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Test #2 - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 110 - Human Biology
Subject:Biology
University:Samford University
Term:Fall 2009
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neurons cells that transmit nerve impulses between parts of the nervous system 3 types: 1) sensory neurons 2) interneurons 3) motor neurons structure: has a cell body (where organelles & nuclei reside), dendrites (many short extensions that carry info TO a cell body), & an axon (nerve fiber; single long extension that carries impulses AWAY from the cell body)
sensory neurons take nerve signals from a sensory receptor (special structure that detects changes in the environment) to the CNS structure: has a long axon covered by a myelin sheath that takes nerve impulses all the way from dendrites to the CNS
interneuron -lies entirely within the CNS -can receive input from sensory neurons & also from other interneurons in the CNS -thereafter, they sum up all the info received from other neurons before they communicate with motor neurons structure: some have short axon that is not covered by a myelin sheath
motor neuron takes nerve impulses away from the CNS to an effector (muscle fiber, organ, or gland) -effectors carry out our responses to environmental changes, whether these are external or internal structure: long axon covered by a myelin sheath
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central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord -works with the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves
Schwann cell cell that surrounds a fiber of a peripheral nerve & forms the myelin sheath in the PNS
myelin sheath lipid; white, fatty material derived from the membrane of Schwann cells, that forms a covering for nerve fibers -acts to increase the speed of nerve impulse conduction, insulation, & regeneration in the PNS
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node of Ranvier gap in the myelin sheath around a nerve fiber
how nerve impulses work 2 components: 1) resting potential 2) action potential
resting potential when the axon is not conducting a nerve impulse -more positive ions outside the membrane than inside -negative charge of -65mV inside the axon -more Na+ outside the membrane than inside -more K+ inside than outside
action potential rapid chang in the axon membrane that allows a nerve impulse to occur -sodium gates open letting Na+ in -depolarization occurs -interior of axon regains negative charge (-65mV) -wave of depolarization/repolarization travels down the axon *resting potential is restored by moving potassium inside & sodium outside the membrane
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depolarization when the charge inside the axon changes from positive to negative
repolarization when the charge inside the axon resumes a negative charge
synapse junction between neurons consisting of the presynaptic (axon) membrane, the synaptic cleft, & the postsynaptic (usually dendrite) membrane
synaptic cleft a small gap between the sending neuron & the receiving neuron -transmission is accomplished across this gap by a neurotransmitter -Ex: ACh, dopamine, & serotonin
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How does the transmission across the synapse occur? -nerve impulse reaches axon termial -synaptic vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane -neurotransmitters are released to diffuse across the synapse & bind with the postsynaptic membrane to inhibit or excite the neuron
synaptic integration the summation of the inhibitory and excitatory signals by a neuron or by some part of the brain
polarization the energy, called *resting potential*, exists because the cell membrane is POLARIZED: positively charged ions are stashed outside the cell, negatively charged ions inside
neurotransmitter chemical stored at the ends of axons that is responsible for transmission across a synapse Examples: acetylcholine (ACh),norepinephrine (NE), dopamine, serotonin,glutamate, and GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) -ACh & NE are active in both the CNS & PNS -in the PNS, they act at synapses called neuromuscular junctions -in the PNS, ACh excited skeletal muscle but inhibits cardiac muscle or glands -NE generally excites smooth muscle -in the CNS, NE is important to dreaming, waking, & mood -serotonin is invovled i
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excitatory signals an excitatory neurotransmitter produces an excitatory signal by opening sodium gates at a synapse -this drives the neuron closer to its threshold -if threshold is reached, an action potential is inevitable
inhibitory signals an inhibitory signal drives the neuron farther from an action potential by opening the gates for potassium
meninges(sing.: meninx) protective membranous coverings about the central nervous system (the spinal cord & the brain)
gray matter nonmyelinated axons & cell bodies in the CNS
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white matter myelinated axons in the CNS
spinal cord part of the CNS; the nerve cord that is continuous with the base of the brain plus the vertebral column that protects the nerve cord functions: to provide communication between the brain & most of the body structure: -gray matter in the center is a butterfly or "H" shape -white matter surrounds the gray matter -contains ascending tracts taking info TO the brain -contains descending tracts taking info FROM the brain -the spinal cord nerves project from the cord through intervertebral foramina -fibrocartilage
cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces between meninges are filled with this fluid that cushions & protects the CNS
tract bundle of myelinated axons in the CNS
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ganglion collection or bundle of neuron cell bodies usually outside the central nervous system
4 parts of the brain 1) the cerebrum 2) the diencephalon 3) the cerebellum 4) the brain stem
cerebrum -also called the telencephalon -is the largest portion of the brain in humans -last center to receive sensory input & carry out integration before commanding voluntary motor responses -communicates with & coordinates the activities of the other parts of the brain -subparts: 1) cerebral hemispheres 2) cerebral cortex 3) primary motor & sensory areas of the cortex 4) association areas 5) processing centers 6) central white matter
cerebral hemispheres -one of the large, paired structures that together constitute the cerebrum of the brain -2 halves: left & right -a deep groove called the LONGITUDINAL FISSURE divides the left & right cerebral hemispheres
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corpus callosum bridge of nerves tract that connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres -the 2 cerebral hemispheres communicate via this
sulci (sing.: sulcus) shallow grooves that divide each cerebral hemisphere into lobes: 1) frontal lobe 2) parietal lobe 3) occipital lobe & 4) temporal lobe
frontal lobe most anterior lobe (directly behind the forehead) -controls movement & higher reasoning & smell sensation -smell sensations travel to the primary olfactory area found on the deep surface of this lobe
parietal lobe posterior to the frontal lobe -somatic sensing is carried out by the nerves in this lobe -primary taste area accounts for taste sensations
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temporal lobe lies inferior to the frontal & parietal lobes (at the temple & the ear) -receives sound information through the nerves in this lobe; the primary auditory area in this lobe accepts info from our ears
occipital lobe -posterior to the parietal lobe (at the rear of the head) -visual information is received by the primary visual cortex & processed in the lobe
cerebral cortex a thin, highly convoluted outer layer of gray matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres -contains over 1 billion cell bodies & is the region of the brain that accounts for sensation, voluntary movement, & all the thought processes we associate with consciousness
primary motor area (of the cerebral cortex) -the frontal lobe just anterior to (before) the central sulcus -voluntary commands to skeletal muscles begin here & each part of the body is controlled by a certain section -large areas of the cerebral cortex are devoted to controlling structures that carry out very fine, precise movements -muscles that control facial movements--swallowing, salivation, expression--take up an especially large portion of this area -hand movements require tremendous accuracy -these 2 structures command nearly 2/3 of this area
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primary somatosensory area (of the cerebral cortex) -just posterior to the central sulcus in the parietal lobe -sensory info from skin & skeletal muscles arrives here, where each part of the body is sequentially represented -large areas of this are dedicated to those body areas with acute sensation -face & hands require the largest proportion of this
association areas -places where integation occurs & where memories are stored
premotor area -anterior to the primary motor area -organizes motor functions for skilled motor activities, such as walking & talking at the same time -next, the primary motor area sends signals to the cerebellum, which integrates them
somatosensory association area -located just posterior to the primary somatosensory area -processes & analyzes sensory info from the skin & muscles
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visual association area occipital lobe associates new visual info with stored visual memories -it might "decide" if we have seen a face, scene,or symbol before
auditory association area -in the temporal lobe -performs the same functions as the visual association area with regard to sounds
processing centers -receive info from the other association areas & perform higher-level analytical functions -include: 1) prefrontal area 2) Wernicke's area 3) Broca's area
prefrontal area -an association area in the frontal lobe -receives info from the other association areas & uses this info to reason & plan our actions -integration in this area accounts for our most cherished human abilities -reasoning, critical thinking, & formulating appropriate behaviors are possible because of integration carried out in the prefrontal area
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unique ability of humans to speak is partially dependent upon 2 processing centers found only in the left cerebral cortex 1) Wernicke's area: located in the posterior part of the left temporal lobe -helps us understand both the written & spoken word & sends the info to Broca's area 2) Broca's area: located in the left frontal lobe; located just anterior to the portion of the primary motor area for speech musculature (lips, tongue, larynx, etc) -adds grammatical refinements & directs the primary motor area to stimulate the appropriate muscles for speaking & writing
