inhibit it
What can increase the force of a single muscle fiber? the increase of frequency by which action potentials stimulate muscle fibers
What can change/increase the tension developed in a single muscle fiber? changing the rate at which AP's occur 
What is a muscles AP initiated by? it is initiated by the somatic motor neuron that controls the fiber
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When is the only time skeletal muscles will contract? skeletal muscles will contract in response to a signal from a motor neuron
Can skeletal muscles initiate their own contraction? no they cannot initiate their own contraction
Do hormones control skeletal muscle contractions? no hormones do not control skeletal muscle contractions
Which two types of muscles have multiple layers of control? cardiac and skeletal muscles have multiple layers of control
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Do skeletal muscles have striated muscle tissue? Yes, skeletal muscles have striated muscle tissue
Are skeletal muscles under involuntary or voluntary control? skeletal muscles are under voluntary control
Which system controls skeletal muscles? the somatic nervous system controls skeletal muscles
Are cardiac muscles involuntary or voluntary? cardiac muscles are involuntarily controlled
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Are cardiac muscles striated or not? cardiac muscles ARE striated 
Where are cardiac muscles found? cardiac muscles are found in the walls of the heart

specifically found in the myocardium
Are skeletal muscle fibers single or multi- nucleated cells? skeletal muscle fibers are multi nucleated cells
What is Myofibril? a basic rod like unit of muscle
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What is myofibril composed of? myofibrils are composed of actin and myosin
                                             (thin) and (thick)

and several proteins

What are skeletal muscle bands/lines formed from? skeletal muscle bands/lines are formed from myosin (thick) and actin (thin)
What are the functions of Titin?
Titin functions as a molecular spring
--> which is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle.

- and titin keeps the muscle in shape
What does Nebulin do? Nebulin binds actin
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What is Nebulin? and what is a specific feature of Nebulin? Nebulin is a large protein 

Nebulin is inelastic 
What is the SR? - the SR is a modified endoplasmic reticulum that wraps around each myofibril
What does SR stand for? sarcoplasmic reticulum 
What is the function of the SR? the SR stores calcium inside the cell

-this calcium plays a key role in contraction in all types of muscle
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Where are T-Tubules found? T-tubules are found in only skeletal and cardiac muscle
What is a T-Tubule? A T-Tubule is a deep invagination of the sarcolemma (or plasma membrane). 
What do T-Tubules do? T-Tubules depolarizes

and

T-Tubules carry the action potential deep from the cell surface to the interior of the muscle fiber
If the muscle cells didn't have T-tubules, how could the AP reach the center of the muscle fiber? And what is wrong with that process? Without T-Tubules, the AP would only be able to reach the center of the muscle cell via diffusion across the cell.

***this process is much slower and could result in slower response of the muscle 
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What is the contraction structure of a skeletal muscle fiber? (2 parts) 1) myosin with two heads

2) actin with two strands
What happens to the filaments in the muscle in the sliding filament theory? the filaments slide along each other

this causes contraction of the muscles
What happens to actin in the sliding filament theory?  The actin is pulled along by the myosin in the sliding filament theory
What happens to the H band in the sliding filament theory? The H band disappears 

(technically shortens)
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What happens to the I band in the sliding filament theory? The I band is shortened  in the sliding filament theory
What happens to the A band in the sliding filament theory? The A band stays the same in the sliding filament theory
What is the function of the sarcoplasm in a muscle cell? it houses unusually large amounts of glycosomes 
and significant amounts of myoglobin 
What is myoglobin? an oxygen binding protein 
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What is the function of dystrophin? this protein stabilizes the shape, membrane and microfilm of the muscle 

these proteins can also work together to help strengthen and protect the muscle 
What does dystrophin prevent in muscles? dystrophin prevents muscles from dividing

and

prevents muscles form hyperpolarizing 
Where are the microfilaments of a muscle cell found? they are found in the cytoplasm
What is recruitment controlled by? AND what type of sequence does it proceed in? -is controlled by the nervous system 
-proceeds in a standard sequence
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Is there few or many twitches in creatine phosphate?
-few twitches

