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Physiology Exam #3: Smooth Muscle - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 2150 - PRINCIPLES OF PHYSIOLOGY
Subject:Biology
University:The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey
Term:Fall 2012
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Does smooth muscle have striations? no striations for smooth muscle
Does smooth muscle have low or high oxygen consumption rates? low oxygen consumption rates for smooth muscle
Tonically Closed smooth muscle sphincters (two examples) -esophageal  sphincter 
-urinary bladder sphincter 

What does "tonically closed" sphincters mean? - the smooth muscles of these sphincters contract to close off the opening of a hollow organ

-these sphincters relax when it is necessary to allow material to enter or leave the organ
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Variable Electrical Properties: polarization (2 things) 1) smooth muscles can hyperpolarize
2)smooth muscle can depolarize without firing AP's
Variable electrical Properties: When can contraction occur (3 things)? In smooth muscle contraction can occur:

1) after a AP
2)after a sub-threshold graded potential
3) without any change in membrane potential
Are smooth muscle fibers larger or smaller than skeletal muscle fibers? smooth muscle fibers are smaller 
What are the two components that make up smooth muscle? 1) small spindle shaped cells

2) single nucleus 
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Can smooth muscle's nucleus divide? Yes, smooth muscle's nucleus can divide
Which tubes are smooth muscles found? 1) bronchioles 

2) reproductive tracts

3) any tubular structure

4) hollow organs
Are smooth muscles attached to the skeleton? no, there is no skeletal attachment for smooth muscles
Are smooth muscles slow or fast to tension? smooth muscles are SLOW to tension
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Once smooth muscles are contracted what can happen? the tension in the smooth muscle can be maintained

(they can stay contracted for a long period of time)
In comparison to skeletal muscles, what are the levels of actin like in smooth muscles? actin in smooth muscles is five times that of skeletal muscles
What is the myosin like in comparison to skeletal muscles? the myosin in smooth muscles is thicker and longer with more heads
What is the ATPase activity like in smooth muscles? the ATPase activity in smooth muscles is much slower

there is a decreasing rate of cross bridge cycling 

and there is a lengthening in the contraction phase
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What is the intermediate filaments in smooth muscles? cytoskelton
What attached to actin in smooth muscles and what is it like? dense bodies attach to actin in smooth muscle and this is like a Z band in skeletal muscle
Do smooth muscles have troponin? no, smooth muscles do NOT have troponin
Does smooth muscle have tropomyosin? Yes, smooth muscles have tropomyosin

- the tropomyosin in smooth muscles doesnt block binding sites here as it does in skeletal muscles 
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Does smooth muscle have T-tubules no smooth muscle does NOT have T-tubules
Is the SR small or large in smooth muscle? the SR is smaller in smooth muscle

-Ca++ comes from the outside
Does smooth muscle have receptor regions like MEP? NO, smooth muscle does not have receptor regions like MEP

BUT, smooth muscle does have neurotransmitters that diffuse across the cell surface until it finds a receptor
Smooth muscles use what type of receptors for calcium in the SR? The SR in smooth muscles used IP3 receptor channels

-The IP3 is a secondary messenger, created in the phospholipase C pathway
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Are smooth muscles arranged via sarcomeres? no, smooth muscles are not arranged in sarcomeres

-there is no distinct banding patterns as the striated skeletal muscles have.
How are smooth muscles arranged? the actin and myosin in smooth muscles are arranged in long bundles that extend diagonally around the cell periphery. 

this forms a lattice around a central nucleus.
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 Does smooth muscle have striations?no striations for smooth muscle
 Does smooth muscle have low or high oxygen consumption rates?low oxygen consumption rates for smooth muscle
 Tonically Closed smooth muscle sphincters (two examples)-esophageal  sphincter 
-urinary bladder sphincter 

 What does "tonically closed" sphincters mean?- the smooth muscles of these sphincters contract to close off the opening of a hollow organ

-these sphincters relax when it is necessary to allow material to enter or leave the organ
 Variable Electrical Properties: polarization (2 things)1) smooth muscles can hyperpolarize
2)smooth muscle can depolarize without firing AP's
 Variable electrical Properties: When can contraction occur (3 things)?In smooth muscle contraction can occur:

1) after a AP
2)after a sub-threshold graded potential
3) without any change in membrane potential
 Are smooth muscle fibers larger or smaller than skeletal muscle fibers?smooth muscle fibers are smaller 
 What are the two components that make up smooth muscle?1) small spindle shaped cells

2) single nucleus 
 Can smooth muscle's nucleus divide?Yes, smooth muscle's nucleus can divide
 Which tubes are smooth muscles found?1) bronchioles 

2) reproductive tracts

3) any tubular structure

4) hollow organs
 Are smooth muscles attached to the skeleton?no, there is no skeletal attachment for smooth muscles
 Are smooth muscles slow or fast to tension?smooth muscles are SLOW to tension
 Once smooth muscles are contracted what can happen?the tension in the smooth muscle can be maintained

(they can stay contracted for a long period of time)
 In comparison to skeletal muscles, what are the levels of actin like in smooth muscles?actin in smooth muscles is five times that of skeletal muscles
 What is the myosin like in comparison to skeletal muscles?the myosin in smooth muscles is thicker and longer with more heads
 What is the ATPase activity like in smooth muscles?the ATPase activity in smooth muscles is much slower

there is a decreasing rate of cross bridge cycling 

and there is a lengthening in the contraction phase
 What is the intermediate filaments in smooth muscles?cytoskelton
 What attached to actin in smooth muscles and what is it like?dense bodies attach to actin in smooth muscle and this is like a Z band in skeletal muscle
 Do smooth muscles have troponin?no, smooth muscles do NOT have troponin
 Does smooth muscle have tropomyosin?Yes, smooth muscles have tropomyosin

- the tropomyosin in smooth muscles doesnt block binding sites here as it does in skeletal muscles 
 Does smooth muscle have T-tubulesno smooth muscle does NOT have T-tubules
 Is the SR small or large in smooth muscle?the SR is smaller in smooth muscle

-Ca++ comes from the outside
 Does smooth muscle have receptor regions like MEP?NO, smooth muscle does not have receptor regions like MEP

BUT, smooth muscle does have neurotransmitters that diffuse across the cell surface until it finds a receptor
 Smooth muscles use what type of receptors for calcium in the SR?The SR in smooth muscles used IP3 receptor channels

-The IP3 is a secondary messenger, created in the phospholipase C pathway
 Are smooth muscles arranged via sarcomeres?no, smooth muscles are not arranged in sarcomeres

-there is no distinct banding patterns as the striated skeletal muscles have.
 How are smooth muscles arranged?the actin and myosin in smooth muscles are arranged in long bundles that extend diagonally around the cell periphery. 

this forms a lattice around a central nucleus.
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