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Test 3 - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL - Medical Microbiology
Subject:Biology / Biological Sciences
University:University of Central Oklahoma
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1. Which substance in the following reaction is being reduced? H H | | C=O + NADH + H+ → H-C-OH + NAD+ | | CH3 CH3 Acetaldehyde Ethanol a. Acetaldehyde
2. Which of the following reactions produces the most molecules of ATP during aerobic metabolism? d. Acetyl CoA → CO2 + H2O
3. Which of the following processes does not generate ATP? b. The Calvin-Benson cycle
4. Which of the following compounds has the greatest amount of energy for a cell? c. Glucose
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5. Which of the following is the best definition of the Krebs cycle? c. A series of chemical reactions in which NADH is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid
6. Which of the following is the best definition of respiration? b. A sequence of carrier molecules with an inorganic molecule as the final electron acceptor
7. Which culture produces the most lactic acid? b. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35°C without O2 for 5 days
8. Which culture produces the most ATP? a. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35°C with O2 for 5 days
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9. Which culture uses NAD+? a. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35°C with O2 for 5 days b. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35°C without O2 for 5 days c. Both a and b
10. Which culture uses the most glucose? b. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35°C without O2 for 5 days
1. Transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell by a bacteriophage c. Transduction
2. Transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient as naked DNA in solution d. Transformation
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3. Feedback inhibition differs from repression because feedback inhibition c. Stops the action of preexisting enzymes
4. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance by all of the following except d. snRNPs
5. Suppose you inoculate three flasks of minimal salts broth with E. coli. Flask A contains glucose. Flask B contains glucose and lactose. Flask C contains lactose. After a few hours of incubation, you test the flasks for the presence of β-galactosidase. Which flask(s) do you predict will have this enzyme? c. C
6. Plasmids differ from transposons because plasmids b. Are self-replicated outside the chromosome
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7. Mechanism by which the presence of glucose inhibits the lac operon. a. Catabolite repression
8. The mechanism by which the presence of glucose controls the lac operon. c. Induction
9. Two daughter cells are most likely to inherit which one of the following from the parent cell? d. A change in a nucleotide in DNA
10. Which of the following is not a method of horizontal gene transfer? a. Binary fission
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1. Restriction enzymes were first discovered with the observation that b. Phage DNA is destroyed in a host cell
2. The DNA probe, 3’-GGCTTA, will hybridize with which of the following? b. 5’-CCGAAT
3. Which of the following is the fourth basic step to genetically modify a cell? a. Transformation
4. The following enzymes are used to make cDNA. What is the second enzyme used to make cDNA? d. DNA polymerase
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5. If you put a gene in a virus, the next step in genetic modification would be c. Transduction
6. You have a small gene that you want replicated by PCR. You add radioactively labeled nucleotides to the PCR thermalcycler. After three replication cycles, what percentage of the DNA single-strands are radioactively labeled? d. 87.5%
7. Pieces of human DNA stored in yeast cells c. Library
8. A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid. b. Clone
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9. Self-replicating DNA for transmitting a gene from one organism to another. e. vector
10. A gene that hybridizes with mRNA. a. Antisense
1. Which of the following pairs is mismatched? b. Antihelminthic – inhibition of cell wall synthesis
2. All of the following are modes of action of antiviral drugs except a. Inhibition of protein synthesis at 70S ribosomes
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3. Which of the following modes of action would not be fungicidal? a. Inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis
4. An antimicrobial agent should meet all of the following criteria except b. The production of hypersensitivities
5. The most selective antimicrobial activity would be exhibited by a drug that a. Inhibits cell wall synthesis
6. Antibiotics that inhibit translation have side effects d. At the 70S ribosomes in eukaryotic cells
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7. Which of the following will not affect eukaryotic cells? e. All of the above will affect them
8. Cell membrane damage causes death because b. Cell contents leak out
9. A drug that intercalates into DNA has the following effects. Which one leads to the others? c. It interferes with DNA replication
10. Chloramphenicol binds to the 50S portion of a ribosome, which will interfere with d. Translation in eukaryotic cells
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1. Which of the following does not kill endospores? d. Pasteurization
2. Which of the following is most effective for sterilizing mattresses and plastic Petri dishes? b. Ethylene oxide
3. Which of these disinfectants does not act by disrupting the plasma membrane? d. Halogens
4. Which of the following cannot be used to sterilize a heat-labile solution stored in a plastic container? d. Autoclaving
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5. Which of the following is not a characteristic of quaternary ammonium compounds? b. Sporicidal
6. A classmate is trying to determine how a disinfectant might kill cells. You observed that when he spilled the disinfectant in your reduced litmus milk, the litmus turned blue again. You suggest to your classmate that b. The disinfectant might oxidize molecules
7. Which of the following is most likely to be bactericidal? b. Ionizing radiation
8. Which of the following is used to control microbial growth in foods? a. Organic acids
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none glucose plus lactose
one glucose no lactose
two lactose no glucose
three no glucose and no lactose
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inducer lactose
S represents cyclic AMP cAMP