What type of process does creatine phosphate have? - creatine phosphate has a fast and immediate process
Is Oxidative Phosphorylation an aerobic or anaerobic process? And is this process slow or fast? Oxidative Phosphorylation is aerobic (with oxygen)

this process is slow
What amount of ATP is needed for Oxidative Phosphorylation?  a large amount of ATP is needed for Oxidative Phosphorylation
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What type of process is Glycolysis? and what speed is this at? Glycolysis is an anaerobic (without oxygen) process

this is a fast process
What amount of ATP is needed for Glycolysis? Glycolysis requires only a small amount of ATP
What builds up during Glycolysis? During Glycolysis, lactic acid can build up
What type of molecule is used to help Phosphagen exercise? creatine phosphate is used to help phosphagen exercise

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What are three examples of Phosphagen exercise? 1) weight lifiting
2) dash
3) jumping

Is Phosphagen exercise a type of short or long term related exercise? Phosphagen exercise is related to short term exercises
Is aerobic exercise short or long term ? Aerobic exercise is long term 
Where is Atrophy often seen? Atrophy is often seen in spinal cord damage. 

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What happens when muscles experience atrophy after one year? After one year the muscles loose their actin and myosin

and the muscles will be come fat

this can be reversed, however. 
What happens when muscles experience atrophy after more than one year? after more than one year the muscles will usually result in permanent damage.
The strength of a multi unit smooth muscle depends on? The strength of a multi unit smooth muscle depends on recruitment
The strength of a single unit smooth muscle depends on? The strength of a single unit smooth muscle depends the calcium amount
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What happens to the myosin in a muscle cell when Latching takes place? The myosin is dephosphorylated  

and 

the myosin stays attached to the actin
What happens to the contraction in a muscle cell when Latching takes place? The muscle fibers have prolonged contraction without energy (ATP)

and there is no fatigue
Single Unit Smooth Muscles are also known as? Single Unit Smooth Muscles are also called "Visceral" or "unitary" 
Single Unit Smooth Muscles are all electronically connected by what? And what does this allow? Single Unit Smooth Muscles are all electronically attached by gap-junctions.

These gap junctions in the Single Unit Smooth Muscles allow depolarization and repolarization.
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How do cells of Single Unit Smooth Muscles contract? Cells of Single Unit Smooth Muscles contract as a unit

This process is called "syncytium" 

More specially this means the cells work together as one giant muscle 
What do Single Unit Smooth Muscles form? And where are they found? Single Unit Smooth Muscles form walls of internal organs

They can be found in the intestinal tract and the BV
How many of the fibers of a Single Unit Smooth Muscle contract at a time? And what does this effect? ALL fibers contract every time

This means that there are NO reserve fibers left to be recruited to increase contraction force
For Single Unit Smooth Muscles, what determines the force of contraction? The force of contraction for Single Unit Smooth Muscles is determined by the amount of calcium that enters the cell
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What type of control do Multi Unit Smooth Muscles have and why? Multi Unit Smooth Muscles have FINE control because there is a nerve for each cell in the muscle. 
Where are Multi Unit Smooth Muscles located? Multi Unit Smooth Muscles are found in:

-the iris of your eye
-the uterus before labor
-the male reproductive tract 
How do you increase the force of contraction for Multi Unit Smooth Muscles ? To increase the force for Multi Unit Smooth Muscles, recruitment of additional fibers is required
What type of response do Multi Unit Smooth Muscles have? Multi Unit Smooth Muscles can have a graded response
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How are the cells in the Multi Unit Smooth Muscles stimulated? The cells of the Multi Unit Smooth Muscles are not linked electronically, and therefore need to be stimulated independently.
How can Golgi tendon organs be pinched and what do they do?
-Golgi tendon organs can be pinched by stretch 

- Golgi tendon organs prevent damage by inhibiting a contraction 
What are extrafusal muscle fibers innervated by? Extrafusal muscle fibers are innervated by alpha motor neurons
What are intrafusal muscle fibers innervated by? Intrafusal muscle fibers are innervated by gamma motor neurons.
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What does the stimulation of alpha motor neurons (spindle) do? The stimulation of alpha motor neurons simply makes the muscle contract 