central white matter -much of the rest of the cerebrum is composed of this -myelination occurs & white matter develops as a child grows -progressive myelination enables the brain to grow in size & complexity
basal nuclei nerve cells that integrate motor commands to ensure balance and coordination -Parkinson disease is believed to be caused by degeneration of specific neurons in the basal nuclei; Parkinson disease is the progressive deterioration of the CNS due to a deficiency in the neurotransmiter dopamine
diencephalon portion of the brain in the region of the third ventricle that includes the thalamus & the hypothalamus
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hypothalamus -forms the floor of the third ventricle -an integrating center that helps maintain homeostasis -regulates hunger, sleep, thirst, body temperature, & water balance -controls the pituitary gland & thereby, serves as a link between the nervous system & endocrine systems
thalamus -consists of 2 masses of gray matter located in the sides & roof of the third ventricle -is on the receiving end for all sensory input except the sense of smell -visual, auditory, & somatosensory info arrives here via the cranial nerves & tracts from the spinal cord -integrates this info & sends it on to the appropriate portions of the cerebrum -involved in arousal of the cerebrum & also participates in higher mental functions such as memory & emotions
pineal gland -located in the diencephalon -secretes the hormone melatonin -some researchers believe melatonin can help alleviate jet lag or insomnia; the hormone may also regulate the onset of puberty
cerebellum -lies under the occipital lobe of the cerebrum -separated from the brain stem by the fourth ventricle -has 2 portions joined by a narrow median portion -each portion is primarily composed of white matter -in logitudinal section, the white mater has a treelike pattern called "arbor vitae" -overlying the white matter is a thin layer of gray matter that forms a series of complex folds -receives sensory input from the eyes, ears, joints, & muscles about the present position of body parts -receives motor output
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brain stem portion of the brain consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons, & midbrain
pons -means "bridge" in Latin -contains bundles of axons traveling between the cerebellum & the rest of the CNS -functions with the medulla oblongata to regulate the breathing rate -reflex centers located here coordinate head movements in response to visual & auditory stimuli
midbrain acts as a relay station for tracts passing between the cerebrum & the spinal cord or cerebellum
medulla oblongata -contains a number of reflex centers for regulating heartbeat, breathing, & vasoconstriction (blood pressure) -contains the reflex centers for vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccuping, & swallowing -lies just supeior to the spinal cord & it contains tracts that ascend or descend between the spinal cord & higher brain centers -ascending tracts convey sensory info -motor info is transmitted on descending tracts
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reticular formation -complex network of nuclei (masses of gray matter) & fibers that extend the length of the brain stem -a major component of the reticular activating system (RAS) -the RAS receives sensory signals & sends them to higher centers -motor signals received by the RAS are sent to spinal cord -RAS arouses the cerebrum via the thalamus & causes a person to be alert -if you want to awaken the RAS, surprise it with sudden stimuli, such as an alarm clock ringing, smelling salts, or splashing cold water on your face -RAS
limbic system -association of various brain centers, including the amygdala & hippocampus -governs learning (higher mental functions) & memory & primitive emotions,such as pleasure, fear, & happiness
amygdala -portion of the limbic system that functions to add emotional overtones to memories & also creates the sensation of fear -uses past knowledge fed to it by association areas to assess a current situation -if necessary, it can trigger the fight-or-flight reaction -the frontal cortex can override the limbic system & cause us to rethink the situation & prevent us from acting out strong reactions
hippocampus -portion of the limbic system where memories are stored -also plays a crucial role in learning-->acts as info gateway during the learning process -determines what info is to be encoded & stored by other regions of the brain
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higher mental functions -the limbic system indicates the cortical areas may work with lower centers to produce: 1) memory 2) learning
memory the ability to hold a thought in mind or to recall events from the past, ranging from a word we only learned yesterday to an early emotional experience that has shaped our lives
learning takes place when we retain & use past memories
types of memory 1) short-term memory 2) long-term memory 3) semantic memory 4) episodic memory 5) skill memory
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short-term memory retention of info for only a few minutes, such as remembering a telephone number
long-term memory retention of info that lasts longer than a few minutes
semantic memory capacity of the brain to store & retrieve info with regard to words or numbers
episodic memory capacity of brain to store & retrieve info with regard to persons & events
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skill memory capacity of the brain to store & receive info necessary to perform motor activities, such as riding a bike
long-term memory storage & retrieval *long-term memories are stored in bits & pieces throughout the sensory association areas of the cerebral cortex -visions are stored in the vision association area -sounds are stored in the auditory association -hippocampus serves as bridge between sensory association areas (where memories are stored) & the prefrontal area (where memories are used) -prefrontal area communicates with hippocampus, when memories are stored & when these memories are brough to mind
long-term potentiation (LTP) enhanced response at synapses within the hippocampus; likely essential to memory storage (after synapses have been used intensely for a short time, they release more neurotransmitters than before)
Alzheimer's disease brain disorder characterized by a general loss of mental abilities
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cranial nerves -nerves that arise from the brain -referred to by roman numerals -humans have 12 pairs -some are sensory nerves that contain only sensory fibers -some are motor nerves that contain only motor fibers -others are mixed nerves that contain both sensroy & motor fibers -largely connected to the head, neck, & facial regionsof body -however, the vagus nerve (X) has branches not only to the pharynx & larynx, but also to most of the internal organs -the vagus arises from the brain stem, specifically the medulla oblo
spinal nerves -nerves that arise from the spinal cord -emerge from either side of the spinal cord -there are 31 pairs spinal nerves -the roots of a spinal nerve physically separate axons of sensory neurons from the axons of motor neurons, forming an arrangement resembling a letter Y -the posterior root of a spinal nerve contains sensory fibers that direct sensory receptor info inward (toward the spinal cord) -the cell body of a sensory neuron is in a posterior-root ganglion (also called a DORSAL-ROOT GANGLION) -the anter
somatic system -the portion of the PNS containing motor neurons that control skeletal muscles, the skin, & tendons -somatic system sensory nerves take sensory info from external sensory receptors to the CNS -motor commands leaving the CNS travel to skeletal muscles via somatic motor nerves -not all somatic motor actions are voluntary -some actions are automatic -REFLEXES
reflex automatic, involuntary response of an organism to a stimulus
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autonomic system -branch of the PNS that has control over the internal organs -consists of the sympathetic & parasympathetic systems -activation of these 2 systems generally causes opposite reactions -although their functions are different, the 2 divisions share some features: 1) function automatically & usually in an involuntary manner 2) they innervate all internal organs 3) they use 2 neurons & one ganglion for each impulse -the first nerve has a cell body within the CNS & a preganglionic fiber that enters the ganglion -
sympathetic division -the part of the autonomic system that usually promotes activities associated with emergency (fight-or-flight) situations -uses norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter -most preganglionic fibers of this arise from the middle, or thoracolumbar, portion of the spinal cord -they terminate almost immediately in ganglia that lie near the spinal cord -in this division, the preganglionic fiber is short, but the postganglionic fiber that contacts an organ is long
fight-or-flight -sympathetic division of the autonomic system is important in this -accelerates heartbeat & dilates the bronchi--active mucles need a ready supply of glucose & oxygen -sympathetic neurons inhibit the digestive organs, as well as the kidneys & urinary bladder -the activities of these organs (digestion, defaction, & urination) are not immediately necessary if you're under attack -the neurotransmitter relased by the postganglionic axon is primarily norepinephrine (NE)
parasympathetic division -part of the autonomic system that is active under normal conditions -uses acetylcholine (ACh) as a neurotransmitter -includes a few cranial nerves as well as the fibers that arise from the sacral (bottom) portion of the spinal cord -this division is often referred to as the craniosacral portion of the autonomic system -the preganglionic fier is long, & the postganglionic fiber is short b/c the ganglia lie near or within the organ -this division, sometimes called the "housekeeper division", promotes all int
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drug therapy & drug abuse -neurological drugs promote, prevent, or mimic the action of a particular neurotransmitter -dependency occurs when the body compensates for the presence of neurological drugs -DRUG ABUSE: physical and/or psychological dependence on a drug, which assumes an "essential" biochemical role in the body following habituation & tolerance
alcohol -acts as a depressant in the CNS -chronic alcohol consumption can damage the frontal lobes, decrease overall brain size, & increase the size of the ventricles -alcohol denatures protein structures, causing damage to several tissues, including vital organs of the body such as the liver & brain -increases the action of GABA & increases the release of endorphins in the hypothalamus -no cure for alcoholism