Condition starvation
inhibition cell wall synthesis Cephalosporin - Broad Spectrum
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injury to plasma membrane Polymyxin B - Broad Spectrum
Inhibition of protein synthesis Neomycin - Broad Spectrum
inhibition of synthesis of metabolites Sulfa drugs - Broad Spectrum
Inhibition of nucleic acid transcription/translation Ciprofloxacen - Broad Spectrum
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Why? 70S ribosomes in mitochondria
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 1. Which substance in the following reaction is being reduced? H H | | C=O + NADH + H+ → H-C-OH + NAD+ | | CH3 CH3 Acetaldehyde Ethanol a. Acetaldehyde
 2. Which of the following reactions produces the most molecules of ATP during aerobic metabolism?d. Acetyl CoA → CO2 + H2O
 3. Which of the following processes does not generate ATP?b. The Calvin-Benson cycle
 4. Which of the following compounds has the greatest amount of energy for a cell?c. Glucose
 5. Which of the following is the best definition of the Krebs cycle?c. A series of chemical reactions in which NADH is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid
 6. Which of the following is the best definition of respiration?b. A sequence of carrier molecules with an inorganic molecule as the final electron acceptor
 7. Which culture produces the most lactic acid?b. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35°C without O2 for 5 days
 8. Which culture produces the most ATP?a. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35°C with O2 for 5 days
 9. Which culture uses NAD+?a. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35°C with O2 for 5 days
b. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35°C without O2 for 5 days
c. Both a and b
 10. Which culture uses the most glucose?b. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35°C without O2 for 5 days
 1. Transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell by a bacteriophagec. Transduction
 2. Transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient as naked DNA in solutiond. Transformation
 3. Feedback inhibition differs from repression because feedback inhibitionc. Stops the action of preexisting enzymes
 4. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance by all of the following exceptd. snRNPs
 5. Suppose you inoculate three flasks of minimal salts broth with E. coli. Flask A contains glucose. Flask B contains glucose and lactose. Flask C contains lactose. After a few hours of incubation, you test the flasks for the presence of β-galactosidase. Which flask(s) do you predict will have this enzyme?c. C
 6. Plasmids differ from transposons because plasmidsb. Are self-replicated outside the chromosome
 7. Mechanism by which the presence of glucose inhibits the lac operon.a. Catabolite repression
 8. The mechanism by which the presence of glucose controls the lac operon.c. Induction
 9. Two daughter cells are most likely to inherit which one of the following from the parent cell? d. A change in a nucleotide in DNA
 10. Which of the following is not a method of horizontal gene transfer?a. Binary fission
 1. Restriction enzymes were first discovered with the observation that b. Phage DNA is destroyed in a host cell
 2. The DNA probe, 3’-GGCTTA, will hybridize with which of the following?b. 5’-CCGAAT
 3. Which of the following is the fourth basic step to genetically modify a cell?a. Transformation
 4. The following enzymes are used to make cDNA. What is the second enzyme used to make cDNA?d. DNA polymerase
 5. If you put a gene in a virus, the next step in genetic modification would bec. Transduction
 6. You have a small gene that you want replicated by PCR. You add radioactively labeled nucleotides to the PCR thermalcycler. After three replication cycles, what percentage of the DNA single-strands are radioactively labeled?d. 87.5%
 7. Pieces of human DNA stored in yeast cellsc. Library
 8. A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid.b. Clone
 9. Self-replicating DNA for transmitting a gene from one organism to another.e. vector
 10. A gene that hybridizes with mRNA.a. Antisense
 1. Which of the following pairs is mismatched?b. Antihelminthic – inhibition of cell wall synthesis
 2. All of the following are modes of action of antiviral drugs excepta. Inhibition of protein synthesis at 70S ribosomes
 3. Which of the following modes of action would not be fungicidal?a. Inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis
 4. An antimicrobial agent should meet all of the following criteria exceptb. The production of hypersensitivities
 5. The most selective antimicrobial activity would be exhibited by a drug that a. Inhibits cell wall synthesis
 6. Antibiotics that inhibit translation have side effectsd. At the 70S ribosomes in eukaryotic cells
 7. Which of the following will not affect eukaryotic cells?e. All of the above will affect them
 8. Cell membrane damage causes death becauseb. Cell contents leak out
 9. A drug that intercalates into DNA has the following effects. Which one leads to the others?c. It interferes with DNA replication
 10. Chloramphenicol binds to the 50S portion of a ribosome, which will interfere withd. Translation in eukaryotic cells
 1. Which of the following does not kill endospores?d. Pasteurization
 2. Which of the following is most effective for sterilizing mattresses and plastic Petri dishes?b. Ethylene oxide
 3. Which of these disinfectants does not act by disrupting the plasma membrane?d. Halogens
 4. Which of the following cannot be used to sterilize a heat-labile solution stored in a plastic container?d. Autoclaving
 5. Which of the following is not a characteristic of quaternary ammonium compounds?b. Sporicidal
 6. A classmate is trying to determine how a disinfectant might kill cells. You observed that when he spilled the disinfectant in your reduced litmus milk, the litmus turned blue again. You suggest to your classmate thatb. The disinfectant might oxidize molecules
 7. Which of the following is most likely to be bactericidal?b. Ionizing radiation
 8. Which of the following is used to control microbial growth in foods?a. Organic acids
 noneglucose plus lactose
 oneglucose no lactose
 twolactose no glucose
 threeno glucose and no lactose
 inducerlactose
 S representscyclic AMP cAMP
 Conditionstarvation
 inhibition cell wall synthesisCephalosporin - Broad Spectrum
 injury to plasma membranePolymyxin B - Broad Spectrum
 Inhibition of protein synthesisNeomycin - Broad Spectrum
 inhibition of synthesis of metabolitesSulfa drugs - Broad Spectrum
 Inhibition of nucleic acid transcription/translationCiprofloxacen - Broad Spectrum
 Why?70S ribosomes in mitochondria
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