-this is the normal process
What does Botulism block?
-blocks ACh release

-rare but sometimes fatal paralytic illness

-anaerobic 

-no conduction 
Curare -binds ACh receptors 

-"succinylcholin" is chemical form used in surgery

-found in poison dart frogs

-makes you unconscious but you wont relax muscles 
-patients had to be put on respirator
Pesticides (OPs) inhibit acetylcholinesterase 

-ACh builds up and leads to muscle spasms, twitching and hypersecretions 
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Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigability.

-causes autoantibodies to go to ACh receptors 
How many ATP does Glycolysis create? around 4 ATP
How many ATP does oxidative phorylation create? about 36 ATP
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Endomysiumspace between muscle fibers

"endo" = within
 perimysium is a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles  or fascicles.

"peri" = around
 epimysium- a layer of connective tissue 
- ensheaths the entire muscle
- It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue.

"DEEP fascia"

"epi" = above
 Tendon- continuation of fascia 
- origin / insertion
-connects muscle to bone
 sarcolemma- the cell membrane around the muscle cell 
 "A" band- anisotropic 
-myosin and some actin 
 "I" band-isotropic 
-no myosin
 "M" band-holds myosin together

 "H" band-no actin
 "Z" band- actin junctions
 What is a Sarcomere and where are they found?Sarcomere are functional units of a muscle
 
-found between to Z bands
 What is Titin- largest protein in humans

 Calcium is the Mediator (in Sliding filament theory)-acetylcholine binds to motor end plate
-AP generated
-triggers calcium release from SR--DHP receptors binds to troponin
-moves tropomyosin from binding sites
-myosin attaches to actin 
-ATP to ADP + Pi provides energy for myosin bend
-need new ATP for myosin to unbind calcium back into SR
-tropomyosin recovers binding sites 
 What is a Single Muscle Contraction? (one word)twitch 
 What is the sarcoplasm in a muscle cell?the cytoplasm of the muscle cell. 

it houses unusually large amounts of glycosomes and significant amounts of myoglobin, an oxygen binding protein.


 What are filaments of a muscle cell?they are the cilia and flagella that contain myosin and actin 
 What is Dystrophin?a type of protein found in muscles used for movement

(only in skeletal and cardiac)
 What are the two contractile Proteins of the Myofibril?-myosin

-actin 
 What are the two Regulatory Proteins of Myofibril ?-troponin

-tropomyosin
 What are the Giant Accessory Proteins of Myofibril?-titin

-nebulin
 Microfilaments- the thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton

-more specifically they are highly organized bundles of contracile and elastic proteins that carry out the work of contraction (so myosin and actin) 
 What does the sarcoplasm mitochondrion do?the sarcoplasm mitochondrion stores glycogen
 sliding filament theory-Ca++ binds to troponin

-Uncovers binding site on actin

-Activated myosin attaches

- Myosin head flexes = sliding of actin toward M line
 What are the tree Muscle Action Potential Phases?-Latent = (AP to onset of contraction)

-Contraction

-Relaxation
 What are the three Variations of Muscle AP Phases?-speed to contractions of muscle fibers
-height (force and strength) 
-duration
 What two things does the Strength of Contraction of a muscle cell depend on?The strength of a muscle cell depends on the motor units and frequency of stimuli
 What is a Motor Unit?a motor neuron and all fibers it innervates 
 What type of contraction do Small Motor Units portray? And how may fibers?Small motor units have fine movement/contraction


- Small motor units have few fibers
 What type of contraction do Large motor units portray?And how many fibers?Large motor units control coarse movement/contraction 

Large motor units have many fibers

AND large motor units effect large groups of muscles
 What is Recruitment?The force of contraction in a skeletal muscle ca be increased through recruiting additional motor units. 