nicotine -stimulant -nicotine is rapidly delievered to the CNS, especially the midbrain -nicotine binds to neurons in the CNS & dopamine is released -in the PNS, nicotine mimics ACh & increases skeletal muscle activity, heart rate, & blood pressure -withdrawal symptoms include irritability, headache, insomnia, poor cognitive performance, the urge to smoke, & weight gain -promotes digestive tract motility which may explain the weight gain
cocaine -stimulant in the CNS -interferes with the re-uptake of dopamine at synapses -results of cocaine use: sleeplessness, lack of apetite, increased sex drive, remors, & "cocaine psychosis", a condition that resembles paranoid schizophrenia -during the crash period, fatigue, depression, & irritability are common, along with memory loss & a confused state of cognition -with continued cocaine use, the body makes less dopamine to compensate for the apparent excess at synapses -cocaine-related deaths are usually due
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methamphetamine -stimulant -reverses the effects of fatigue, maintains wakefulness, & temporarily elveates the mood of the user -after the initial rush, there is typically a state of high agitation that, in some individuals, leads to violent behavior -chronic use can lead to "amphetamine pscyhosis" resulting in paranoia, auditory & visual hallucinations, self-absorption, irritability, & aggressive, erratic behavior -ecstasy is the street name for MDMA, a drug that has the same effects as methamphetamine, but without halluc
heroin -depressant -is an opiate -it is rapidly delieverd to the brain, where it is converted to morphine -morphine binds promptly to opioid receptors & the result is a rush sensation & euphoric experience -opiates: -depress breathing -activate the "reward circuit" -block pain pathways -cloud mental function -sometimes cause nausea & vomiting -long-term effects: addiction, hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, & various bacterial infections b/c of shared needles
marijuana -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) -psychoactive -mimics the actions of the neurotransmitter anandamide -mild euphoria occurs, along with alterations in vision & judgement -distortions of space & time can also occur in occasional ussers -in heavy users, hallucinations, anxiety, depression, rapid flow of ideas, body image distortions, paranoia, & psychotic symptoms can result
sensory receptors dendrites specialized to detect certain types of stimuli
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exteroceptors sensory receptors that detect stimuli from outside the body, such as those that result in taste, smell, vision, hearing, & equilibrium
interoceptors -receive stimuli from inside the body -include pressoreceptors (sometimes referred to as baroreceptors) that respond to changed in blood pressure -osmoreceptors to monitor the body's water-salt balance
chemoreceptor -sensory receptor sensitive to chemical stimuli--for example, receptors for taste & smell -is an interoceptor that monitors the pH of the blood -they are located in the carotid arteries & aorta -if the pH lowers, the breathing rate increases -as more carbon dioxide is exhaled, the blood pH rises -a type of chemoreceptor = pain receptor
pain receptor (nociceptor) -sensory receptor that is sensitive to chemicals released by damaged tissues or excess stimuli of heat or pressure -protective b/c they alert us to possible danger -Ex.: without the pain of appendicitis, we might never seek medical help needed to avoid a ruptured appendix
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photoreceptor -sensory receptor in the retina that responds to light stimuli/energy -provide us with a sense of vision -stimulation of the photoreceptors known as rod cells results in black-and-white vision -stimulation of the photoreceptors known as cone cells results in color vision
mechanoreceptor -sensory receptor that responds to mechanical stimuli, such as that from pressure, sound waves, & gravity -when we hear, airborne sound waves are converted to fluid-borne pressure waves that can be detected by mechanoreceptors in the inner ear -mechanoreceptors are responding to fluid-borne pressure waves when we detect changes in gravity & motion, helping us keep our balance -these receptors are in the vestibule & semicircular canals of the inner ear, respectively -the sense of touch depends on pressure re
thermoreceptor -sensory receptor that is sensitive to changes in temperature -located in the hypothalmus & the skin -those that respond when temperatures rise are called warm receptors, & those that respond when temperatures lower are called cold receptors
sensation/How does sensation occur? -conscious awareness of a stimulus due to nerve impulses sent to the brain from a sensory receptor by way of sensory neurons -sensory receptors respond to environmental stimuli by generating nerve signals -sensation occurs when nerve signals reach the cerebral cortex
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How does a sensation result in sensory perception? -after detecting a stimulus, sensory receptors initiate nerve signals within the PNS -these signals give the CNS info about the external & internal environment -the CNS integrates all incoming info & then initiates a motor response to the stimulus
proprioceptors mechanoreceptors involved in reflex actions that maintain muscle tone, & thereby the body's equilibrium & posture
cutaneous receptors -are found in the dermis of the skin -sense touch, pressure, temperature, & pain
sense of taste & smell -taste & smell are due to chemoreceptors stimulated by molecules in the environment
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sense of taste -microvilli of taste cells have receptor proteins for molecules that cause the brain to distinguish sweet, sour, salty, & bitter tastes
sense of smell the cilia of olfactory cells have receptor proteins for molecules that cause the brain to distinguish odors
sense of vision -vision depends on the eye, the optic nerves, & the visual areas of the cerebral cortex
anatomy & physiology of the eye *the eye has 3 layers: 1) the SCLERA (outer layer) protects & supports the eyeball 2) the CHOROID (middle, pigmented layer) absorbs stray light rays 3) the RETNA (inner layer) contains the rod cells (sensory receptors for dim light) & cone cells (sensory receptors for bright light & color)
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function of the lens -the lens (assisted by the cornea & the humors) brings the light rays to focus on the retina -to see a close object, visual accomodation occurs as the lens becomes round & thick
visual pathway to the brain -the visual pathway begins when light strikes photoreceptors (rod cells & cone cells) in the retina -the optic nerves carry nerve impulses from the eyes to the optic chiasma, then pass through the thalamus before reaching the primary vision area in the occipital lobe of the brain
abnormalities of the eye -color blindness -misshapen eyeballs -cause of nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism
sense of hearing hearing depends on the ear, the cochlear nerve, & the auditory areas of the cerebral cortex
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anatomy & physiology of the ear *has 3 parts: 1) in the outer ear, the pinna & the auditory canal direct sound waves to the middle ear 2) in the middle ear, the tympanic membrane & the ossicles (malleus, incus, & stapes) amplify sound waves 3) in the inner ear, the semicircular canals detect rotational equilibrium; the utricle & saccule detect gravitational equilibrium; & the cochlea houses the spiral organ, which contains mechanoreceptors for hearing
auditory pathway to the brain -the auditory pathway begins when the outer ear receives & the middle ear amplifies sound waves that then strike the oval window membrane -the mechanoreceptors for hearing are hair cells on the basilar membrane of the spiral organ -nerve signals begin in the cochlear nerve & are carried to the primary auditory area in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex
sclera -white, fibrous outer layer of the eyeball -function: protects & supports eyeball
cornea -transparent, anterior portion of the outer layer of the eyeball -function: refracts light rays
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pupil opening in the center of the eye function: admits light
choroid vascular, pigmented middle layer of the eyebal function: absorbs stray light
ciliary body structure associated with the choroid layer that contains ciliary muscle & controls the shape of the lens of the eye for near & far vision
iris muscular ring that surrounds the pupil & regulates the passage of light through this opening
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retina innermost layer of the eyeball that contains the rod cells & the cone cells for sight
cell layers of the retina 1) layer closest to the choroid contains the rod cells & cone cells 2) layer of bipolar cells covers the rods & cones 3) the innermost layer contains ganglion cells, whose sensory fibers become the optic nerve
rod cell photoreceptor in retina of eyes that responds to dim light function: makes black & white vision possible
cone cell photoreceptor in retina of eye that responds to bright light; detects color & provides visual acuity
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fovea centralis region of the retina consisitng of densely packed cones; responsible for the greatest visual acuity function: makes acute vision possible
lens clear, membranelike structure found in the eye behind the iris; brings objects into focus function: refracts & focuses light rays
2 chambers/compartments of the eye 1) anterior compartment is in front of the lens (fillwed with aqueous humor) 2) posterior compartment behind it (filled with vitreous humor)
aqueous humor clear, watery fluid between the cornea & lens of the eye
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vitreous humor clear, gelatinous material between the lens of the eye & the retina
humors function: transmit light rays & support eyeball
optic nerve either of 2 cranial nerves that carry nerve impulses from the retina of the eye to the brain, thereby contributing to the sense of sight
suspensory ligament the lens is attached to the ciliary body by suspensory ligaments; when we view a distant object, the ciliary muscle is relaxed, causing the suspensory ligaments attached to the ciliary body to be taut--->the ligaments put tension on the lens & cause it to remain relatively flat; when we view a near object, the ciliary muscle contracts, releasing the tension on the suspensory ligaments-->the lens becomes round & thick due to its normal elasticity
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color blindness deficiency in one or more of the 3 types of cone cells; complete color blindness is extremely rare & is caused by genetic mutation; in most instances, only one type of cone is defective or deficient in number; the most common mutation is the inability to see the colors green & red--->this abnormality affects 5-8% of the male population