(AKA adding units)


 What is Asynchrony? And what type of contractions is it associated with?a way of avoiding fatigue by alternating motor units to allow some rest between contraction.

prevents fatigue only in sub-maximal contractions
 What is the Optimal Length of a Muscle?-the length at which you get max force
 SEE: series elastic elementAll muscles contain elastic fibers in the tendons and other connective tissue that attach muscles to bone, and in the connective tissue between muscle fibers. All of these elastic components behave collectively as if they were connected in a series to the contractile elements of the muscle. 
 What is Isomeric Contraction? And what does it create?
Isomeric contraction is a type of contraction without a change in length of tendons, connective tissue, titin, etc. So they all are the same length. 

This isomeric contraction creates FORCE without movement.
 What is Isotonic contraction? What can it do?A type of contraction without a change in force. aka remains the same tone throughout. 

Isotonic contraction is used to move loads

 What does Concentric mean?concentric means the shortening of muscles 
 What does Eccentric mean? And what can happen to this that is not a good thing?Eccentric means the stretching of muscles

if you contract at the same time you stretch it is bad
 What is the Lever- Fulcrum formed by?formed by bones and muscles around joints
 What are Lever-Fulcrum Disadvantages?the muscle is required to make large amounts of force to move or resist a small load
 What are Lever-Fulcrum Advantages?-it maximizes speed and mobility 

-If the muscle is inserted farther from the joint, the leverage is better and a contraction creates more rotational force 

 What is the Work equation?force X distance
 In Muscle Metabolism what four things is the ATP needed for?-myosin/ actin binding 
-myosin/actin unbinding
-calcium reuptake
-Na / K /  ATPase pump
 Where is Creatine Phosphate contained?- creatine phosphate is contained within the muscle

 What are three examples of Mixture Exercise (phosphagen/anaerobic)? And what type of exercise is it generally related to?
1-tennis
2-bowling
3-hockey

Mixture exercise is generally related to "most exercises"
 What are four examples of Aerobic Exercise ?1)- marathon 
2)- X-country
3)- skiing
4)- rowing



 Type I Skeletal Muscleslow twitch 
-oxidative
-myoglobin (red muscle)

 Type IIa Skeletal Muscle-fast twitch
-oxidative

 Type IIb Skeletal Muscle-fast twitch
-glycolic 
-white muscle
- high glycogen

 Types of Skeletal Muscle: Facts-most muscles have all three in varying proportions
-motor units only innervate one type
-you can't change which one you genetically have more of
-but with plasticity , endurance training can determine fiber composition

 What type of athletes are associated with Slow twitch?endurance athletes 
distance runners
cross country
 What types of athletes are associated with Fast Twitch?sprinters
ice hockey
weight lifters 
 What is Hypertrophy and what does this do to muscles?increased growth in muscle fibers,
increase in number of actin & myosin (sarcomeres); this is how muscles get bigger.    

-larger diameter 
 Hyperplasia allows muscles to what? But not what?-muscle can split not divide

1)   c

 Atrophy causes what four things in the body?
- lack of blood supply
-muscle fibers get smaller
-lack of nerve supply
-immobility

~ 1 year: muscle cells lose their actin/myosin & becomes fat. Longer than one year usually permanent damage. 
 Muscular Dystrophy-Inherited muscles are the most difficult to treat .
-Duchenne: no dystrophin to link actin to proteins in the cell membrane; very bad!!
-tiny tears in membrane allows extracellular Ca++ to leak into the fiber, leads to progressive muscle weakness.

- Becker: Dystrophin malformed; membrane leaks out Ca++ and muscle deformed = fibrosis (scar tissue)
 What can Myoblasts do?Myoblasts can form new fibers

 What do Anabolic Steroids do? ANd what can they lead to?-increase muscle mass
-increase blood pressure and cholesterol

-can lead to heart disease, liver failure, smaller testicles
-agression 
 What are the chemical controls of Contractions for Smooth Muscle?hormones 
paracrines 

examples: (epinephrine, histamine, NO) 
 What are the electrical controls of Contractions for Smooth Muscle?

  –         - neural, sympathetic and parasympathetic (autonomic); 

           - variscosities ,

           - Neurotransmitters diffuse to receptors, receptor determines action

 What are the mechanical controls of Contractions for Smooth Muscle?

   –    The stretch of Ca++ channels to open & close with prolonged contraction is the mechanical control on the muscle

 The slow wave of a smooth muscle membrane potential has what two components located where?The slow wave membrane potential of a smooth muscle show the depolarization and re-polarization below threshold with occasional AP
 Relaxation in Smooth Muscle

1.     Free Ca++ in cytosol decreases when Ca++ is pumped out of the cell or back in to SR

2.     Ca++ unbinds from Calmodulin (CaM)

3.     Myosin phosphatase removes phosphate from myosin, which decreases myosin ATPase activity.

4.     Less myosin ATPase results in decreased muscle tension.

 Two Types of Smooth Muscle-Single Unit
-Multi Unit
 What do Joint Capsule Receptors (muscle afferents) do?Tell the cerebellum and medulla the position of the body to keep posture/balance. 
 Where are Golgi tendon Organs found? (muscle afferents)-in tendons


 muscle "afferents"- going into the muscle
 What are Extrafusal muscle fibers?they are  standard muscle fibers 

((aka not intrafusal muscle fibers))


 What are Intrafusal muscle fibers? (muscle afferents)-skeletal muscle fibers that comprise the muscle spindle 
 What does the Stretch of spindle apparatus in muscle lead to? AND what does that increase?-A stretch of a spindle apparatus leads to intrafusal stretch 

-this increases afferent impulses
 What is an alpha stimulated spindle? a muscle contraction


 PACEMAKER's are what? and have what?-Pacemakers are self exciting


-Pacemakers have regular AP's 
 What is the result of No Membrane Potential change? (Smooth Muscle)-contract/relax due to calcium in and sodium out

(Ca++/Na+ antiport)

= therefore no depolarization
 fatty acids-beta oxidation

-bad source of protein

-acts as a source of energy in emergencies 
 Paresis-a condition typified by a weakness of voluntary movement, or partial loss of voluntary movement or by impaired movement.
 Hemiplegia-total paralysis of the arm, leg, and trunk on the same side of the body.
 paraplegia an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities. The word comes from Ionic Greek: -- "half-striking".


***does not effect the arms
 quadriplegia-paralysis caused by illness or injury to a human that results in the partial or total loss of use of all their limbs and torso
 spastic paralysisSpasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance in muscle tone involving hypertonia; it is also referred to as an unusual "tightness", stiffness, and/or "pull" of muscles.
 flaccid paralysis is a clinical characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause (e.g., trauma).
 wave summation-occurs when a given set of cells is repeatedly stimulated without complete relaxation
 tetanyis the sustained contraction resulting from high frequency stimulation
 skeletal muscle contract due to response to what?they contract due to a response to Ach from a somatic motor neuron
 Do single or multiple pathways influence smooth muscles contraction/relaxation?multiple pathways influence contraction/relaxation
 When do skeletal muscles relax?They relax when stimuli from contraction ceases
 What can inhibit smooth muscles?-multiple neurotransmitters
-hormones
-paracrines

all acting on a smooth muscle can inhibit it
 What can increase the force of a single muscle fiber?the increase of frequency by which action potentials stimulate muscle fibers
 What can change/increase the tension developed in a single muscle fiber?changing the rate at which AP's occur 
 What is a muscles AP initiated by?it is initiated by the somatic motor neuron that controls the fiber
 When is the only time skeletal muscles will contract?skeletal muscles will contract in response to a signal from a motor neuron
 Can skeletal muscles initiate their own contraction?no they cannot initiate their own contraction
 Do hormones control skeletal muscle contractions?no hormones do not control skeletal muscle contractions
 Which two types of muscles have multiple layers of control?cardiac and skeletal muscles have multiple layers of control
 Do skeletal muscles have striated muscle tissue?Yes, skeletal muscles have striated muscle tissue
 Are skeletal muscles under involuntary or voluntary control?skeletal muscles are under voluntary control
 Which system controls skeletal muscles?the somatic nervous system controls skeletal muscles
 Are cardiac muscles involuntary or voluntary?cardiac muscles are involuntarily controlled
 Are cardiac muscles striated or not?cardiac muscles ARE striated 
 Where are cardiac muscles found?cardiac muscles are found in the walls of the heart