cataracts develop when the lens of the eye becomes cloudy; a cloudy lens will decrease light levels that reach the retina & slowly cause vision loss
glaucoma increasing loss of field of vision; caused by bloccking of the ducts that drain the aqueous humor, creating pressure buildup & nerve damage
astigmatism blurred vision due to an irregular curvature of the cornea or the lens; an uneven lens allows subject to see objects clearly
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farsighted vision abnormality due to a shortened eyeball from front to back; light rays focus in back of retina when viewing close objects; a concave lens allows subject to see distant objects
nearsighted vision abnormality due to an elongated eyeball from front to back; light rays focus in front of retina when viewing distant objects; a convex lens allows subject to see close objects
outer ear portion of ear consisting of the pinna & auditory canal
middle ear portion of ear consisting of the tympanic membrane, the oval & round windows, & the ossicles; where sound is amplified
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inner ear portion of the ear consisting of a vestibule, semicircular canals, & the cochlea, where equilibrium is maintained & sound is transmitted
pinna part of the ear that projects on the outside of the head
auditory canal curved tube extending from the pinna to the tympanic membrane
tympanic membrane located between the outer & middle ear where it receives sound waves; also called the eardrum
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ossicle one of the small bones of the middle ear--malleus, incus, & stapes
malleus the FIRST of 3 ossicles of the ear that serve to conduct vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear
incus the MIDDLE of 3 ossicles of the ear that serve to conduct vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear
stapes the LAST of 3 ossicles of the ear that serve to conduct vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear
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Eustachian or auditory tube extension from the middle ear to the nasopharynx that equalizes air pressure on the eardrum
cochlea portion of the inner ear that resembles a snail's shell & contains the sprial organ, the sense organ for hearing
semicircular canal one of 3 tubular structures within the inner ear that contian sensory receptors responsible for the sense of rotational equilibrium
vestibule space or cavity at the entrance of a canal, such as the cavity that lies between the semicircular canals & the cochlea
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rotational equilibrium pathway mechanoreceptors (hair cells) in the semicircular canals detect rotational and/or angular movement of the head; when head rotates, cupula is displaced
gravitational equilibrium pathway mechanoreceptors (hair cells) in the utricle & saccule detect head movements in the ventrical or horizontal planes; when head bends, otoliths are displaced
otoliths calcium carbonate granule associated with ciliated cells in the utricle & the saccule
endocrine system mostly comprised of glands; secretes hormones that move through the bloodstream to target cells; results in a slow but a prolonged response
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endocrine gland ductless organ that secretes (a) hormone(s) directly into the bloodstream
exocrine gland gland that secretes its product to an epithelial surface directly or through ducts
Prostaglandins lipids; local hormones affect neighboring cells & thus are not carried into the bloodstream; some cause smooth muscle contraction; many roles in the body; aspirin & ibueprofen block the synthesis of these
pheromones chemcial signals that influence the behavior of other individuals
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hormones chemical signals that promote communcation between cells, body parts & even individuals
peptide & steroid hormones--difference between them peptide hormones: proteins, carried in bloodstream; steroid hormones: lipids, carried in bloodstream
how peptide hormones work can not cross a plasma membrane; bind to a receptor on the outside of a cell, triggering corresponding internal changes; very rapid (more so than steroid hormones)
how steroid hormones work cross cell membrane & nuclear membrane; bind with receptor protein; activates a gene; makes a protein; slower than peptide hormones
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gland: where are they, what do they do, what do they secrete, what do their hormones affect: undefined
1) hypothalamus & 2) posterior pituitary gland work together to regulate internal environment; helps control heartbeat; helps control body temperature; helps control water balance; controls glandular secretions; controls labor & milk release
3) anterior pituitary gland controls other organs & glands: thyroid, adrenal cortex, gonads, mammary glands, melanin in skin, growth hormone--skeletal & muscle growth
4) thyroid gland large gland located below the larynx; iodine is needed in the diet to allow the thyroid gland to produce its hormones--->it produces: thyroid hormone (TH): regulates metabolism; calcitonin: helps lower Ca2+ levels by stimulating the deposition of calcium in bones
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5) parathyroid glands small glands embedded in the surface of the thyroid gland; produces parthyroid hormone (PTH): causes blood Ca2+ level to increase by liberating Ca from your blood & promotes reabsorption of Ca2+ by the kidneys
6) adrenal glands glands that sit on top of the kidneys; 2 parts of each gland--->adrenal medulla: controlled by the nervous system; adrenal cortex: controlled by the anterior pituitary gland
adrenal medulla inner portion of the adrenal glands; hypothalamus initiates stimulation of hormone secretion in the adrenal medulla; produces: hormones that allow a short-term response to stress ("fight or flight" response)--->epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine
adrenal cortex outer portion of the adrenal glands; produces hormones that provide a long-term response to stress; 2 major types of hormones: 1) mineralocorticoids: regulate salt & water balance--blood pressure; ex.: aldosterone (targets the kidneys) 2) glucocorticoids: regulate carbohydrate, protein, & fat metabolism--increase blood glucose & surpress the body's inflammatory response; ex.: cortisol & cortisone
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7) pancreas fish-shaped organ behind the stomach; composed of 2 tissues---> exocrine: produces & secretes digestive juices; endocrine (islets of Langerhans): produces & secretes hormones 1) insulin: secreted when blood glucose is high & stimulates uptake of glucose by cells (muscle & liver) 2) glucagon: secreted when blood glucose is low & stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in the liver
8) testes gonads found in males; produces androgens (ex.: testosterone)--> stimulates growth of the penis/testes; responsible for secondary male sex characteristics such as facial/underarm/pubic hair, oil & sweat glands; prompts the larynx & vocal cords to enlarge resulting in a lower voice; promotes muscular strength
9) ovaries gonads found in females; produce estrogen & progesterone; stimulates growth of vagina & uterus; responsible for secondary sex characteristics such as female body hair, fat distribution, & breast development; responsible for egg maturation; regulates the uterine cycle
10) thymus gland lies beneath the sternum; this gland is the largest & most active during childhood; T lymphocytes mature here
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11) pineal gland located in the brain; secretes melatonin that regulates the sleep/wake cycle (circadian rhythm)
pituitary dwarfism too little growth hormone is produced during childhood that results in small size
giantism too much growth hormone is produced during childhood that results in poor health
Acromegaly overproduction of growth hormone as an adult that results in larger than normal feet, hands, & face
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Congenital hypothyroidism thyroid does not develop properly and is characterized in a short, stocky person that may be mentally retarded
Myxedema hypothyroidism in adults characterized by lethargy, weight gain, loss of hair, cold intolerant & thick, puffy skin
Exopthalmic goiter such as seen in Graves' disease & is characterized by enlargement of the thyroid gland, protrusion of the eyes, hyperactivity, & insomnia
Addison’s disease hyposecretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex characterized by bronzing of the skin
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Cushing syndrome hyposecretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex characterized by weight gain in the trunk of the body but not arms & legs
type I diabetes the pancreas is not producing insulin; the individual must have daily insulin injections which control the diabetic symptoms but can still cause inconveniences b/c the blood sugar level may swing between hypoglycemia (low blood glucose level) & hyperglycemia (high blood glucose level); symptoms include: perspiration, pale skin, shallow breathing, & anxiety
type II diabetes often the patient is obese; most of the diabetics in the US have this type; glucose binds to the receptor, but the number of carriers does not increase so the cell is insulin resistant
cardiovascular system includes the heart & blood vessels; brings nutrients to cells & helps get rid of wastes; blood is refreshed in the lungs, kidneys, intestine, & liver; lymphatic vessels help this system by collecting excess fluid surrounding tissues & return it to the cardiovascular system
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functions of the cardiovascular system 1) generate blood pressure 2) transport blood 3) exchange of nutrients & wastes at the capillaries 4) regulate blood flow as needed
main pathway of blood in body heart --> arteries --> arterioles --> capillaries --> venules --> veins --> back to heart
arteries & arterioles carry blood away from the heart; their walls have 3 layers: 1) thin epithelium 2) thick smooth muscle layer 3) outer connective tissue; arterioles are small arteries that regulate blood pressure
capillaries microscopic vessels between arterioles & venules; made of one layer of epithelial tissue; form beds of vessels where exchange with body cells occurs; combined large surface area
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veins & venules venules: small veins that receive blood from capillaries; venule & vein walls have 3 layers: 1) thin inner epithelium 2) thick smooth muscle layer 3) outer connective tissue; veins carry blood toward the heart; veins that carry blood against gravity have valves to keep blood flowing toward the heart
anatomy of the heart large, muscular organ consisting mostly of cardiac tissue called the myocardium; surrounded by a sac called the pericardium; consists of 2 sides, right & left, separated by a septum; consists of 4 chambers: 2 atria & 2 ventricles; 2 sets of valves: semilunar valves & atrioventricular valves (AV valves); the valves give the resulting "lub" & "dup" sound of the heart
2 cardiovascular pathways in the body 1) pulmonary circuit: brings blood from the heart to & back from the lungs 2) systemic circuit: brings blood to the entire body to deliver nutrients & rid it of wastes
blood flow through the heart vena cava 1) dumps blood into the right atrium 2) right ventricle 3) two pulmonary arteries 4) that lead to the lungs 5) where blood becomes oxygenated 6) bring blood from the lungs back to the left atrium 7) left ventricle 8) is large & muscular to pump blood into the aorta 9) and to the rest of the body 10) eventually blood will be pumped back to each vena cava (1)
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how heartbeat occurs during systole: atria contract together followed by the ventricles contracting together; this is followed by diastole: a rest phase, when the chambers relax; this cardiac cycle, heartbeat, on average occurs 70 times/minute
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 neuronscells that transmit nerve impulses between parts of the nervous system 3 types: 1) sensory neurons 2) interneurons 3) motor neurons structure: has a cell body (where organelles & nuclei reside), dendrites (many short extensions that carry info TO a cell body), & an axon (nerve fiber; single long extension that carries impulses AWAY from the cell body)
 sensory neuronstake nerve signals from a sensory receptor (special structure that detects changes in the environment) to the CNS structure: has a long axon covered by a myelin sheath that takes nerve impulses all the way from dendrites to the CNS
 interneuron-lies entirely within the CNS -can receive input from sensory neurons & also from other interneurons in the CNS -thereafter, they sum up all the info received from other neurons before they communicate with motor neurons structure: some have short axon that is not covered by a myelin sheath
 motor neurontakes nerve impulses away from the CNS to an effector (muscle fiber, organ, or gland) -effectors carry out our responses to environmental changes, whether these are external or internal structure: long axon covered by a myelin sheath
 central nervous system (CNS)consists of the brain and the spinal cord -works with the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
 peripheral nervous system (PNS)consists of the nerves
 Schwann cellcell that surrounds a fiber of a peripheral nerve & forms the myelin sheath in the PNS
 myelin sheathlipid; white, fatty material derived from the membrane of Schwann cells, that forms a covering for nerve fibers -acts to increase the speed of nerve impulse conduction, insulation, & regeneration in the PNS
 node of Ranviergap in the myelin sheath around a nerve fiber
 how nerve impulses work2 components: 1) resting potential 2) action potential
 resting potentialwhen the axon is not conducting a nerve impulse -more positive ions outside the membrane than inside -negative charge of -65mV inside the axon -more Na+ outside the membrane than inside -more K+ inside than outside
 action potentialrapid chang in the axon membrane that allows a nerve impulse to occur -sodium gates open letting Na+ in -depolarization occurs -interior of axon regains negative charge (-65mV) -wave of depolarization/repolarization travels down the axon *resting potential is restored by moving potassium inside & sodium outside the membrane
 depolarizationwhen the charge inside the axon changes from positive to negative
 repolarizationwhen the charge inside the axon resumes a negative charge
 synapsejunction between neurons consisting of the presynaptic (axon) membrane, the synaptic cleft, & the postsynaptic (usually dendrite) membrane
 synaptic clefta small gap between the sending neuron & the receiving neuron -transmission is accomplished across this gap by a neurotransmitter -Ex: ACh, dopamine, & serotonin
 How does the transmission across the synapse occur?-nerve impulse reaches axon termial -synaptic vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane -neurotransmitters are released to diffuse across the synapse & bind with the postsynaptic membrane to inhibit or excite the neuron
 synaptic integrationthe summation of the inhibitory and excitatory signals by a neuron or by some part of the brain
 polarizationthe energy, called *resting potential*, exists because the cell membrane is POLARIZED: positively charged ions are stashed outside the cell, negatively charged ions inside
 neurotransmitterchemical stored at the ends of axons that is responsible for transmission across a synapse Examples: acetylcholine (ACh),norepinephrine (NE), dopamine, serotonin,glutamate, and GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) -ACh & NE are active in both the CNS & PNS -in the PNS, they act at synapses called neuromuscular junctions -in the PNS, ACh excited skeletal muscle but inhibits cardiac muscle or glands -NE generally excites smooth muscle -in the CNS, NE is important to dreaming, waking, & mood -serotonin is invovled i
 excitatory signalsan excitatory neurotransmitter produces an excitatory signal by opening sodium gates at a synapse -this drives the neuron closer to its threshold -if threshold is reached, an action potential is inevitable
 inhibitory signalsan inhibitory signal drives the neuron farther from an action potential by opening the gates for potassium
 meninges(sing.: meninx)protective membranous coverings about the central nervous system (the spinal cord & the brain)
 gray matternonmyelinated axons & cell bodies in the CNS
 white mattermyelinated axons in the CNS
 spinal cordpart of the CNS; the nerve cord that is continuous with the base of the brain plus the vertebral column that protects the nerve cord functions: to provide communication between the brain & most of the body structure: -gray matter in the center is a butterfly or "H" shape -white matter surrounds the gray matter -contains ascending tracts taking info TO the brain -contains descending tracts taking info FROM the brain -the spinal cord nerves project from the cord through intervertebral foramina -fibrocartilage
 cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)spaces between meninges are filled with this fluid that cushions & protects the CNS
 tractbundle of myelinated axons in the CNS
 ganglioncollection or bundle of neuron cell bodies usually outside the central nervous system
 4 parts of the brain1) the cerebrum 2) the diencephalon 3) the cerebellum 4) the brain stem
 cerebrum-also called the telencephalon -is the largest portion of the brain in humans -last center to receive sensory input & carry out integration before commanding voluntary motor responses -communicates with & coordinates the activities of the other parts of the brain -subparts: 1) cerebral hemispheres 2) cerebral cortex 3) primary motor & sensory areas of the cortex 4) association areas 5) processing centers 6) central white matter
 cerebral hemispheres-one of the large, paired structures that together constitute the cerebrum of the brain -2 halves: left & right -a deep groove called the LONGITUDINAL FISSURE divides the left & right cerebral hemispheres
 corpus callosumbridge of nerves tract that connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres -the 2 cerebral hemispheres communicate via this
 sulci (sing.: sulcus)shallow grooves that divide each cerebral hemisphere into lobes: 1) frontal lobe 2) parietal lobe 3) occipital lobe & 4) temporal lobe
 frontal lobemost anterior lobe (directly behind the forehead) -controls movement & higher reasoning & smell sensation -smell sensations travel to the primary olfactory area found on the deep surface of this lobe
 parietal lobeposterior to the frontal lobe -somatic sensing is carried out by the nerves in this lobe -primary taste area accounts for taste sensations
 temporal lobelies inferior to the frontal & parietal lobes (at the temple & the ear) -receives sound information through the nerves in this lobe; the primary auditory area in this lobe accepts info from our ears
 occipital lobe-posterior to the parietal lobe (at the rear of the head) -visual information is received by the primary visual cortex & processed in the lobe
 cerebral cortexa thin, highly convoluted outer layer of gray matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres -contains over 1 billion cell bodies & is the region of the brain that accounts for sensation, voluntary movement, & all the thought processes we associate with consciousness
 primary motor area (of the cerebral cortex)-the frontal lobe just anterior to (before) the central sulcus -voluntary commands to skeletal muscles begin here & each part of the body is controlled by a certain section -large areas of the cerebral cortex are devoted to controlling structures that carry out very fine, precise movements -muscles that control facial movements--swallowing, salivation, expression--take up an especially large portion of this area -hand movements require tremendous accuracy -these 2 structures command nearly 2/3 of this area
 primary somatosensory area (of the cerebral cortex)-just posterior to the central sulcus in the parietal lobe -sensory info from skin & skeletal muscles arrives here, where each part of the body is sequentially represented -large areas of this are dedicated to those body areas with acute sensation -face & hands require the largest proportion of this
 association areas-places where integation occurs & where memories are stored
 premotor area-anterior to the primary motor area -organizes motor functions for skilled motor activities, such as walking & talking at the same time -next, the primary motor area sends signals to the cerebellum, which integrates them
 somatosensory association area-located just posterior to the primary somatosensory area -processes & analyzes sensory info from the skin & muscles
 visual association areaoccipital lobe associates new visual info with stored visual memories -it might "decide" if we have seen a face, scene,or symbol before
 auditory association area-in the temporal lobe -performs the same functions as the visual association area with regard to sounds
 processing centers-receive info from the other association areas & perform higher-level analytical functions -include: 1) prefrontal area 2) Wernicke's area 3) Broca's area
 prefrontal area-an association area in the frontal lobe -receives info from the other association areas & uses this info to reason & plan our actions -integration in this area accounts for our most cherished human abilities -reasoning, critical thinking, & formulating appropriate behaviors are possible because of integration carried out in the prefrontal area