specifically found in the myocardium
 Are skeletal muscle fibers single or multi- nucleated cells?skeletal muscle fibers are multi nucleated cells
 What is Myofibril?a basic rod like unit of muscle
 What is myofibril composed of?myofibrils are composed of actin and myosin
                                             (thin) and (thick)

and several proteins

 What are skeletal muscle bands/lines formed from?skeletal muscle bands/lines are formed from myosin (thick) and actin (thin)
 What are the functions of Titin?
Titin functions as a molecular spring
--> which is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle.

- and titin keeps the muscle in shape
 What does Nebulin do?Nebulin binds actin
 What is Nebulin? and what is a specific feature of Nebulin?Nebulin is a large protein 

Nebulin is inelastic 
 What is the SR?- the SR is a modified endoplasmic reticulum that wraps around each myofibril
 What does SR stand for?sarcoplasmic reticulum 
 What is the function of the SR?the SR stores calcium inside the cell

-this calcium plays a key role in contraction in all types of muscle
 Where are T-Tubules found?T-tubules are found in only skeletal and cardiac muscle
 What is a T-Tubule?A T-Tubule is a deep invagination of the sarcolemma (or plasma membrane). 
 What do T-Tubules do?T-Tubules depolarizes

and

T-Tubules carry the action potential deep from the cell surface to the interior of the muscle fiber
 If the muscle cells didn't have T-tubules, how could the AP reach the center of the muscle fiber? And what is wrong with that process?Without T-Tubules, the AP would only be able to reach the center of the muscle cell via diffusion across the cell.

***this process is much slower and could result in slower response of the muscle 
 What is the contraction structure of a skeletal muscle fiber? (2 parts)1) myosin with two heads

2) actin with two strands
 What happens to the filaments in the muscle in the sliding filament theory?the filaments slide along each other

this causes contraction of the muscles
 What happens to actin in the sliding filament theory? The actin is pulled along by the myosin in the sliding filament theory
 What happens to the H band in the sliding filament theory?The H band disappears 

(technically shortens)
 What happens to the I band in the sliding filament theory?The I band is shortened  in the sliding filament theory
 What happens to the A band in the sliding filament theory?The A band stays the same in the sliding filament theory
 What is the function of the sarcoplasm in a muscle cell?it houses unusually large amounts of glycosomes 
and significant amounts of myoglobin 
 What is myoglobin?an oxygen binding protein 
 What is the function of dystrophin?this protein stabilizes the shape, membrane and microfilm of the muscle 

these proteins can also work together to help strengthen and protect the muscle 
 What does dystrophin prevent in muscles?dystrophin prevents muscles from dividing

and

prevents muscles form hyperpolarizing 
 Where are the microfilaments of a muscle cell found?they are found in the cytoplasm
 What is recruitment controlled by? AND what type of sequence does it proceed in?-is controlled by the nervous system 
-proceeds in a standard sequence
 Is there few or many twitches in creatine phosphate?
-few twitches

 What type of process does creatine phosphate have?- creatine phosphate has a fast and immediate process
 Is Oxidative Phosphorylation an aerobic or anaerobic process? And is this process slow or fast?Oxidative Phosphorylation is aerobic (with oxygen)

this process is slow
 What amount of ATP is needed for Oxidative Phosphorylation? a large amount of ATP is needed for Oxidative Phosphorylation
 What type of process is Glycolysis? and what speed is this at?Glycolysis is an anaerobic (without oxygen) process

this is a fast process
 What amount of ATP is needed for Glycolysis?Glycolysis requires only a small amount of ATP
 What builds up during Glycolysis?During Glycolysis, lactic acid can build up
 What type of molecule is used to help Phosphagen exercise?creatine phosphate is used to help phosphagen exercise

 What are three examples of Phosphagen exercise?1) weight lifiting
2) dash
3) jumping

 Is Phosphagen exercise a type of short or long term related exercise?Phosphagen exercise is related to short term exercises
 Is aerobic exercise short or long term ?Aerobic exercise is long term 
 Where is Atrophy often seen?Atrophy is often seen in spinal cord damage. 