 unique ability of humans to speak is partially dependent upon 2 processing centers found only in the left cerebral cortex1) Wernicke's area: located in the posterior part of the left temporal lobe -helps us understand both the written & spoken word & sends the info to Broca's area 2) Broca's area: located in the left frontal lobe; located just anterior to the portion of the primary motor area for speech musculature (lips, tongue, larynx, etc) -adds grammatical refinements & directs the primary motor area to stimulate the appropriate muscles for speaking & writing
 central white matter-much of the rest of the cerebrum is composed of this -myelination occurs & white matter develops as a child grows -progressive myelination enables the brain to grow in size & complexity
 basal nucleinerve cells that integrate motor commands to ensure balance and coordination -Parkinson disease is believed to be caused by degeneration of specific neurons in the basal nuclei; Parkinson disease is the progressive deterioration of the CNS due to a deficiency in the neurotransmiter dopamine
 diencephalonportion of the brain in the region of the third ventricle that includes the thalamus & the hypothalamus
 hypothalamus-forms the floor of the third ventricle -an integrating center that helps maintain homeostasis -regulates hunger, sleep, thirst, body temperature, & water balance -controls the pituitary gland & thereby, serves as a link between the nervous system & endocrine systems
 thalamus-consists of 2 masses of gray matter located in the sides & roof of the third ventricle -is on the receiving end for all sensory input except the sense of smell -visual, auditory, & somatosensory info arrives here via the cranial nerves & tracts from the spinal cord -integrates this info & sends it on to the appropriate portions of the cerebrum -involved in arousal of the cerebrum & also participates in higher mental functions such as memory & emotions
 pineal gland-located in the diencephalon -secretes the hormone melatonin -some researchers believe melatonin can help alleviate jet lag or insomnia; the hormone may also regulate the onset of puberty
 cerebellum-lies under the occipital lobe of the cerebrum -separated from the brain stem by the fourth ventricle -has 2 portions joined by a narrow median portion -each portion is primarily composed of white matter -in logitudinal section, the white mater has a treelike pattern called "arbor vitae" -overlying the white matter is a thin layer of gray matter that forms a series of complex folds -receives sensory input from the eyes, ears, joints, & muscles about the present position of body parts -receives motor output
 brain stemportion of the brain consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons, & midbrain
 pons-means "bridge" in Latin -contains bundles of axons traveling between the cerebellum & the rest of the CNS -functions with the medulla oblongata to regulate the breathing rate -reflex centers located here coordinate head movements in response to visual & auditory stimuli
 midbrainacts as a relay station for tracts passing between the cerebrum & the spinal cord or cerebellum
 medulla oblongata-contains a number of reflex centers for regulating heartbeat, breathing, & vasoconstriction (blood pressure) -contains the reflex centers for vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccuping, & swallowing -lies just supeior to the spinal cord & it contains tracts that ascend or descend between the spinal cord & higher brain centers -ascending tracts convey sensory info -motor info is transmitted on descending tracts
 reticular formation-complex network of nuclei (masses of gray matter) & fibers that extend the length of the brain stem -a major component of the reticular activating system (RAS) -the RAS receives sensory signals & sends them to higher centers -motor signals received by the RAS are sent to spinal cord -RAS arouses the cerebrum via the thalamus & causes a person to be alert -if you want to awaken the RAS, surprise it with sudden stimuli, such as an alarm clock ringing, smelling salts, or splashing cold water on your face -RAS
 limbic system-association of various brain centers, including the amygdala & hippocampus -governs learning (higher mental functions) & memory & primitive emotions,such as pleasure, fear, & happiness
 amygdala-portion of the limbic system that functions to add emotional overtones to memories & also creates the sensation of fear -uses past knowledge fed to it by association areas to assess a current situation -if necessary, it can trigger the fight-or-flight reaction -the frontal cortex can override the limbic system & cause us to rethink the situation & prevent us from acting out strong reactions
 hippocampus-portion of the limbic system where memories are stored -also plays a crucial role in learning-->acts as info gateway during the learning process -determines what info is to be encoded & stored by other regions of the brain
 higher mental functions-the limbic system indicates the cortical areas may work with lower centers to produce: 1) memory 2) learning
 memorythe ability to hold a thought in mind or to recall events from the past, ranging from a word we only learned yesterday to an early emotional experience that has shaped our lives
 learningtakes place when we retain & use past memories
 types of memory1) short-term memory 2) long-term memory 3) semantic memory 4) episodic memory 5) skill memory
 short-term memoryretention of info for only a few minutes, such as remembering a telephone number
 long-term memoryretention of info that lasts longer than a few minutes
 semantic memorycapacity of the brain to store & retrieve info with regard to words or numbers
 episodic memorycapacity of brain to store & retrieve info with regard to persons & events
 skill memorycapacity of the brain to store & receive info necessary to perform motor activities, such as riding a bike
 long-term memory storage & retrieval*long-term memories are stored in bits & pieces throughout the sensory association areas of the cerebral cortex -visions are stored in the vision association area -sounds are stored in the auditory association -hippocampus serves as bridge between sensory association areas (where memories are stored) & the prefrontal area (where memories are used) -prefrontal area communicates with hippocampus, when memories are stored & when these memories are brough to mind
 long-term potentiation (LTP)enhanced response at synapses within the hippocampus; likely essential to memory storage (after synapses have been used intensely for a short time, they release more neurotransmitters than before)
 Alzheimer's diseasebrain disorder characterized by a general loss of mental abilities
 cranial nerves-nerves that arise from the brain -referred to by roman numerals -humans have 12 pairs -some are sensory nerves that contain only sensory fibers -some are motor nerves that contain only motor fibers -others are mixed nerves that contain both sensroy & motor fibers -largely connected to the head, neck, & facial regionsof body -however, the vagus nerve (X) has branches not only to the pharynx & larynx, but also to most of the internal organs -the vagus arises from the brain stem, specifically the medulla oblo
 spinal nerves-nerves that arise from the spinal cord -emerge from either side of the spinal cord -there are 31 pairs spinal nerves -the roots of a spinal nerve physically separate axons of sensory neurons from the axons of motor neurons, forming an arrangement resembling a letter Y -the posterior root of a spinal nerve contains sensory fibers that direct sensory receptor info inward (toward the spinal cord) -the cell body of a sensory neuron is in a posterior-root ganglion (also called a DORSAL-ROOT GANGLION) -the anter
 somatic system-the portion of the PNS containing motor neurons that control skeletal muscles, the skin, & tendons -somatic system sensory nerves take sensory info from external sensory receptors to the CNS -motor commands leaving the CNS travel to skeletal muscles via somatic motor nerves -not all somatic motor actions are voluntary -some actions are automatic -REFLEXES
 reflexautomatic, involuntary response of an organism to a stimulus
 autonomic system-branch of the PNS that has control over the internal organs -consists of the sympathetic & parasympathetic systems -activation of these 2 systems generally causes opposite reactions -although their functions are different, the 2 divisions share some features: 1) function automatically & usually in an involuntary manner 2) they innervate all internal organs 3) they use 2 neurons & one ganglion for each impulse -the first nerve has a cell body within the CNS & a preganglionic fiber that enters the ganglion -
 sympathetic division-the part of the autonomic system that usually promotes activities associated with emergency (fight-or-flight) situations -uses norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter -most preganglionic fibers of this arise from the middle, or thoracolumbar, portion of the spinal cord -they terminate almost immediately in ganglia that lie near the spinal cord -in this division, the preganglionic fiber is short, but the postganglionic fiber that contacts an organ is long
 fight-or-flight-sympathetic division of the autonomic system is important in this -accelerates heartbeat & dilates the bronchi--active mucles need a ready supply of glucose & oxygen -sympathetic neurons inhibit the digestive organs, as well as the kidneys & urinary bladder -the activities of these organs (digestion, defaction, & urination) are not immediately necessary if you're under attack -the neurotransmitter relased by the postganglionic axon is primarily norepinephrine (NE)
 parasympathetic division-part of the autonomic system that is active under normal conditions -uses acetylcholine (ACh) as a neurotransmitter -includes a few cranial nerves as well as the fibers that arise from the sacral (bottom) portion of the spinal cord -this division is often referred to as the craniosacral portion of the autonomic system -the preganglionic fier is long, & the postganglionic fiber is short b/c the ganglia lie near or within the organ -this division, sometimes called the "housekeeper division", promotes all int
 drug therapy & drug abuse-neurological drugs promote, prevent, or mimic the action of a particular neurotransmitter -dependency occurs when the body compensates for the presence of neurological drugs -DRUG ABUSE: physical and/or psychological dependence on a drug, which assumes an "essential" biochemical role in the body following habituation & tolerance
 alcohol-acts as a depressant in the CNS -chronic alcohol consumption can damage the frontal lobes, decrease overall brain size, & increase the size of the ventricles -alcohol denatures protein structures, causing damage to several tissues, including vital organs of the body such as the liver & brain -increases the action of GABA & increases the release of endorphins in the hypothalamus -no cure for alcoholism
 nicotine-stimulant -nicotine is rapidly delievered to the CNS, especially the midbrain -nicotine binds to neurons in the CNS & dopamine is released -in the PNS, nicotine mimics ACh & increases skeletal muscle activity, heart rate, & blood pressure -withdrawal symptoms include irritability, headache, insomnia, poor cognitive performance, the urge to smoke, & weight gain -promotes digestive tract motility which may explain the weight gain
 cocaine-stimulant in the CNS -interferes with the re-uptake of dopamine at synapses -results of cocaine use: sleeplessness, lack of apetite, increased sex drive, remors, & "cocaine psychosis", a condition that resembles paranoid schizophrenia -during the crash period, fatigue, depression, & irritability are common, along with memory loss & a confused state of cognition -with continued cocaine use, the body makes less dopamine to compensate for the apparent excess at synapses -cocaine-related deaths are usually due
 methamphetamine-stimulant -reverses the effects of fatigue, maintains wakefulness, & temporarily elveates the mood of the user -after the initial rush, there is typically a state of high agitation that, in some individuals, leads to violent behavior -chronic use can lead to "amphetamine pscyhosis" resulting in paranoia, auditory & visual hallucinations, self-absorption, irritability, & aggressive, erratic behavior -ecstasy is the street name for MDMA, a drug that has the same effects as methamphetamine, but without halluc
 heroin-depressant -is an opiate -it is rapidly delieverd to the brain, where it is converted to morphine -morphine binds promptly to opioid receptors & the result is a rush sensation & euphoric experience -opiates: -depress breathing -activate the "reward circuit" -block pain pathways -cloud mental function -sometimes cause nausea & vomiting -long-term effects: addiction, hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, & various bacterial infections b/c of shared needles
 marijuana-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) -psychoactive -mimics the actions of the neurotransmitter anandamide -mild euphoria occurs, along with alterations in vision & judgement -distortions of space & time can also occur in occasional ussers -in heavy users, hallucinations, anxiety, depression, rapid flow of ideas, body image distortions, paranoia, & psychotic symptoms can result
 sensory receptorsdendrites specialized to detect certain types of stimuli
 exteroceptorssensory receptors that detect stimuli from outside the body, such as those that result in taste, smell, vision, hearing, & equilibrium
 interoceptors-receive stimuli from inside the body -include pressoreceptors (sometimes referred to as baroreceptors) that respond to changed in blood pressure -osmoreceptors to monitor the body's water-salt balance
 chemoreceptor-sensory receptor sensitive to chemical stimuli--for example, receptors for taste & smell -is an interoceptor that monitors the pH of the blood -they are located in the carotid arteries & aorta -if the pH lowers, the breathing rate increases -as more carbon dioxide is exhaled, the blood pH rises -a type of chemoreceptor = pain receptor
 pain receptor (nociceptor)-sensory receptor that is sensitive to chemicals released by damaged tissues or excess stimuli of heat or pressure -protective b/c they alert us to possible danger -Ex.: without the pain of appendicitis, we might never seek medical help needed to avoid a ruptured appendix
 photoreceptor-sensory receptor in the retina that responds to light stimuli/energy -provide us with a sense of vision -stimulation of the photoreceptors known as rod cells results in black-and-white vision -stimulation of the photoreceptors known as cone cells results in color vision
 mechanoreceptor-sensory receptor that responds to mechanical stimuli, such as that from pressure, sound waves, & gravity -when we hear, airborne sound waves are converted to fluid-borne pressure waves that can be detected by mechanoreceptors in the inner ear -mechanoreceptors are responding to fluid-borne pressure waves when we detect changes in gravity & motion, helping us keep our balance -these receptors are in the vestibule & semicircular canals of the inner ear, respectively -the sense of touch depends on pressure re
 thermoreceptor-sensory receptor that is sensitive to changes in temperature -located in the hypothalmus & the skin -those that respond when temperatures rise are called warm receptors, & those that respond when temperatures lower are called cold receptors
 sensation/How does sensation occur?-conscious awareness of a stimulus due to nerve impulses sent to the brain from a sensory receptor by way of sensory neurons -sensory receptors respond to environmental stimuli by generating nerve signals -sensation occurs when nerve signals reach the cerebral cortex
 How does a sensation result in sensory perception?-after detecting a stimulus, sensory receptors initiate nerve signals within the PNS -these signals give the CNS info about the external & internal environment -the CNS integrates all incoming info & then initiates a motor response to the stimulus
 proprioceptorsmechanoreceptors involved in reflex actions that maintain muscle tone, & thereby the body's equilibrium & posture
 cutaneous receptors-are found in the dermis of the skin -sense touch, pressure, temperature, & pain
 sense of taste & smell-taste & smell are due to chemoreceptors stimulated by molecules in the environment
 sense of taste-microvilli of taste cells have receptor proteins for molecules that cause the brain to distinguish sweet, sour, salty, & bitter tastes
 sense of smellthe cilia of olfactory cells have receptor proteins for molecules that cause the brain to distinguish odors
 sense of vision-vision depends on the eye, the optic nerves, & the visual areas of the cerebral cortex
 anatomy & physiology of the eye*the eye has 3 layers: 1) the SCLERA (outer layer) protects & supports the eyeball 2) the CHOROID (middle, pigmented layer) absorbs stray light rays 3) the RETNA (inner layer) contains the rod cells (sensory receptors for dim light) & cone cells (sensory receptors for bright light & color)
 function of the lens-the lens (assisted by the cornea & the humors) brings the light rays to focus on the retina -to see a close object, visual accomodation occurs as the lens becomes round & thick
 visual pathway to the brain-the visual pathway begins when light strikes photoreceptors (rod cells & cone cells) in the retina -the optic nerves carry nerve impulses from the eyes to the optic chiasma, then pass through the thalamus before reaching the primary vision area in the occipital lobe of the brain
 abnormalities of the eye-color blindness -misshapen eyeballs -cause of nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism
 sense of hearinghearing depends on the ear, the cochlear nerve, & the auditory areas of the cerebral cortex
 anatomy & physiology of the ear*has 3 parts: 1) in the outer ear, the pinna & the auditory canal direct sound waves to the middle ear 2) in the middle ear, the tympanic membrane & the ossicles (malleus, incus, & stapes) amplify sound waves 3) in the inner ear, the semicircular canals detect rotational equilibrium; the utricle & saccule detect gravitational equilibrium; & the cochlea houses the spiral organ, which contains mechanoreceptors for hearing
 auditory pathway to the brain-the auditory pathway begins when the outer ear receives & the middle ear amplifies sound waves that then strike the oval window membrane -the mechanoreceptors for hearing are hair cells on the basilar membrane of the spiral organ -nerve signals begin in the cochlear nerve & are carried to the primary auditory area in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex
 sclera-white, fibrous outer layer of the eyeball -function: protects & supports eyeball
 cornea-transparent, anterior portion of the outer layer of the eyeball -function: refracts light rays
 pupilopening in the center of the eye function: admits light
 choroidvascular, pigmented middle layer of the eyebal function: absorbs stray light
 ciliary bodystructure associated with the choroid layer that contains ciliary muscle & controls the shape of the lens of the eye for near & far vision
 irismuscular ring that surrounds the pupil & regulates the passage of light through this opening
 retinainnermost layer of the eyeball that contains the rod cells & the cone cells for sight
 cell layers of the retina1) layer closest to the choroid contains the rod cells & cone cells 2) layer of bipolar cells covers the rods & cones 3) the innermost layer contains ganglion cells, whose sensory fibers become the optic nerve
 rod cellphotoreceptor in retina of eyes that responds to dim light function: makes black & white vision possible
 cone cellphotoreceptor in retina of eye that responds to bright light; detects color & provides visual acuity
 fovea centralisregion of the retina consisitng of densely packed cones; responsible for the greatest visual acuity function: makes acute vision possible
 lensclear, membranelike structure found in the eye behind the iris; brings objects into focus function: refracts & focuses light rays
 2 chambers/compartments of the eye1) anterior compartment is in front of the lens (fillwed with aqueous humor) 2) posterior compartment behind it (filled with vitreous humor)
 aqueous humorclear, watery fluid between the cornea & lens of the eye
 vitreous humorclear, gelatinous material between the lens of the eye & the retina
 humorsfunction: transmit light rays & support eyeball
 optic nerveeither of 2 cranial nerves that carry nerve impulses from the retina of the eye to the brain, thereby contributing to the sense of sight
 suspensory ligamentthe lens is attached to the ciliary body by suspensory ligaments; when we view a distant object, the ciliary muscle is relaxed, causing the suspensory ligaments attached to the ciliary body to be taut--->the ligaments put tension on the lens & cause it to remain relatively flat; when we view a near object, the ciliary muscle contracts, releasing the tension on the suspensory ligaments-->the lens becomes round & thick due to its normal elasticity
 color blindnessdeficiency in one or more of the 3 types of cone cells; complete color blindness is extremely rare & is caused by genetic mutation; in most instances, only one type of cone is defective or deficient in number; the most common mutation is the inability to see the colors green & red--->this abnormality affects 5-8% of the male population
 cataractsdevelop when the lens of the eye becomes cloudy; a cloudy lens will decrease light levels that reach the retina & slowly cause vision loss
 glaucomaincreasing loss of field of vision; caused by bloccking of the ducts that drain the aqueous humor, creating pressure buildup & nerve damage
 astigmatismblurred vision due to an irregular curvature of the cornea or the lens; an uneven lens allows subject to see objects clearly