 What happens when muscles experience atrophy after one year?After one year the muscles loose their actin and myosin

and the muscles will be come fat

this can be reversed, however. 
 What happens when muscles experience atrophy after more than one year?after more than one year the muscles will usually result in permanent damage.
 The strength of a multi unit smooth muscle depends on?The strength of a multi unit smooth muscle depends on recruitment
 The strength of a single unit smooth muscle depends on?The strength of a single unit smooth muscle depends the calcium amount
 What happens to the myosin in a muscle cell when Latching takes place?The myosin is dephosphorylated  

and 

the myosin stays attached to the actin
 What happens to the contraction in a muscle cell when Latching takes place?The muscle fibers have prolonged contraction without energy (ATP)

and there is no fatigue
 Single Unit Smooth Muscles are also known as?Single Unit Smooth Muscles are also called "Visceral" or "unitary" 
 Single Unit Smooth Muscles are all electronically connected by what? And what does this allow?Single Unit Smooth Muscles are all electronically attached by gap-junctions.

These gap junctions in the Single Unit Smooth Muscles allow depolarization and repolarization.
 How do cells of Single Unit Smooth Muscles contract?Cells of Single Unit Smooth Muscles contract as a unit

This process is called "syncytium" 

More specially this means the cells work together as one giant muscle 
 What do Single Unit Smooth Muscles form? And where are they found?Single Unit Smooth Muscles form walls of internal organs

They can be found in the intestinal tract and the BV
 How many of the fibers of a Single Unit Smooth Muscle contract at a time? And what does this effect?ALL fibers contract every time

This means that there are NO reserve fibers left to be recruited to increase contraction force
 For Single Unit Smooth Muscles, what determines the force of contraction?The force of contraction for Single Unit Smooth Muscles is determined by the amount of calcium that enters the cell
 What type of control do Multi Unit Smooth Muscles have and why?Multi Unit Smooth Muscles have FINE control because there is a nerve for each cell in the muscle. 
 Where are Multi Unit Smooth Muscles located?Multi Unit Smooth Muscles are found in:

-the iris of your eye
-the uterus before labor
-the male reproductive tract 
 How do you increase the force of contraction for Multi Unit Smooth Muscles ?To increase the force for Multi Unit Smooth Muscles, recruitment of additional fibers is required
 What type of response do Multi Unit Smooth Muscles have?Multi Unit Smooth Muscles can have a graded response
 How are the cells in the Multi Unit Smooth Muscles stimulated?The cells of the Multi Unit Smooth Muscles are not linked electronically, and therefore need to be stimulated independently.
 How can Golgi tendon organs be pinched and what do they do?
-Golgi tendon organs can be pinched by stretch 

- Golgi tendon organs prevent damage by inhibiting a contraction 
 What are extrafusal muscle fibers innervated by?Extrafusal muscle fibers are innervated by alpha motor neurons
 What are intrafusal muscle fibers innervated by?Intrafusal muscle fibers are innervated by gamma motor neurons.
 What does the stimulation of alpha motor neurons (spindle) do?The stimulation of alpha motor neurons simply makes the muscle contract 

-this is the normal process
 What does Botulism block?
-blocks ACh release

-rare but sometimes fatal paralytic illness

-anaerobic 

-no conduction 
 Curare-binds ACh receptors 

-"succinylcholin" is chemical form used in surgery

-found in poison dart frogs

-makes you unconscious but you wont relax muscles 
-patients had to be put on respirator
 Pesticides (OPs)inhibit acetylcholinesterase 

-ACh builds up and leads to muscle spasms, twitching and hypersecretions 
 Myasthenia GravisMyasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigability.

-causes autoantibodies to go to ACh receptors 
 How many ATP does Glycolysis create?around 4 ATP
 How many ATP does oxidative phorylation create?about 36 ATP
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