 farsightedvision abnormality due to a shortened eyeball from front to back; light rays focus in back of retina when viewing close objects; a concave lens allows subject to see distant objects
 nearsightedvision abnormality due to an elongated eyeball from front to back; light rays focus in front of retina when viewing distant objects; a convex lens allows subject to see close objects
 outer earportion of ear consisting of the pinna & auditory canal
 middle earportion of ear consisting of the tympanic membrane, the oval & round windows, & the ossicles; where sound is amplified
 inner earportion of the ear consisting of a vestibule, semicircular canals, & the cochlea, where equilibrium is maintained & sound is transmitted
 pinnapart of the ear that projects on the outside of the head
 auditory canalcurved tube extending from the pinna to the tympanic membrane
 tympanic membranelocated between the outer & middle ear where it receives sound waves; also called the eardrum
 ossicleone of the small bones of the middle ear--malleus, incus, & stapes
 malleusthe FIRST of 3 ossicles of the ear that serve to conduct vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear
 incusthe MIDDLE of 3 ossicles of the ear that serve to conduct vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear
 stapesthe LAST of 3 ossicles of the ear that serve to conduct vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear
 Eustachian or auditory tubeextension from the middle ear to the nasopharynx that equalizes air pressure on the eardrum
 cochleaportion of the inner ear that resembles a snail's shell & contains the sprial organ, the sense organ for hearing
 semicircular canalone of 3 tubular structures within the inner ear that contian sensory receptors responsible for the sense of rotational equilibrium
 vestibulespace or cavity at the entrance of a canal, such as the cavity that lies between the semicircular canals & the cochlea
 rotational equilibrium pathwaymechanoreceptors (hair cells) in the semicircular canals detect rotational and/or angular movement of the head; when head rotates, cupula is displaced
 gravitational equilibrium pathwaymechanoreceptors (hair cells) in the utricle & saccule detect head movements in the ventrical or horizontal planes; when head bends, otoliths are displaced
 otolithscalcium carbonate granule associated with ciliated cells in the utricle & the saccule
 endocrine systemmostly comprised of glands; secretes hormones that move through the bloodstream to target cells; results in a slow but a prolonged response
 endocrine glandductless organ that secretes (a) hormone(s) directly into the bloodstream
 exocrine glandgland that secretes its product to an epithelial surface directly or through ducts
 Prostaglandinslipids; local hormones affect neighboring cells & thus are not carried into the bloodstream; some cause smooth muscle contraction; many roles in the body; aspirin & ibueprofen block the synthesis of these
 pheromoneschemcial signals that influence the behavior of other individuals
 hormoneschemical signals that promote communcation between cells, body parts & even individuals
 peptide & steroid hormones--difference between thempeptide hormones: proteins, carried in bloodstream; steroid hormones: lipids, carried in bloodstream
 how peptide hormones workcan not cross a plasma membrane; bind to a receptor on the outside of a cell, triggering corresponding internal changes; very rapid (more so than steroid hormones)
 how steroid hormones workcross cell membrane & nuclear membrane; bind with receptor protein; activates a gene; makes a protein; slower than peptide hormones
 gland: where are they, what do they do, what do they secrete, what do their hormones affect:undefined
 1) hypothalamus & 2) posterior pituitary glandwork together to regulate internal environment; helps control heartbeat; helps control body temperature; helps control water balance; controls glandular secretions; controls labor & milk release
 3) anterior pituitary glandcontrols other organs & glands: thyroid, adrenal cortex, gonads, mammary glands, melanin in skin, growth hormone--skeletal & muscle growth
 4) thyroid glandlarge gland located below the larynx; iodine is needed in the diet to allow the thyroid gland to produce its hormones--->it produces: thyroid hormone (TH): regulates metabolism; calcitonin: helps lower Ca2+ levels by stimulating the deposition of calcium in bones
 5) parathyroid glandssmall glands embedded in the surface of the thyroid gland; produces parthyroid hormone (PTH): causes blood Ca2+ level to increase by liberating Ca from your blood & promotes reabsorption of Ca2+ by the kidneys
 6) adrenal glandsglands that sit on top of the kidneys; 2 parts of each gland--->adrenal medulla: controlled by the nervous system; adrenal cortex: controlled by the anterior pituitary gland
 adrenal medullainner portion of the adrenal glands; hypothalamus initiates stimulation of hormone secretion in the adrenal medulla; produces: hormones that allow a short-term response to stress ("fight or flight" response)--->epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine
 adrenal cortexouter portion of the adrenal glands; produces hormones that provide a long-term response to stress; 2 major types of hormones: 1) mineralocorticoids: regulate salt & water balance--blood pressure; ex.: aldosterone (targets the kidneys) 2) glucocorticoids: regulate carbohydrate, protein, & fat metabolism--increase blood glucose & surpress the body's inflammatory response; ex.: cortisol & cortisone
 7) pancreasfish-shaped organ behind the stomach; composed of 2 tissues---> exocrine: produces & secretes digestive juices; endocrine (islets of Langerhans): produces & secretes hormones 1) insulin: secreted when blood glucose is high & stimulates uptake of glucose by cells (muscle & liver) 2) glucagon: secreted when blood glucose is low & stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in the liver
 8) testesgonads found in males; produces androgens (ex.: testosterone)--> stimulates growth of the penis/testes; responsible for secondary male sex characteristics such as facial/underarm/pubic hair, oil & sweat glands; prompts the larynx & vocal cords to enlarge resulting in a lower voice; promotes muscular strength
 9) ovariesgonads found in females; produce estrogen & progesterone; stimulates growth of vagina & uterus; responsible for secondary sex characteristics such as female body hair, fat distribution, & breast development; responsible for egg maturation; regulates the uterine cycle
 10) thymus glandlies beneath the sternum; this gland is the largest & most active during childhood; T lymphocytes mature here
 11) pineal glandlocated in the brain; secretes melatonin that regulates the sleep/wake cycle (circadian rhythm)
 pituitary dwarfismtoo little growth hormone is produced during childhood that results in small size
 giantismtoo much growth hormone is produced during childhood that results in poor health
 Acromegalyoverproduction of growth hormone as an adult that results in larger than normal feet, hands, & face
 Congenital hypothyroidismthyroid does not develop properly and is characterized in a short, stocky person that may be mentally retarded
 Myxedemahypothyroidism in adults characterized by lethargy, weight gain, loss of hair, cold intolerant & thick, puffy skin
 Exopthalmic goitersuch as seen in Graves' disease & is characterized by enlargement of the thyroid gland, protrusion of the eyes, hyperactivity, & insomnia
 Addison’s diseasehyposecretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex characterized by bronzing of the skin
 Cushing syndromehyposecretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex characterized by weight gain in the trunk of the body but not arms & legs
 type I diabetesthe pancreas is not producing insulin; the individual must have daily insulin injections which control the diabetic symptoms but can still cause inconveniences b/c the blood sugar level may swing between hypoglycemia (low blood glucose level) & hyperglycemia (high blood glucose level); symptoms include: perspiration, pale skin, shallow breathing, & anxiety
 type II diabetesoften the patient is obese; most of the diabetics in the US have this type; glucose binds to the receptor, but the number of carriers does not increase so the cell is insulin resistant
 cardiovascular systemincludes the heart & blood vessels; brings nutrients to cells & helps get rid of wastes; blood is refreshed in the lungs, kidneys, intestine, & liver; lymphatic vessels help this system by collecting excess fluid surrounding tissues & return it to the cardiovascular system
 functions of the cardiovascular system1) generate blood pressure 2) transport blood 3) exchange of nutrients & wastes at the capillaries 4) regulate blood flow as needed
 main pathway of blood in bodyheart --> arteries --> arterioles --> capillaries --> venules --> veins --> back to heart
 arteries & arteriolescarry blood away from the heart; their walls have 3 layers: 1) thin epithelium 2) thick smooth muscle layer 3) outer connective tissue; arterioles are small arteries that regulate blood pressure
 capillariesmicroscopic vessels between arterioles & venules; made of one layer of epithelial tissue; form beds of vessels where exchange with body cells occurs; combined large surface area
 veins & venulesvenules: small veins that receive blood from capillaries; venule & vein walls have 3 layers: 1) thin inner epithelium 2) thick smooth muscle layer 3) outer connective tissue; veins carry blood toward the heart; veins that carry blood against gravity have valves to keep blood flowing toward the heart
 anatomy of the heartlarge, muscular organ consisting mostly of cardiac tissue called the myocardium; surrounded by a sac called the pericardium; consists of 2 sides, right & left, separated by a septum; consists of 4 chambers: 2 atria & 2 ventricles; 2 sets of valves: semilunar valves & atrioventricular valves (AV valves); the valves give the resulting "lub" & "dup" sound of the heart
 2 cardiovascular pathways in the body1) pulmonary circuit: brings blood from the heart to & back from the lungs 2) systemic circuit: brings blood to the entire body to deliver nutrients & rid it of wastes
 blood flow through the heartvena cava 1) dumps blood into the right atrium 2) right ventricle 3) two pulmonary arteries 4) that lead to the lungs 5) where blood becomes oxygenated 6) bring blood from the lungs back to the left atrium 7) left ventricle 8) is large & muscular to pump blood into the aorta 9) and to the rest of the body 10) eventually blood will be pumped back to each vena cava (1)
 how heartbeat occursduring systole: atria contract together followed by the ventricles contracting together; this is followed by diastole: a rest phase, when the chambers relax; this cardiac cycle, heartbeat, on average occurs 70 times/minute
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